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   Science & Technology Review
2020, Vol.38, No. 21
13 November 2020


Foreword
Exclusive: System Engineering
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Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 109 )
Foreword

Mathematical modeling: a bridge between mathematics and application

LI Daqian
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 41 )
Exclusive: System Engineering

Diamond model and digital-intelligent twin for system of systems engineering

CAO Jiang, CHEN Bin, GAO Lanlan, PING Yang, FAN Zhiqiang
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 6-20. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.001
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Abstract ( 373 )
Backgrounds, concepts and definitions of system of systems (SoS) and system of systems engineering (SoSE) are studied from the perspective of complexity in this paper. Connotations of agent, relationship and environment in SoS are analyzed in detail, and the differences between the concepts of system and SoS are compared. A new approach called diamond model to implement the idea and theory of SoSE is proposed and discussed comprehensively along with a new information process based architecture framework, which is more suitable for SoS than the classical Zachman framework based architecture. A novel concept called digital-intelligent twin is presented to proactively explore and foresee the comprehensive essence of SoS in the coming digital and artificial intelligence era. Corresponding meaning and concept framework of digital-intelligent twin and the development trend of future SoS are illustrated briefly.

MBSE: Future direction of system engineering

ZHANG Pengyi, HUANG Baiqiao, JÜ Hongbin
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 21-26. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.002
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Abstract ( 13 )
After analyzing the essential characteristics and inadequacies of traditional system engineering thought and Qian Xuesen's system engineering thought, the internal and external backgrounds of model-based system engineering development are introduced, including promotion and maturity of model-driven development methods and the traditional systems engineering methods which lack accumulation and reuse of experience. Then, compared with the traditional system engineering methods, advantages of model based system engineering (MBSE) in system formal description and the future development expectation of MBSE are analyzed. It is pointed out that using MBSE to guide the construction of cyber-physical systems will be a new idea for MBSE development.

Review on intelligent complex system of systems research

LÜ Chunpu, WANG Huangang, ZHANG Tao, JIANG Wenlan
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 27-37. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.003
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Abstract ( 15 )
With the development of artificial intelligence, more and more complex and intelligent systems appear constantly. Traditional theories and methods of system science and system engineering are no longer suitable for the need of the situation. System of systems(SoS) has thus come into being. This paper reviews the concepts and characteristics of SoS, introduces its history and current research status, and argues that the research focus in this field should be intelligent complex system of systems(ICSoS) with higher complexity and intelligence. The paper also describes the concept, characteristic, modelling, emergence and application around ICSoS. On this basis, this paper suggests that future research directions should focus on modeling, intelligent emergence and pinning control of ICSoS.

A system-of-systems contribution ratio evaluation method for equipment program planning

LI Xiaobo, LIANG Haozhe, WANG Tao, WANG Yanfeng, WANG Weiping, LIN Mu
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 38-46. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.004
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Abstract ( 353 )
System-of-systems (SoS) contribution ratio evaluation is an important measure to promote the development and application of equipment system-of-systematization. At present, the research of SoS contribution ratio (SoSCR) mainly focuses on the stage of equipment project demonstration. There are some problems such as difficulty to find the combat SoS comprising the equipment system from bottom up, atypical and inaccurate SoSs, so it is urgent to strengthen the research of SoSCR from top down in the stage of program planning. Based on the thought of equipment life cycle management dominated by SoSCR, this paper puts forward a five-step evaluation method, including combat concept traction, capability demand leading, value orientation accounting, mission means matching, and capability contribution evaluation. The SoSCR of the project is evaluated according to the satisfaction degree of the equipment planning project to the SoS capability gap, and an SoSCR allocation model is constructed. In this paper, the evaluation of SoSCR is pushed forward to the program planning stage, which can strengthen the top-level design and overall guidance of equipment life cycle management, and overcome shortcomings of current research on decentralized and fragmented SOSCR.

Evaluation of army capability based on TOPSIS and grey correlation analysis method

LI Junjie, CHEN Jian, LI Cong, ZHANG Chunhui, HUANG He
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 47-53. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.005
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Abstract ( 10 )
To tackle the problem of deficient evaluation and incomplete index system on army capability evaluation, this paper re-builds the army capability index system with regard to the property of army capability. Entropy weight method is employed to calculate the index weights while TOPSIS grey correlation analysis is adopted to structure the evaluation model, so that army capability can be quantitatively analyzed. An application example demonstrates the effectiveness of the method. It is believed that this method will deliver reasonable and valuable suggestion for army capability improvement.

