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   Science & Technology Review
2019, Vol.37, No. 18
28 September 2019


Foreword
Exclusive: Science and technology development of China from 1949 to 2019
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Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (18): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 75 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (18): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 54 )
Exclusive: Science and technology development of China from 1949 to 2019

Xi Jinping's global strategy vision for scientific and technological innovation in the new era

SHENG Hui
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (18): 6-12. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.18.001
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Abstract ( 23 )
At present, a new round revolution in science and technology and industry in the world is on the way. Xi Jinping emphasized that China must plan and promote the development of science and technology innovation from a global perspective in order to catch up with and surpass the developed countries in science and technology in the world. Therefore, in the new era, China must adopt a series of strategic measures of global vision of scientific and technological innovation, aiming at the world's scientific and technological frontier, and implementing scientific and technological opening and innovation policy; building a community of world scientific and technological destiny to achieve a win-win cooperation and to share the development of all countries in the world; adopting an "asymmetric" catch-up strategy to achieve a post-surpassing; and comprehensively enhancing the globalization of scientific and technological innovation to enhance the global competitiveness and the world influence of scientific and technological innovation. Xi Jinping's global strategy vision of scientific and technological innovation in the new era is important in leading and guiding the development of scientific and technological innovation in China and building a strong scientific and technological country in the world.

Xi Jinping's concept of cultural and technological innovation in the new era

PAN Shu, CHEN Si, SUN Chengcheng
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (18): 13-19. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.18.002
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Abstract ( 20 )
Since the 18th national congress of the communist party of China, Xi Jinping has put the innovation, the science, the technology and the culture at the important strategic position in the overall development of China. The integration innovation of the culture and the technology, that is, the cultural and technological innovation, is a kind of coupling innovation, system innovation and comprehensive innovation, which can stimulate innovations in other aspects of the innovation field. The art promotes the development of the cultural innovation, and the technological innovation can also promote the development of the cultural innovation. In the process of creative transformation and innovative development of China's excellent traditional culture, and in the process of adapting, coordinating and integrating the development of China's excellent traditional culture and contemporary Chinese culture, the cultural and technological innovation plays a particularly prominent role. We will make use of the technological innovation to facilitate the adaptation and the coordination of the fine traditional Chinese culture with the contemporary Chinese culture, make use of the contemporary value of the fine traditional Chinese culture, and activate its inherent vitality, charisma and influence.

Overview of the important science and technology policies of new China in 70 years

CAO Xijing, YUAN Zhibin
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (18): 20-30. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.18.003
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Abstract ( 31 )
China's science & technology policies gradually formed system in the process of modernization of the New China. After the reform and opening up,with the gradual deepening of the reform of the science & technology system,China's science & technology policies system has gradually grown maturity and perfection. By combing the important science & technology policies history of the 70 years of the New China,highlighting the distinctive characteristics of science & technology policies at different times,from serving politics and military to serving economic development,it is of great enlightenment and guiding significance to continue to deepen the reform of the science & technology system and fundamentally solve the problems of science and technology separating from economics.

Establishment and development of new China 70-year science and technology plan -A comparative study of scientific and technological planning in different periods

FAN Chunliang
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (18): 31-42. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.18.004
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Abstract ( 29 )
Science and technology planning plays an important role in the development of science and technology in China. This paper reviews three science and technology plans in different stages of development of the 70 year of new China-12 years planning (1956), 8 years planning (1977) and the medium and long term planning (2005), including the aim, the implementation and the effect of the three plans, summarizes the successful experience and puts forward suggstions for the new science and technology planning.

Continuous innovative development of science and technology policies and governance ideas in new China

XU Zhili, FAN Lufang
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (18): 43-52. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.18.005
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Abstract ( 26 )
Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, the science and technology policies and its governance ideas see a process of continuous innovation. This paper reviews the development stages, the governance ideas, the governance measures and the governance achievements of science and technology policies and the governance which is continuously innovated in the past 70 years of new China.

Characteristics and performance of science and technology system in China

CHEN An, CUI Jing, LIU Guojia, LIANG Qinghua
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (18): 53-59. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.18.006
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Abstract ( 24 )
Since the founding of new China, the Chinese scientific and technological system is constantly in a way of conforming to the state's actual conditions. The characteristics of various stages are classified and a relationship between the government management and the market mechanism is proposed. The openness and the autonomy of academic organizations are paid more attention to improve the future developemnt. China's reform needs to be deepened in the following aspects:establishing and perfecting the system under the condition of the socialist market economy, promoting enterprises to become the main body of the innovation, improving the efficiency of the science and technology innovation, reform the evaluation orientation, the personnel system, the management of the science and technology funds, and strengthening the protection of the intellectual property rights.

