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   Science & Technology Review
2021, Vol.39, No. 18
28 September 2021

Scientifc Comments

Foreword
Papers
Think Tank
Science and Technology Humanities
Review
Exclusive: Protect the mental health of children and adolescents
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 0-0.
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 6-6.
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 7-7.
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 7-8.
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Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 21 )
Think Tank

Characteristics of the United State's National Quantum Initiative and the enlightenment

ZHU Qingping, WU Gen, CHE Zifan, LIU Yaohu
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 9-14. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.18.001
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Abstract ( 21 )
The United State's National Quantum Initiative has been implemented for 2 years. This paper reviews the relevant laws, the management mechanisms, the key policy areas, the funding and implementation progress of the National Quantum Initiative, and analyzes the implementation characteristics of the National Quantum Initiative from the aspects of the strategic deployment, the coordinated promotion, the multi-disciplinary platform construction, the Quantum-Smart Workforce and the international cooperation. Finally, some suggestions are put forward to strengthen and optimize China's quantum science and technology strategic plan, promote overall planning and coordination, and establish a quantum technology innovation ecosystem.
Scientifc Comments

Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 15-19. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.18.002
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Abstract ( 40 )
Exclusive: Protect the mental health of children and adolescents

The impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of children and adolescents and countermeasures

LIU Jiajia, QUE Jianyu, ZHANG Anyi, LU Lin
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 20-24. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.18.003
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Abstract ( 15 )
Childhood is a critical period in the development of their central nervous system. Stressful life events in childhood may have both short-term and long-term impacts on their mental health. To cope with the COVID-19 epidemic, a series of policies have been adopted worldwide, such as the school closure and the social distancing, which have changed the children's psychosocial environment and are associated with an increased risk of mental health problems. This paper reviews the mental health problems that the children might face amid the COVID-19 epidemic, and discusses the countermeasures that the government, the society, and the family might take. Finally, suggestions are made to promote the psychological recovery of children after the epidemic.

Psychological health intervention for children and adolescents during outbreak of novel coronavirus

WANG Lin, ZHANG Nan, LIU Yirong, QIAN Ying
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 25-33. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.18.004
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Abstract ( 6 )
The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected people's daily life globally, especially for the physical and mental health of children and adolescents, the vulnerable group. This paper reviews the studies, up to August 24, 2020, focusing on the following four aspects. Firstly, the mental stressors among children and adolescents are discussed from national and society, school and community, family and individual perspectives, such as the social isolation, the health care facility closures, the school closures, the economic deterioration, the home quarantine, the domestic violence and abuse, the increased screen time, and others. Secondly, the main types of psychological problems in teenagers during the COVID-19 are discussed. Emotional problems mainly include the anxiety, the depression, the loneliness, the sleep problems, the psychosomatic problems and the stress-related problems. Behavioral problems mainly include:the internet addiction, the sexual abuse behaviors, the parent-child conflicts, and others. Finally, children and adolescents are divided into five categories according to different risks under the background of COVID-19:the ordinary children, the children living in high exposure risk areas, the children with their caregivers being affected or being frontline workers, the quarantined children, the children with other diseases and the infected children. And intervention recommendations include the health education, the epidemic prevention, the knowledge popularization, the parent accompaniment; the hospital 24-hour on-duty nursing system, the online consultation and the online pharmacy; the remote interactive online education, the remote psychiatry, the book therapy, the music therapy, the emotion-focused therapy (EFT), the parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), the cognitive behavioral writing therapy(CBWT), the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and the drug therapy.

