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   Science & Technology Review
2019, Vol.37, No. 24
28 December 2019

Focus

Foreword
Papers
Contents
Think Tank
Science and Technology Humanities
Review
Exclusive: Introductions of the Nobel Prizes in Science 2019
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Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (24): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 50 )
Foreword

Metallogenesis and effective utilization of strategic-critical metals

CHENG Jun
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (24): 1-5.
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Abstract ( 28 )
Think Tank

Analysis of the Internationalization of Science and Technology Societies affiliated to the CAST

QI Zhihong, CUI Weijun, FU Yu, GAO Ran
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (24): 6-14. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.24.001
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Abstract ( 26 )
Based on the data analysis of the activities of science and technology societies affiliated to the Chinese Association of Science and Technology in recent years, including organizing international academic conferences, publishing academic journals in foreign languages, setting up English websites, developing international cooperation, and taking part in the activities of international organizations, this paper analyzes the current situation of their internationalization, highlights the existing problems, and puts forward some suggestions.

Reform of governance mechanism of US National Laboratory and its enlightenment to China

YIN Xigang, XING Guopan, WANG Jinping
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (24): 15-22. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.24.002
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Abstract ( 23 )
Since the 1990s, the governance pattern of the US national laboratories experienced a new round of adjustment. This paper outlines the problems and the countermeasures identified in the reviews of the US national laboratory, highlighting the governance issues in the strategic planning, the contracts, the assessments, and the budgets. Furthermore, the reform measures are summarized as defining the roles and the responsibility, focusing on the core mission, restoring the federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) model and ensuring a lasting change. Last but not least, based on the operational practice of China's national laboratories, suggestions are made for the construction of China's national laboratory as authorizing national laboratories with an appropriate legal person status, strengthening the support for national laboratories, optimizing the governance structure, and enhancing the strategic planning of national laboratories.
Exclusive: Introductions of the Nobel Prizes in Science 2019

Searching for extra-solar planets: A brief introduction to the Nobel Prize in Physics 2019

HU Yongyun
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (24): 23-29. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.24.003
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Abstract ( 14 )
The Nobel Prize of 2019 in Physics was awarded to three astronomers for their contributions to our understanding of the evolution of the universe and the Earth's place in the cosmos. They are professor James Peebles at Princeton University "for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology" and professors Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz at the University of Geneva "for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star." The three astronomers have different research directions. Peebles'research is on cosmology, while Mayor and Queloz's research is on searching for extra-solar planets (exoplanets). In the present paper, we reviews the scientific accomplishment by Mayor and Queloz and their important impacts on planetary sciences and astronomy, as well as the diversity of exoplanets and the great challenges to our traditional understanding of the formation of the Solar system. We also comment on the progresses on searching for potentially habitable exoplanets and the s exo-life.

Exploration of an Exoplanet: Commentary on the Nobel Prize in Physics 2019

MA Bo
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (24): 30-35. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.24.004
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Abstract ( 13 )
A half of the Nobel Prize in Physics 2019 was awarded jointly to Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star. In this paper we review the academic achievements of these two scientists, the scientific significance of this important discovery, and the future development of this research area in China.

Lithium-ion battery can change the world

CHEN Liquan
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (24): 36-40. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.24.005
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Abstract ( 12 )
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019 was awarded to John B. Goodenough, Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino, three scientists in the field of lithium-ion battery. This paper points out the important role of the lithium-ion battery, and reviews the development history and the research and industrialization processes in China. Finally, the key points for the future development of the lithium-ion batteries are pointed out.

Cellular sensing of and responding to hypoxia: A discussion on the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019

YE Sheng
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (24): 41-50. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.24.006
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Abstract ( 9 )
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019 was awarded jointly to William G. Kaelin Jr, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability. They discovered that cells employ the hydroxylation of HIF-1α, a subunit of the transcriptional factor HIF-1, to sense the cellular oxygen level, and, consequently, the unhydroxylated HIF-1α under hypoxic conditions will be rapidly accumulated and enter the nucleus to regulate the transcription of over one thousand genes. The hypoxic response is closely related to a number of human diseases, including anemia, polycythemia, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer. This paper reviews the history of the discovery of the cellular hypoxic response pathway, as well as human diseases involved.

