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   Science & Technology Review
2022, Vol.40, No. 15
13 August 2022

Reviews

Foreword
Papers
Suggestion
Science and Technology Humanities
Special to S&T Review
Exclusive:Air pollution and health
Exclusive: Air pollution and health
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Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (15): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 182 )
 
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (15): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 31 )
Special to S&T Review

NASA's Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2023-2032 and its enlightenment

WANG Chi, BAI Qingjiang, SHI Peng, SONG Tingting, LI Ming, FAN Quanlin
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (15): 6-15. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.15.001
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Abstract ( 26 )
Origins,worlds,and life:a decadal strategy for planetary science and astrobiology 2023-2032,the 3rd planetary decadal in 21st century to guide the solar system exploration in the coming 10 years (hereinafter referred to briefly as Decadal 2023),covers a broad range of recommendations such as science missions,research and analysis,and technologies.The article focuses on its three scientific themes,the recommended science program with big,medium and small missions,the deep space probes under development adopted by the previous decadal,and the cross-discipline missions which aim to achieve groundbreaking discovery in search for life elsewhere.Moreover,the Decadal 2023 includes for the first time the elements of planetary defense and state of profession,the latter of which interprets space science's social values.Though the planetary science just started lately in China,it has entered a rapid development phase benefiting from lunar and planetary explorations of China.The article aims to inspire future planetary progress in China through lessons learned from the American planetary decadal practices,e.g.,implementing science-driven missions with cutting-edge technology,emphasizing research and analysis,and investing new instrumentation development.
Suggestion

Integration of science,technology and economy promoted by S&T societies in "Innovation China": Status quo,problem and solution

MENG Fanrong, ZHANG Runqiang, LI Xuewei
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (15): 16-24. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.15.002
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Abstract ( 21 )
The deep integration of science,technology and economy has a great and far-reaching impact on the world economy and the progress of human civilization.S&T societies have inherent organizational advantages and strong organizational kinetic energy to be an effective power to promote the deep integration of science,technology and economy.Choosing "Innovation China" project as a window to analyze how S&T societies promote the integration of science,technology and economy,this paper summarizes the status quo of S&T societies in promoting the integration from three aspects,namely supply and demand matching,resource promotion and technical services.The paper also studies the typical problems of S&T societies in the process of integration and proposes corresponding countermeasures.In the end,the future development trend of S&T societies in promoting the integration is addressed,which would provide useful reference for the development of S&T societies in China.

Exploring the path of promoting science fiction development by science association groups:Taking China Association for Science and Technology as an example

YAO Lifen, WANG Weiying
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (15): 25-32. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.15.003
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Abstract ( 22 )
Since 2015,the development of science fiction in China has enjoyed a golden opportunity period.Taking the China Association for Science and Technology (CAST),a people's organization,as an example,this paper examines how it has intervened and led the development of science fiction in China as a national team during this period.With its organizational advantage in the development of science fiction,CAST began to promote science fiction by building up the China Science Fiction Conference,a platform for industry exchange.By fully launching the"Central-local cooperation "with Beijing in 2020,CAST constructed the Chinese science fiction development model characterized by" One Session (China Science Fiction Conference) "," One Award (Science Fiction Award covering creation,technology and industry) "," One Park (Shougang Park) "and" One Body (Science Fiction Industry Consortium)".The article also analyzes the inspiration of American experience in terms of science fiction talent cultivation and science film integration.Finally,the article proposes a direction for the future development of Chinese science fiction based on the pains and difficulties in the development of science fiction in China.
Exclusive:Air pollution and health

Research progress of new observation techniques for atmospheric composite pollution

WANG Xiaofei, WANG Lin, CHEN Jianmin
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (15): 33-40. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.15.004
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Abstract ( 23 )
Air pollution consists of a large number of pollutants,which usually have complicated sources and aging pathways.There are interactions among these pollutant species,thereby forming so called combined pollution.To study the formation mechanism and control technology for air pollution,it is necessary to measure the concentrations of major pollutants in the air.However,ultrafine aerosol particles,organic aerosols and volatile organic compounds are especially difficult to detect.This paper introduces the new technologies and methods for measuring air pollutants.Specifically,the recently developed methods for measuring ultrafine aerosol particle formation,volatile organic compounds,and particulate organics are discussed in detail.Besides,a short review of other widely used monitoring methods is also included.
Exclusive: Air pollution and health