Measurement and calculation methods of ocean security index

QU Lihong, CHENG Junchao, ZHANG Chi, HE Yuan'an
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 54-59. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.006
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Abstract ( 8 )
In the context of building up a maritime power, the purpose of the establishment of the ocean security index is to effectively represent the trajectory of ocean security changes, so that we can effectively forecast the development of ocean security in key sea areas and guide safety use of the oceans. This paper puts forward the concept of the ocean security index. The ocean security index contains 12 representative indicators involving ocean marine science, technology security, ocean ecological security and ocean economic security. At the same time this research explores the method of measuring the ocean security index, and gives a quantitative evaluation of Chinese ocean security indexes for 2013-2015. This paper also briefly analyzes the factors affecting the change of the ocean security index.

Application research of blockchain technology in cross-departmental ocean data sharing

CHENG Junchao, ZHANG Chi, HE Yuan'an
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 60-68. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.007
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Abstract ( 9 )
In recent years, our country’ s maritime informatization has developed rapidly, but problems of open sharing of marine data and data islands still exist and have become more prominent. Traditional data sharing methods based on centralized systems face the security risks such as data being easily tampered, illegally copy utilization, and high maintenance costs. In order to realize safe and reliable cross-departmental sharing of ocean data, this article investigates the current research status in this field, and then analyzes the feasibility of blockchain technology in the field of data sharing, and discusses how blockchain technology can solve the problem of ocean data islands. With the application prospects of blockchain, using the decentralized characteristics of blockchain, a data sharing model is proposed, and the technical implementation method of the ocean data crossdepartmental sharing platform is given, which has a great reference value on the development of ocean informatization.

Application design of marine data resource sharing based on block chain

ZHANG Chi, WANG Rui, CHENG Junchao, HE Yuan'an, ZHEN Jun
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 69-74. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.008
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Abstract ( 6 )
Marine data, as one of the important tools of ocean exploitation and utilization, scatter in various departments in our country, such as marine departments, scientific research institutions and other relevant enterprises. These data cannot be shared and value-added effectively, thus marine data islands are formed. This paper analyzes the fundamental reason for the marine data islands problem, then proposes a kind of marine data resource sharing application model based on block chain technology, in which the consensus mechanism of block nodes as well as the storage mode of marine data on the block chain are improved. Eventually, a marine data resource sharing platform is built to reach the goal of data sharing and value-added distribution.

Construction of ship system development knowledge engineering informatization platform

CHEN Zuo, ZHAO Xin, DAI Yujie
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 75-82. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.009
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Abstract ( 9 )
Ship system development is a typical knowledge-intensive and complex system engineering. Successful implementation of knowledge engineering is not only a support for the success of ship system development projects but also a basic guarantee for the sustainable development of enterprises. Based on our practice in knowledge engineering in this field, we present in this paper theoretical model, construction contents and principles of knowledge engineering system, put forward main functions of information platform construction, and look into the future knowledge engineering information construction. The aforementioned method for construction of knowledge engineering system can not only realize effective acquisition and management of enterprise knowledge but also help the related application of knowledge and R & D processes, making knowledge really become the intellectual asset that supports enterprise development.

An architecture for event-driven ship intelligent information platform

QIU Bohua, ZHANG Yu, WEI Muheng
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 83-90. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.010
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Abstract ( 11 )
Existing ship information platform is limited by its equipment interface and data standard, and the development of civil ship information platform is relatively slow. In the development process of intelligent ship, deficiency of traditional ship information platform makes it more difficult to support the analysis task of ship in complex working conditions. This paper proposes a ship information platform based on an event-driven architecture design, and starts with modeling event flow around function modules according to the closed loop of ‘perception-cognition-decision-control’, which improves the processing efficiency of random and uncertain events and reduces the coupling degree of the system. Finally, an information platform is implemented to improve task processing capacity and reduce hardware resource requirements.

Classification method of ship navigation condition based on clustering analysis

TAN Xiao, GUAGN Wenyuan, LI Han, LI Yongjie, XUE Chen
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 91-95. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.011
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Abstract ( 11 )
With the development trend of intelligent ship and shipping as well as accumulation of ship big data, it is urgent to build a special model of navigation economic analysis through data-driven means to solve the problem of energy consumption evaluation and optimization and maximize ship energy efficiency. In this paper, combined with the relationship between ship's sailing conditions and main engine's fuel consumption characteristics, and considering the factors of draft and relative wind speed, K-means clustering analysis method is used to realize the division of different sailing conditions of the influencing factors of fuel consumption. The historical data of a VLCC are used to verify the actual application. Based on the data of ship's voyage loading and external environment weather conditions, the classification analysis of navigation conditions and the determination of influencing factor parameter interval under each working condition are realized, which provides a more refined analysis basis for the construction of matching model of marine main engine fuel consumption by different working conditions.