New progress of hypoxia inducible factor in the treatment of diseases

LI Han, LU Xiangxue
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (24): 51-56. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.24.007
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Abstract ( 11 )
The hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is a heterodimer DNA-binding transcription factor that can bind with specific nuclear cofactors and activate a variety of genes to optimize the oxygen utilization under hypoxia conditions. The American oncologist William G. Kaelin Jr., the British medical scientist Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and the American medical scientist Gregg L. Semenza won the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering how cells sense and adapt to the oxygen availability where the HIF plays an important role. This paper reviews the research progress of the HIF in the treatment of renal anemia, tumor, cardiovascular disease, as well as its significance to human health.
Review

Study of national cultural and technological integration demonstration base

YU Ze
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (24): 57-64. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.24.008
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Abstract ( 17 )
Firstly, the paper introduces the background and the current state of the national cultural and technological integration demonstration base. Secondly, through the retrieval of the CNKI and the related blue book literature, the research status of the national cultural and technological demonstration bases is analyzed and it is found that the construction of the bases as well as their problems and countermeasures are widely studied, but there are relatively few studies of the base performance, the base evaluation, the base financial support and the policy innovation. Thirdly, the problems of the bases, the development strategies and the successful experiences are reviewed. Finally, from the case study, the quantitative research, the cultural brand research, the review and the evaluation of the mechanism research, the paper points out the key research directions of the bases in the future.

Advances in ship target recognition technology

MA Xiao, SHAO Limin, JIN Xin, XU Guanlei
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (24): 65-78. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.24.009
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Abstract ( 13 )
The effective identification and monitoring of ship targets is essential for safeguarding the maritime rights and ensuring the navigation safety. In line with the acquisition form of the ship target information, this paper reviews the ship target recognition technology based on several main information acquisition sources of the ship targets, including the radiated noise signal, the radar echo signal, the satellite remote sensing image, the synthetic aperture radar image, the infrared image and the visible image. The current research difficulties in the ship target recognition methods based on different signal sources are analyzed, involving the high mission correlation, the high calculation cost and the long running time. Combined with the development of the deep learning technology in the speech recognition, the image recognition and other fields, the typical target recognition methods based on the deep learning technology, the Faster R-CNN and the YOLO, are applied in the ship target recognition. It is proposed that the introduction of the deep learning technology into the ship target recognition field indicates a new direction for the research of the ship target recognition methods with better robustness, higher accuracy and better real-time performance.
Papers

Statistical analysis of projects in the field of atmospheric science by National Natural Science Foundation of China from 2008 to 2017

WANG Zhuoni, SHI Changhui
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (24): 79-88. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.24.010
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Abstract ( 21 )
Based on the analysis of the official data of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) from 2008 to 2017, this paper discusses the development of disciplines and research teams in the field of atmospheric science. It is found that the field of atmospheric science undergoes an increasing trend in the number of funded projects and the total scale of funding, however, it is in a disadvantageous position in the project competition in the Department of Earth Sciences with a decline tendency in its share for both the project establishment and the funding support. The developments of branches of the atmospheric science are not balanced and, as a result, a differentiated development path of the branches has emerged with the regional characteristics of the discipline. Universities and colleges have grown into the first echelon for the funded projects of the NSFC, together with the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the China Meteorological Administration, as the three main institutions for the funded projects in the past 10 years. The research teams of atmospheric science are in a trend with younger scientists; the career development of female scientists should be paid more attention.