Influence of weather and climate conditions on the formation of atmospheric PM2.5 and ozone pollution

LIAO Hong, ZHOU Ying, DAI Huibin, GONG Cheng
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (15): 41-48. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.15.005
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Abstract ( 16 )
Air pollution in China is characterized by high concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone.With the implementation of the Action Plan for Air Pollution Prevention and Control issued by the State Council in 2013,concentrations of PM2.5 have been decreasing but those of ozone show increasing trends.Concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone are still far higher than the air quality standards recommended by the World Health Organization.For the formation of air pollutants,while emissions are the fundamental causes,meteorological conditions are the external drivers that affect transport,chemical reactions,dry and wet deposition of air pollutants.A systematic understanding of the impacts of weather and climate on air pollutants is essential for prevention of severe pollution events and for long-term air quality planning.This paper summarizes China's recent research progress on the roles of weather and climate in the formation of PM2.5 and ozone.Currently,substantial progress has been made with respect to the impacts of weather and climate on PM2.5,especially the connections between climate factors,regional circulation patterns,and the local stagnant conditions for high PM2.5 levels.However,less attention has been paid to the impacts of weather and climate on ozone.The research priorities in this field are highlighted in the conclusion section.

Progress of research based on the airborne pollen monitoring data

YIN Zhaoyin, LIU Yan, DANG Bing, QIAO Yuan, ZHANG Fengyao, LIU Dan, OUYANG Yuhui
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (15): 49-63. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.15.006
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Abstract ( 29 )
This paper reviews the research based on airborne pollen monitoring data and finds out the followings.1) a pollen profile can be obtained by using the data and then a pollen calendar with clinical value can be drawn,in which the concentration threshold should be modified based on the characteristics of allergic populations.Besides,it's confirmed that clean air is essential for preventing hay fever through analyzing the exposure risks in different environments.2) the local observation environment and the placement position of the sampler have a great influence on the monitoring results,but overall,the pollen season has been prolonged and the pollen concentration has increased in most regions of the north hemisphere,which can be attributed to climate warming.3) in order to predict the future changes of airborne pollen,four types of models are widely used and the prediction results are generally accurate.For the parts with poor prediction effect (extreme pollen concentration,complex terrain,etc.),the optimal solution is to combine high-resolution pollen monitoring data for correction.4) however,due to the lack of low-cost automatic monitoring equipment,the current resolution of pollen monitoring data is still low,which brings a series of data and technical barriers.Therefore,this paper believes that the development of low-cost automatic monitoring equipment should be the focus of recent development in this field,and that a standardized observation system should be established accordingly.

Simulation study on deposition law of pyrrhotite dust in human respiratory tract in roadway

LIAO Huimin, ZHU Yilong, SU Hong, LI Ming
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (15): 64-76. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.15.007
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Abstract ( 16 )
In order to reveal the deposition law of pyrrhotite dust in human respiratory tract at construction site,and propose effective occupational disease protection measures,we took the pyrrhotite sample in the sampling roadway of a metal mine in Anhui as research object and establish a three-dimensional model of human respiratory tract.Then,under different concentrations of pyrrhotite dust and different work areas,we simulated the particle deposition in human respiratory tract during the transportation and shoveling processes.The results showed that the pyrrhotite under different respiration intensities,processes,and particle sizes is mainly deposited in the throat and trachea of the human body.When the particle size is greater than 5.456 μm,that is,the operator is close to the tuyere in the tunnel,all the mineral dust will be deposited in the respiratory tract of the human body.The total particle deposition rate of the respiratory tract will first decrease with the increase of particle concentration and then fluctuate steadily.And the total particle deposition rate will increase with the increase of particle size and respiratory intensity.The farther the distance from tuyere in the tunnel,the smaller the total particle deposition rate.Based on the deposition law of pyrrhotite dust on the respiratory tract of the human body and actual working conditions,corresponding protective measures are proposed.