Formation and the development of the discipline system since the founding of new China

WANG Zidan, DU Peng
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (18): 60-69. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.18.007
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Abstract ( 30 )
This paper reviews the discipline system of China since the founding of the People's Republic of China, examines the evolution of the discipline system of China from the perspective of history, summarizes the development mode of the discipline system and analyzes the influencing factors of the discipline system, puts forward suggestions and prospects for the future development of the discipline system in China, and for the further improvement and adjustment of the discipline system.

Development of scientific and technological professionals since the founding of new China

LIU Wei
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (18): 70-82. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.18.008
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Abstract ( 17 )
Since the founding of new China 70 years ago, the number of scientific and technological professionals in China has increased from 260,000 in 1949 to 52.82 million in 2016, and China has stepped into the ranks of the world's largest scientific and technological countries from a poor and weak country. On the basis of summing up the previous research results of scientists and technicians, this paper makes an analysis of the number and the structure of scientists and technicians in each historical stage by using the method of calculation combined with textual research, and the influence of the social development policy background in each historical period to explore the science and technology in China since the founding of the People's Republic of China. The development of scientific and technological professionals also shows a close integration of science and technology, education and social development.

Development of scientific and technological fund system since the founding of the People's Republic of China

LI Xuejiao, ZHANG Zhenyu, CHEN An
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (18): 83-97. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.18.009
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Abstract ( 19 )
This paper reviews the development of the R&D fund system since the founding of the People's Republic of China, and analyzes the main departments, the quantity, the fields and the object of the R&D fund in terms of the perspective of allocating funds. Through data and text analyses, it is found that:1. various ministries, especially, the ministry of finance and the ministry of science and technology, are the main departments of government funding, but the enterprises provide more funds in science and technology than the government. Accordingly, the executive department of the R&D expenditure puts the ranks in the order of the enterprises, the R&D institutions, and the universities according to the amount of expenditure. 2. China's investment in the R&D continues to increase. The proportion of the science and technology appropriations in the public expenditure is decreased, but remains stable at about 4% in recent years. The intensity of the R&D investment increases year by year, and has exceeded some developed countries. 3. Although the basic research accounts for the lowest proportion in the internal expenditure of the R&D, the managers of the science and technology funding starts to pay more attention to the basic research. 4. Funding of special science and technology programs is oriented to the important practical needs of the national economy and people's livelihood issues, indicating that China's R&D funding system puts both the basic research and the practical problems into consideration.

China's R&D funding system

ZHAO Tengyu, PEI Ruimin, YANG Guoliang
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (18): 98-108. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.18.010
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Abstract ( 20 )
The allocation of science and technology R&D funds, an important resource to promote the development of science and technology, determines the direction and the focus of the development of science and technology. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, China's R&D funds have experienced a rapid growth despite the twists and turns. After several rounds of adjustment of the key points of China's R&D funds, China's existing structural system and management system of science and technology R&D funding are formed gradually. This study reviews the development and the evolution of China's R&D funding systems and identifies several key development stages. Through the data of the funding, we analyze the investment and the expenditure structure of China's R&D funding system and the R&D expenditures in different regions of China. Finally, some suggestions are put forward.

Establishment of Chinese Academy of Sciences and the foundation for scientific and technological development in the People's Republic of China, 1949-1956

GUO Jinhai
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (18): 109-122. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.18.011
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Abstract ( 22 )
The Chinese Academy of Sciences founded under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, is the first national academy of the People's Republic of China. After its establishment in 1949, the academy first adjusted and expanded its scientific research institutions, as the foundation for the development of scientific research activities in the academy and the People's Republic of China. In the environment of overall learning from the Soviet Union, the academy founded the systems of academic divisions and their membership, the academic award system, and the postgraduate system in 1955 on the basis of the Soviet experience and China's reality. As a result, it effectively promoted the academy's construction of the academic system and the scientific and technological development in the People's Republic of China. The academy played an important role in the formulation of the national 12-year plan for scientific and technological developments in 1956 and the following implementation of the plan. This study shows that the academy had a pivotal position and made irreplaceable contributions in the foundation-laying process of scientific and technological development in the People's Republic of China from 1949 to 1956.