Analysis of command information architecture behavioral characteristics of maritime composite formation

YANG Dongsheng, ZHANG Guo
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 96-102. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.012
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Abstract ( 10 )
With shift of focus from traditional offshore waters defence to open seas protection, the formation command information system of the maritime combat forces has changed fundamentally, reflecting more behavioral characteristics of an architecture than a system. This paper studies and analyzes five behavioral characteristics of the command information architecture of maritime composite formation, namely, independence of component units, uncertainty of architecture patterns evolution, variability of command and information process, emergent properties of components and whole architecture, and distributivity of deployment zones. In a word, as a typical example, the command information architecture of maritime composite formation should be taken as an architecture instead of a system in terms of its design, deployment, operation and management.

Development of surface warship terminal defense system and new concept weapon system

ZHANG Zhijie, WU Si
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 103-109. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.013
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Abstract ( 14 )
Main threats to warships and its defense strategics are discussed from the perspective of modern ship self-defense system. This paper deeply analyzes the role and development trend of close-in weapon system (CIWS) in terminal defense system and comprehensively discusses the development path and future application prospect of new concept weapon system. It also explores how CIWS equipment actively integrates into terminal defense system to further establish the idea of large-scal system development, so as to expand the development direction and seek new solutions.

Embarkation scheme optimization of amphibious transport ships based on genetic algorithm

XU Qinghua, SONG Jian
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 110-117. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.014
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Abstract ( 9 )
Amphibious ship loading is the basic guarantee of amphibious operation. Loading scheme directly affects the efficiency of amphibious force delivery and even affects the process and success of amphibious operation. To optimize the embarkation for amphibious transport ships, we establish descriptive models for transport ships loading space and loading objects. Then we apply graph theory introduce the concept of gatehead, make optimal gateheads selection rules, and set up embarkation scheme optimization objectives and constraint conditions. Finally, we use genetic algorithm to work out the embarkation scheme optimization models which realize the embarkation scheme optimization objectives.

Design and simulation of a systematical and distributed underwater defense capability verification system

ZHANG Deyang, ZHAO Keli, DENG Liewei, CUI Deyu, LI Shunmin
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 118-127. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.015
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Abstract ( 8 )
The paper designs a systematical and distributed underwater defense capability verification system based on LVC live-virtual-constructive (LVC) resource integration, and establishes its basic structure and core function models. Moreover, a capability evaluation model based on various influencing factors is proposed to analyze and study the influence of key elements. The capability of the system is verified through simulation experiments.

Implementation method of distributed lethality of the US navy

WANG Youzhen
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 128-133. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.016
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Abstract ( 10 )
Distributed lethality is an important attempt of the future combat mode of the US Navy. In essence, it is an extension of the thinking of control of the sea and the air in modern warfare. Distributed lethality aims to strengthen the navy's ability by improving the complexity of sea battlefield and weaken the opponent's abilities of analysis and judgment. Its main methods include: improving comprehensive capabilities of the platform, forming small-scale groups, de-volving command, and enhancing electronic warfare capability. This paper mainly analyzes its specific methods of the US Navy and shows what kind of related research and construction should be carried out to defend distributed lethality.

Market application and development of wave gliders

ZHENG Jieliang, SUN Wenqiushi, LI Chao
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 134-143. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.017
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Abstract ( 9 )
Wave glider is a small unmanned offshore operation platform that carries different loads according to different tasks, such as scientific observation, offshore operation, and data relay, and performs continuous operation tasks in high sea conditions in the ocean waters. Based on a large number of investigations and combined with the research progress of the Third Research Institute of China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation in the field of wave gliders, this article mainly discusses the basic principles of wave gliders, and compares domestic and foreign situations in terms of structure, main application areas and application cases. It also points out that wave glider can be used as an intermediate bridge using its long-term ocean-going existence characteristics, and that combined with satellite communication technology, wave glider can create an integrated ocean stereo observation data service platform, forming a self-operated maritime equipment for monitoring and data service. They will have high application prospects and social value in such as marine environmental research, marine environmental monitoring and protection, intelligent fishery production, marine safety and rights protection, and enhancement of coastal defense forces.

Longitudinal maneuverability optimization of flight control in autonomous carrier landing

DONG Ran, ZHANG Kunpeng, WANG Xiaofeng, WANG Lipeng, LI Jiatong
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 144-149. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.018
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Abstract ( 12 )
Automatic carrier landing system (ACLS) permits high performance carrier-based aircraft to achieve autonomous safe and stable landing, thus its flight control system requires good maneuverability. In this paper, based on system stability theories, test data of F/A-18A fighter aircraft, and the response optimization tools of MATLAB, a novel parameter design method is proposed, and applied to optimizing the parameters of ACLS longitudinal flight control system in a loop by loop and from inside to outside manner. Simulation results show that the system with calibrated parameters has a better performance in responding to the command signal than that of F/A-18A aircraft.