Research on China's adaptation policies and actions on climate change

WEI Na, LI Kuo, XU Yinlong, LI Yingchun, HAN Xue, GUO Liping
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (15): 77-89. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.15.008
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Abstract ( 20 )
In order to better understand the development and evolution of China's adaptation to climate change and to provide effective support for the dual carbon sustainable goal,the process of building China's climate change adaptation system is systematically reviewed in this paper.Meanwhile,the development of climate change adaptation policies at national,sectional and local levels are also studied.The current status of adaptation policy development in the key vulnerable areas of agriculture and rural areas are discussed.An in-depth analysis of climate change adaptation actions in different areas is given,in which specific adaptation actions undertaken and their effectiveness are analyzed from different perspectives including agriculture,water resources,terrestrial ecosystems,coastal zones and human health.On this basis,the development characteristics of Chinese climate change adaptation policies and actions are presented and the future development suggestions of adaptation policy actions are put forward.
Reviews

Research progress on crack self-healing technology of cement-based materials based on microorganism

WANG Hailiang, CHEN Cang, RONG Hui, LI Ying, CHEN Yuting, ZHANG Ying, ZHANG Jinrui, WANG Jianyun
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (15): 90-103. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.15.009
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Abstract ( 25 )
Microbial self-healing of cement-based material cracks has gained extensive attention due to its great healing potential and environmental-friendly characteristics.In this paper,we systematically introduce the development of crack selfhealing of cement-based materials based on microorganism,the mechanism of microbial induced mineralization precipitation crystallization,induced mineralization yield and its influencing factors,immobilization of microorganism and determination of mineralization activity after immobilization,crack making method and self-healing condition,characterization method of selfhealing effect,crack self-healing effect,and the performance of microbial self-healing agent on cement-based materials.Meanwhile,we point out some main problems in the research of microbial self-healing cement-based materials and prospect its future,so as to provide reference for subsequent researchers to carry out related research.
Papers

Application of environmental disaster monitoring of OPGW corridor based on BOTDR technology

LI Jun, LI Yan
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (15): 104-112. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.15.010
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Abstract ( 22 )
The on-line monitoring of optical fiber composite overhead ground cable (OPGW) under extreme weather conditions is of great significance to the safe operation and early warning of power communication system.The basic principle of monitoring cable temperature and strain based on Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry (BOTDR) technology is reviewed,and the feasibility of its application to power disaster detection is analyzed.Moreover,combined with the specific application scenarios and monitoring situation of operating OPGW cables with BOTDR system in the field,a method for real-time monitoring OPGW lines and surrounding environment using BOTDR technology test device is verified in both theory and practice,which can effectively meet the needs of environmental disaster monitoring of electrical route corridor.
Science and Technology Humanities

The evolution of the recombinant DNA advisory committee of the United States

WU Yanbin, WANG Yue
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (15): 113-122. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.15.011
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Abstract ( 19 )
The recombinant DNA technology was developed by a university laboratory in the U.S in 1972.The Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) was established by the government of U.S in 1974 and played a significant role in regulating the risks of gene manipulation technology until 2019.With the ups and downs of RAC in the course of risk regulation of gene manipulation technology in the U.S,the technical risk regulation of gene manipulation technology in the U.S has gradually developed from infant to mature.This article depicts the roadmap for the RAC and its regulatory power to come into being,retrieves the contributions that RAC made to regulating the technical risks under the haze of gene manipulation technology risks with plenty doubts from government authorities,and presents the basic regulation of gene therapy in the United States.The article also narrates the critical event of the gene therapy,including the process of the first case with RAC's approval and the performance of RAC facing the first fatal case.

A review of Wang Juhua's papermaking researches

CHEN Biao, DI Yumeng, ZHU Yuewei, FU Xiaohang
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (15): 123-129. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.15.012
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Abstract ( 21 )
Great contributions in the field of fiber identification and analysis of ancient paper have been made by Wang Juhua,a well-known papermaking expert in China.Based on the dozens of papers published by her in the field of papermaking and two significant professional monographs,Papermaking Raw Materials of China and Their Micrographs and The Characteristics of Fibers,History of Papermaking Technology in Ancient China,this paper discusses Wang Juhua's achievements in the characteristics and process of papermaking raw materials,the research on academic issues related to the origin of papermaking,the analysis and identification of ancient paper and the research and development of papermaking fiber measuring instrument.The fiber testers of XWY series,which are developed and improved by Wang Juhua and her team,play an important role in fiber identification.

Analyzing genetic code and improving life formula:A review

LIU Rui
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (15): 130-136. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.15.013
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Abstract ( 26 )
As an important event in the development of genetics,analysis of genetic code and perfection of genetic "central law" have been explored for a long time.By sorting out the historical facts of the discovery of genetic code and the establishment of life formula,this paper summarizes the analysis process of genetic code and restores the whole process of the development of life formula from linear structure to triangular structure.

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