The online video group coaching for university students during the COVID-19 epidemic

ZHANG Jie, LIU Yu, YANG Siqi, JING Lei, HE Liqiong, FAN Fumin
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 34-40. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.18.005
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Abstract ( 7 )
This paper examines the overall effect of the online video group coaching for university students during the pandemic of COVID-19. 39 students in a university located in Beijing in 4 online groups (6 sessions of the online group coaching) are selected for 6 weeks from March to May 2020. The evaluation instruments include an psychological status questionnaire and a questionnaire of individual group effect assessment. The comparison of the scores based on the psychological status questionnaire before and after the 6-week group coaching shows a significant increase in the satisfaction of the group members with respect to the learning status and the special ability after the coaching, highly associated with the degree of the help provided by the online video group coaching and the appropriateness of evaluating the work of the group's mentors, the degree of the progress that the group members wished to make, and the degree of the support that the group members feel. The results are statistically significant. The online video group coaching during the pandemic of COVID-19 is effective, associated to the group development, the work of group instructors and the level of group members.

Review of the genetic studies of mental disorders of children

ZHENG Haohao, PANG Tao, CHANG Suhua
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 41-49. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.18.006
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Abstract ( 10 )
Children's mental disorder is a type of abnormal behavior and mental disorder in the childhood and the adolescence, with a high incidence rate, as one of the important problems all over the world. This paper reviews the genetics research progress of several common childhood mental disorders (attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, autism, and others). Most childhood mental disorders have a high degree of heritability. Understanding the pathogenesis of childhood mental disorders from a genetic point of view, identifying the disease-related genetic loci, and further understanding the function of the genetic loci, will provide important basic data for the disease prevention, the diagnosis and the precision treatment. This paper discusses the main genetic research types and the related main results of several common childhood mental disorders, and on this basis, outlines the functional research methods and results after the identification of the genetic loci, and finally proposes some future directions for the genetic research of childhood mental disorders. The result will prouide inspiration for the future genetic research of childhood mental disorders.

Mental health of left-behind children in rural China: Current status, influencing factors and intervention strategies

LIU Yujun, LU Lin, RAN Maosheng
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 50-56. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.18.007
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Abstract ( 10 )
Improving the mental well-being of children and adolescents is a significant component of the Healthy China 2030 Initiative, among which the mental health status of left-behind children in rural China deserves more attention. This paper systematically reviews the existing empirical studies of the general status and the influencing factors of the mental health among rural left-behind children, and the intervention studies for improving the mental well-being of this population. Evidences show that, despite of the previous theoretical and empirical work focusing on the mental health of left-behind children, further studies are still needed to set up a consistent concept of left-behind children, with the standard measuring tools of mental health, to carry out the longitudinal studies, to develop the cultural-specific intervention in Chinese rural communities and to facilitate the multidisciplinary collaborations.

Review of studies of iron deficiency-related sleep disorders in children

SUN Yifan, LI Taomei, ZHANG Haipeng, SHI Yuan, TANG Xiangdong
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 57-64. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.18.008
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Abstract ( 6 )
The iron deficiency is the most common micro-nutrient deficiency in children, with a large number of children falling victims in China, especially infants, which are at a very high risk. The sleep plays an important part in the body's development, repair and adjustment, and is particularly important in the developing stage. It is revealed by increasing number of studies that the iron deficiency is probably associated with several common sleep disorders in children. This paper reviews the cutting-edge studies of iron deficiency-related sleep disorders in children, including the clinical characteristics, the possible pathological mechanism and the iron supplement therapy. The iron deficiency may lead to increased abnormal activities during sleep in children by causing disorders of neurotransmitters, altering the processes of the myelination and the formation of dendrites. The iron supplementation therapy was reported to improve the symptoms of sleep movements in some children.

A case study of adolescent psychological assessment based on genogram technology

ZHANG Jie, XU Jia, LIU Zhaoxia, LIU Yingyi, LIU Dan
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 65-71. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.18.009
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Abstract ( 7 )
The mental health is important in the development of adolescent's overall quality. In this paper, the genogram technology is used to evaluate the mental health status of adolescent cases, with the symptom self-rating scale and the family environment scale being taken to explore the effect of the genograms in the identification of adolescent mental health risks. It is shown that the family environment is an important factor affecting the adolescent mental health, the child attachment style can be used to predict the adolescent mental health status, and the cultural factors have a profound influence on the adolescent mental health. It is also shown that the genogram is an effective and practical means in the evaluation of the adolescent mental health. The method of the psychological assessment based on the genogram technology can be used both for the clinical assessment and for the questionnaire statistical assessment. This study clears the connotation of the psychological assessment methods, helps the application of the genograms in the qualitative research, and the results can be used in the future related researches.
Review