UAV-counter requirements analysis and technical pedigree

XIANG Wenhao, WANG Dong, LIU Jia, DONG Fangchen, SUN Wen
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 150-158. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.019
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Abstract ( 15 )
With the maturity of unmanned technology, the phenomenon of black flight of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is more frequent in China, which has seriously affected normal social order and national sovereignty security. Through the analysis requirement of UAV countermeasures and existing mature and related technologies, a relatively complete technical pedigree has been formed. For typical UAV, the paper proposes a preliminary thinking of countermeasures, then investigates the key technologies for UAV countermeasures and existing problems, so as to guide the counter system construction for black flight UAV.

Super-resolution reconstruction for unmanned aerial vehicle video-based on aerial photography locating

ZHANG Yan, CHEN Jian, LIU Min, YU Zongchen, LI Junjie, XU Boao, CHEN Yukun, WANG Bin
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 159-168. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.020
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Abstract ( 11 )
Super-resolution reconstruction for unmanned aerial vehicle video based on aerial photography locating (SRRUAVVAPL) is proposed to improve the quality of UAV reconnaissance video. Firstly, feature matching of all the video frames is performed to figure out the relations among the video frames, and feature matching of all the adjacent frames are also performed to figure out the relations among the adjacent frames. Then an unmanned aerial vehicle target locating scheme based on space forward intersection and robust estimation (UAVTLSFIRE) is put forward to realize aerial photography locatiing. Lastly, video frames are improved by high-frequency compensation and POCS iterative optimization, and the reconstructed video is obtained. Experimental results show the proposed method is an effective super-resolution reconstruction for unmanned aerial vehicle video.

An agile analysis process for military helicopter tactical and technology performance requirements

XIN Ji, SUN Lei, PAN Hanjin
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 169-176. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.021
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Abstract ( 9 )
A requirement analysis process characterized by first whole qualitative analysis then separate quantitative analysis is proposed. Several typical operational concepts are set up and military key requirements are defined by them. Through using the DoDAF framework to analyze the operational concepts, equipment operational capabilities requirements are obtained. The use case method is incorporated and the capabilities are separated into several use case teams. Each use case defines a few functional scenes, by which the missions and operational environments are covered and from which the tactical and technical performance requirements are all drawn. By means of the tracing relativity between requirements and scenes, an agile requirement change process for responding to customers and technical staff demands is proposed. A hypothetical transport helicopter is taken as an example to interpret the process.

Implementation and application of multi-architecture modeling method for aircraft entertainment system

SUN Shengnan, LU Jinzhi, CHEN Jinwei, HUANG Baiqiao, LAN Xiaoping, ZHANG Huisheng
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 177-186. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.022
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Abstract ( 29 )
This paper proposes a multi-architecture modeling method to implement model-based systems engineering (MBSE). The meta-meta model based on the multi-architecture modeling method constructs the domain-specific modeling language in Capella. The Arcadia modeling method is adopted as the modeling specification. At the same time, the traceability relationship between models is established based on the architecture-driven method. A complete system engineering driven process based on model is formed. The aircraft entertainment system is used as a case to build a model, and the two methods of Capella modeling and multi-architecture modeling are compared, and the efficiency and effectiveness of the two methods are compared. The results show that the multi-architecture modeling method has modeling efficiency and strong scalability, which brings a solution for the integration of different MBSE modeling languages and modeling methods.

Comparative analysis of for airborne systems and equipment certification standard DO-178C and software management standard GJB5000A

LI Chao, HUANG Baiqiao
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 187-191. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.023
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Abstract ( 13 )
Aviation airborne software airworthiness certification is an important means to verify that the safety of software meets flight requirements. The certification standard DO-178C is a standard requirement that aviation enterprise software design must follow. However, in the field of software management there is an important competence maturity integration model standard, called CMMI/GJB5000A. After a comparative analysis of DO-178C and GJB5000A, it is concluded that the airborne software airworthiness certification is insufficient in the sense of software development process management. To meet the gap it is proposed that enterprises need to strengthen project monitoring, process measurement, analysis and risk management requirements. In accordance with the formal requirements of DO-178C, a reference improvement plan is given.

A single-police forensic system based on rights protection law enforcement task

GU Yu, HE He, SHI Yuhao
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (21): 192-196. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.21.024
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Abstract ( 9 )
At present, police have only a single means of evidence collection in the process of law enforcement and can neither analyze and deal with evidence effectively in real time nor provide effective support for investigation and arrest of law enforcement tasks. To solve these problems, we propose a single police law enforcement system based on rights protection law enforcement tasks. We adopt network architecture, integrate advanced forensic equipment and transmission equipment and apply deep learning algorithm to the evidence processing system to construct a systematic single police law enforcement system based on single police evidence collection and multiple police cooperative evidence collection. We use system engineering method to design the system and the operation process. In the design process, we put forward key technologies such as information integration, command assistant decision making and feature extraction.

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