Review of the 70 years of science and technology development in colleges and universities

WAN Jinbo, WU Bo
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (18): 123-135. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.18.012
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Abstract ( 25 )
Seventy years since the founding of the People's Republic of China, see an extraordinary development process of the science and technology of Chinese universities from scratch, weakness to fairly powerful. The 1978 National Science Conference, the National Education Conference, and the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee were a watershed between 30 years of hard work in China's science and technology education and 40 years of Reform and Opening-up. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the science and technology in China's colleges and universities began almost from scratch, and experienced a tortuous course of exploration and development, stagnation and retreat. In the past 40 years of reform and opening up, China's colleges and universities have undergone reforms and explorations to restore and rebuild the university's science and technology system; with comprehensive development, have become an important supporter; science and education have revitalized the country and become an important supporting force for modernization and innovation-driven, high-quality and high-level connotative development.

Rising Chinese science: 1980-2018-Statistics and analysis based on WoS publications

ZHAI Yanqi, LIU Xiaohui, YUE Ting, LIAO Yu, DING Jielan, YANG Liying
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (18): 136-145. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.18.013
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Abstract ( 21 )
Based on the WoS(Web of Science)database, this study analyzes the overall performance of Chinese scientific research since 1980 from five perspectives, including the scale of scientific research output, the academic impact, the highquality output, the discipline structure and the international cooperation, by using the bibliomestric method. It is found that the output of Chinese publications shows an explosive growth, ranking the second position in the world. With respect to the citation impact, compared with the developed countries, a noticeable gap still exists. The discipline structure shows that the unbalanced international cooperation also needs to be strengthened.

Statistics and analysis of Chinese S&T papers from 1989 to 2017

YU Zhenglu, MA Zheng, PAN Yuntao, SU Cheng, ZHANG Yuhua, WANG Lu
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (18): 146-154. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.18.014
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Abstract ( 20 )
The S&T Paper is an important indicator for evaluating the S&T output. Based on the CSTPCD database, the quantity and the quality of the domestic S&T Papers are analyzed in terms of the region distribution, the disciplinary distribution, and others. It is concluded that the publication of the domestic S&T Papers has entered a stable development period after a rapid growth. The researchers and the evaluation departments turn their attention more on the quality than on the quantity of the papers. A multilayer fund system has been formed, including the levels of the state, the regions, the enterprises and overseas, to boost the development of the domestic S&T Papers. The unbalance state in the regional distribution of the domestic S&T Papers sees some changes, but not very much, with the western regions being promoted in some extent. The Geography, the Energy, the Environment and others have an outstanding performance. The Medicine remains to be improved. The S&T cooperation is essential for the S&T development.

Overview of renewable energy technology development in China (1949-2019)

LOU Wei
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (18): 155-161. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.18.015
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Abstract ( 16 )
This paper reviews the achievements and the progress of the renewable energy technology in the past 70 years. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, due to the lack of energy, China has attached a great importance to the development of renewable energy such as the biogas and the hydropower. By the early 1990s, in view of the pressure of the energy security, the environmental protection and other factors, China began to further strengthen the development of renewable energy such as the solar energy, the wind energy and the biomass energy. The technologies of the biogas and the hydropower in our country have reached the matured state earlier and are at the forefront of the world at present. Other renewable energy technologies, such as the solar energy and the wind energy, have gone through the development process from the technology imitation to the creative imitation, and are now at the key point of turning to the independent innovation.

From water and soil conservation to global climate change: The studies of loess over the past seventy years in China

YANG Lijuan
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (18): 162-168. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.18.016
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Abstract ( 21 )
The unique stratigraphic structure of the loess in China has attracted the attention of studies of various countries and in various disciplines. The year of 1949 marks a new phase of the studies of the loess of more systematical nature. From the loess census in the 1950s and the 1960s, a large amount of first-hand materials is obtained about the loess areas, and several researches of loess of important influence were published in this period. In the 1970s, new scientific technologies and methods were developed, covering new areas and with improved precision. Since the 1980s, many achievements have been made in the comprehensive control of the soil erosion in the Loess Plateau, and more importantly, the results of the loess studies have been more and more used to understand the global climate change, with the decoding of the paleoclimate codes recorded in the loess strata. Through the joint efforts of several generations of scholars, the studies of the loess in China have reached the leading level in the world.

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