The international science and technology collaboration during the prevention and control of the infectious diseases

REN Xiaoping, LI Ziyu, ZHOU Xiaolin, SHEN Yunyi, YANG Yun
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 72-78. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.18.010
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Abstract ( 120 )
In a world of increased economic and cultural exchanges, the emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are characterized by the global spread, with a significant impact on the world economy and the public health. The international science and technology collaboration on preventing the infectious diseases, and dealing with the challenge of the global public health emergency, is an urgent task. The mechanism of the international science and technology collaboration (ISTC) plays an important role in the prevention and the control of the EIDs. Based on the studies of the recent outbreak of the newest EID, the novel coronavirus pneumonia, the roles of the ISTC during the EIDs prevention and control are analyzed in this paper. It is shown that the EID prevention and control involves several aspects of the ISTC, including the timely exchange of the latest epidemic information, the quick-response joint research, the sharing of antiviral drugs and medical technology, the personnel training and the construction and the improvement of the EID prevention and control system. Finally, this paper puts forward a few policy recommendations with respect to the EID prevention and control from the perspective of the global governance and the ISTC.

The progress of treatment methods of dye wastewater

CUI Yumin, YIN Rongcan
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 79-87. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.18.011
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Abstract ( 6 )
The rapid development of dyestuff industry increases the emissions of the dye wastewater, gradually aggravating the pollution in the environment and posing a great threat to the human health. So it is important to develop effective methods to clean the dye wastewater. Various new materials and new processes are involved in physical methods (the activated carbon adsorption method, the membrane separation technology, and the magnetic separation technology), chemical methods (the electrochemical process, the chemical oxidation process) and biological methods (the dye wastewater treatment by fungi, the dye wastewater treatment by bacteria), as reviewed in this paper, focusing on the physical methods and the chemical methods. The main problems in the process of the dye wastewater treatment and the development trend are put forward.

Theory and method of integrated consultation for engineering

CHEN Yongquan, ZHANG Wenquan
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 88-93. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.18.012
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Abstract ( 5 )
With the rapid development of the economic construction, the original conventional engineering consulting methods concerning the divisions of functions and business are found inadequate. First, this paper analyzes the development status of the engineering construction management with the FIDIC clause system and from the development trends, and proposes a comprehensive engineering integration consulting theory based on the system science and the comprehensive/integration theory, and discusses the compositions of the comprehensive consulting on engineering projects based on the comprehensive engineering integration consulting theory, from 9 dimensions. This paper provides ideas, theories and methods for the comprehensive consulting of engineering projects.
Papers

The hypoglycemic effects of jackfruit oligopeptides in db/db diabetic mice

LIU Xinran, KANG Jiawei, WANG Tianxing, HAO Yuntao, ZHU Na, LIU Rui, HU Jiani, MAO Ruixue, LI Yong
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 94-100. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.18.013
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Abstract ( 9 )
To study the hypoglycemic effects of jackfruit oligopeptides in db/db diabetic mice, 48 db/db diabetic mice are randomly divided into six groups (with 8 mice in each group):three jackfruit oligopeptides groups (with 0.2 g/kg·bw, 0.4 g/kg·bw and 0.8 g/kg·bw JOPs, respectively, by intragastric administration), a diabetic model group, a metformin control group (with 0.2 g/kg·bw metformin hydrochloride enteric-coated tablets aqueous solution by intragastric administration) and a whey protein control group (with 0.4 g/kg·bw whey protein aqueous solution by intragastric administration), while 10 db/m mice are used as the blank control for non-diabetic mice. The fasting glucose, the OGTT-AUC, the liver glycogen and the muscle glycogen are measured during the intervention. It is shown that the JOPs could decrease the fasting blood glucose and the OGTT-AUC in the diabetic mice (P<0.05), especially in the 0.4g/kg·bw-dose group. The long-term jackfruit oligopeptides intervention can effectively reduce the blood glucose level and improve the glucose tolerance of diabetic mice.