The basic principle of spatio-temporal scale identification in ecological experiment: The operational scale of experimental objects is compatible with its own scale

XIAO Xianjing
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (24): 89-99. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.24.011
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Abstract ( 11 )
With the existence of the time and the space and the existence of the scale, we may infer the existence of the temporal and spatial scales of the ecological experimental objects (in the ontological sense, also called the "eigen scales"). The basic principle of understanding the spatio-temporal scale of the ecological experimental objects is to make the "spatio-temporal operational scale of the ecological experimental objects" (in the methodological sense, also called the "representational scale") correspond to the spatio-temporal scale of the ecological experimental objects (in the epistemological sense).This is the realism of the time-space scale relevance of the ecological experiments. In the process of specific ecological experiments, some ecologists either insist that the spatio-temporal scale of the ecological experimental objects does not exist, or insist that although they exist, they cannot be recognized, thus they are in the position of the instrumentalism and the empirical constructivism (as opposed to the realism). This position is at odds with the fundamental tenet of the ecological understanding-the understanding of the relationship between the living things and the environment in nature, and should be abandoned. Moreover, some ecologists have difficulties in understanding the spatiotemporal scale of the ecological experimental objects, or have the feeling of out of the picture without publishing, or for other reasons, they go to simplify the space-time scale of the ecological experiment object into the Newton's absolute space-time view, instead of the Einstein's relativistic space-time view, Prigogine's "inner-time" and even the extended "inner-space" space-time view, and the Leibniz's "space view" and even the extended "time view" of the relationship. The right "granularity" and "amplitude" are not properly considered to carry out the experiment, with the error of "improper use". Insufficient multi-scale analysis often results in "aggregation bias". Without an appropriate model, we come to the position of the "mousetrap for the elephant". The "characteristic scale" is not correctly identified, resulting in the "ecological fallacy". In view of the above shortcomings, the ecological experimenters should adhere to the correct view of the time and the space and take various measures for a correct understanding of the scale of the objects of the ecological experiments.

A prototype for discovering the communities of IETF experts

YE Xiaorong, SHAO Qing
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (24): 100-110. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.24.012
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Abstract ( 19 )
The IETF is a relatively authoritative technical standardization organization in the global Internet. In order to analyze the standardization experts in various professional fields in the IETF and identify the research hotspots of the current Internet standards, a prototype for discovering the communities of the IETF experts is designed. This system analyzes and stores various data sources of the IETF, cleans and merges the data, and uses the optimized and improved Louvain algorithm for the community discovery. Then the system divides the experts into a number of different Internet professional fields, and mines the active experts in various professional fields, and uses the TF-IDF algorithm to mine its research hotspots. So the system can provide accurate and dynamic information for China to develop the Internet international standards.

The communication power of the official WeChat of China Association for Science and Technology: With the official WeChat of CAST Today and national academic societies of CAST as an example

WANG Zhifang, HE Zhanzhe
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (24): 111-117. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.24.013
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Abstract ( 11 )
The official WeChat of the CAST Today and national academic societies of CAST are an important window for the communications with the outside world of the CAST. Take the official WeChat of the CAST Today and national academic societies of the CAST as an example, this paper explores the development of the official WeChat of the CAST and the access states in terms of the whole distribution, the user demand, the user attribute and the dissemination channel. Based on this analysis, combined with the communication characteristics of the WeChat Public Platform, the optimal development strategies are suggested.
Focus

Corrosion and protection of marine environment

Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (24): 118-121.
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Abstract ( 10 )
Science and Technology Humanities

Did Qian Xuesen really have doubts about the education of China ten years ago

HOU Yude
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (24): 122-126. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.24.014
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Abstract ( 27 )
In the past 70 years, the achievements of education in New China have been remarkable, but there are also some problems. The statement of "QIAN Xuesen's question" after 2009 has gradually become the core issue of Chinese education. However, a careful analysis of the original text of QIAN Xuesen's conversation reveals that he has not raised any doubts and asked questions that need to be answered by future generations. He pointed out that studying the talent training model of universities such as Caltech can solve the problems of Chinese higher education. In fact, China also has a precedent for successfully cultivating innovative talents. PENG Huanwu was a model for cultivating outstanding scientific and technical personnel. Studying and learning from PENG Huanwu's successful experience in cultivating innovative talents is conducive to cultivating more outstanding scientific and technological talents for China.
Contents

Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (24): 127-144.
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Abstract ( 14 )

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