The microfouling biofilms in Qingdao harbors——A preliminary study of the carbon steel/seawater interface biofilms of different coatings

MA Shide, DONG Xucheng, KANG Ning, LIU Xin, HAN Wen, DUAN Jizhou
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 101-110. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.18.014
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Abstract ( 12 )
The marine micro fouling biofilm would affect the metal corrosion process and the antifouling coating performance, as the primary food chain of the fouling biome, and it is a research focus at home and abroad. This paper studies the corrosion product film formed on the surface of the carbon steel exposed for more than 100 days in the sea water of Qingdao Zhonggang Habour in winter, and the biofilm formed on the surface of the slide, HT anticorrosive coating and the NFGP600 antifouling coating, by means of the electrochemical technique, with the microbial membrane characterized by SEM, EDS, and XRD. The types and the morphology of bacteria, diatoms and protozoa in the biofilm are analyzed. It is shown that the biofilms are composed of bacteria, diatoms, protozoa, inorganic and organic particles in the seawater. At the steel/seawater interface, the steel corrosion and microbiological adhesion processes occur simultaneously. These two processes are interacted to form an unshaped, soft and discontinuous biofilm on the surface of the carbon steel. The biofilm on the surface of the anticorrosive coating is relatively not very compact due to the protozoa's encroachment on the fungal algae and the formation of the carbonate in the film. The biofilm formed on the surface of the antifouling coating is relatively compact.

Quantitative classification of global terrorist attacks and prediction of anti-terrorist situation: Based on projection pursuit model and grey metabolic model

DENG Shicheng, QIN Yao, XU Jifang, GU Yiwei
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 111-121. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.18.015
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Abstract ( 12 )
The terrorist attacks pose a serious threat to the regional peace and stability and their spread to all parts of the world is accelerating. Based on the data of terrorist attacks from 1998 through 2017 in the Global Terrorist Database (GTD), this paper quantitatively classifies the damage degrees of terrorist attacks based on the Projection Pursuit Model (PPM) and the Grey Metabolic Model (GMM), and predicts the spread trend of the global terrorist activities in the next five years. Based on the quantified damage degrees of terrorist attacks, the terrorist attacks can be divided into five levels, with the first level as the "9·11" incident in New York, USA. Terrorist activities have gradually spread from key areas to all parts of the world, but the total amount of the global terrorist attacks is in a downward trend in the next five years. The Middle East, Africa and other regions will still be the areas of a high incidence of international terrorist activities in the next five years. Africa will become a "disaster area" of terrorism, while Southeast Asia and South Asia will become new active areas of terrorism.
Science and Technology Humanities

The progress of ultra-precision gear technology in China

LI Yingjie, XING Junke, WANG Hongpeng
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (18): 122-128. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.18.016
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Abstract ( 17 )
In the manufacturing field, the precision is a difficult point. The breakthrough of the grade 1 precision of the superprecision gear in our country can be served as the typical example for its illustration. The ultra-precision gear for achieving transmission, speed change and direction change can be used as the transmission benchmark for the gear precision, and can also be used as a precision instrument to be installed in cutting-edge products and modern weapons. Due to the restriction of the technology transfer to our country by Western developed countries, Wang Liding, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, with his team have successfully developed the grade 1 ultra-precision standard gear in the international standard in 1999 and mastered the core technology independently. Based on the interview with Wang Liding, this paper analyzes the evolution process of the super-precision gear from grade 4 to grade 2, and then to grade 1, to enrich the historical data of the development of the ultra-precision gear technology in China and to show the innovative spirit of the older generation of scientists in China.

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