Collect | Home Page 
   
Office Online  
Journal Online
· Forthcoming Articles
· Current Issue
· Archive
· Advanced Search
· View by Fields
· Archive By Subject
· Special Issues
· Download Articles
· Read Articles
· Email Alert
· Recommended
Links
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
   Science & Technology Review
2019, Vol.37, No. 14
28 July 2019

Reviews

Foreword
Science and Technology Fund
Papers
Think Tank
Exclusive: Trends in World Science and Technology
Select | Export to EndNote

Hot!

Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (14): 0-0.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (3288 KB)  ( 13 )
Abstract ( 85 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (14): 1-1.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (720 KB)  ( 25 )
Abstract ( 51 )
Think Tank

The application of 3D design technology of aviation industry in shipbuilding industry

LENG Wenjun, ZHANG Yechuan, CHEN Gang, ZHAO Juntao, SHI Hongqi, WANG Shizhong
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (14): 6-10. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.14.001
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (1131 KB)  ( 11 )
Abstract ( 25 )
The application of 3D design technology in aviation industry is reviewed. From the development of 3D design in aviation industry, the great advantage of 3D design is evident. The realization of 3D design in aviation industry shows that the three-dimensional design can be applied in the shipbuilding industry. According to the present situation of China's shipbuilding industry, some key problems to be solved in the promotion of three-dimensional design are discussed.
Exclusive: Trends in World Science and Technology

Evaluation and analysis of innovation capability based on national level

YIN Gaolei, TAN Zongying, WANG Xue
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (14): 11-17. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.14.002
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (1063 KB)  ( 19 )
Abstract ( 18 )
The paper summarizes the research progress on innovation, as well as the practice of innovation monitoring and evaluation. Then, the paper analyzes the connotations of the national creative ability, the innovative country and the technological power, as well as the relative position of China's innovation ability in the world. Some conclusions are drawn. It is hoped that this study will provide an evidencebased decision-making reference for the evaluation of scientific and technological powers.

Social impact assessment of science achievements based on international experiences

FAN Yingjie, XU Fang
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (14): 18-25. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.14.003
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (1312 KB)  ( 19 )
Abstract ( 19 )
The evaluation of the social impact of science achievements funded by the government can be considered as a breakthrough point in the reform of China's science and technology system. Besides, it is also an inevitable step to carry out the strategy of China's innovation-driven development. The lessons drawn from the evaluation activities in western countries can be a useful guidance. The paper focuses on three typical systems, the UK's Research Excellence Framework (REF) for assessing the excellence of researches in higher education institutions, the Standard Evaluation Protocol (SEP), which is used to assess researches conducted by Dutch universities and NWO and academy institutes, and the USA's STAR METRICS for creating a repository of data and tools, that will be useful to assess the impact of federal R&D investments. This paper analyzes the evaluation unit, the processes, and the objectives of the above three systems, as well as their differences, focusing on the indicators that define the social impact and the methods to realize the evaluation. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the social impact evaluation should be at the core of the performance evaluation of public scientific research institutions in China. Following the experience of the UK's REF system, the national strategies, the differences between institutions and disciplines, as well as the regional divergence should be taken into account when developing the indicators of social impacts and the corresponding measurements in China. To facilitate the system operation, it is necessary to create a searchable database of scientific researches funded by national agencies.

Construction of patent risk assessment indicator system and an international comparison of key indicators

CHENG Yanlin, LIU Zhipeng, DAI Tao
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (14): 26-33. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.14.004
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (2750 KB)  ( 9 )
Abstract ( 23 )
Based on the perspective of economic security and the theory of the patent value chain, an assessment system for a set of patent risk indicators is constructed in this paper, to measure the degree of risk encountered by a country or region in patent activities. 4 key indicators of patent basic activities are identified, namely, the patent quality level, the patent transformation ability, the patent dispute risk index, and the patent trade level, and a comparative analysis is carried out among the United States, Japan, South Korea, Germany and China. In conclusion, China's patent development during the years from 2006 to 2015 is "fast but not in a high level", "big but not powerful". Compared with other patent powerful countries, China is not dominant and even in serious risks in the patent value chain of the key nodes in the competition, especially the increasing patent royalty deficit, which poses a certain degree of danger.

National scientific research competitiveness evaluation: A case study of basic medical disciplines in OECD countries

SONG Yaoyao, LI Bi, WANG Xue, YANG Guoliang
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (14): 34-43. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.14.005
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (2256 KB)  ( 10 )
Abstract ( 19 )
The evaluation of the national scientific research competitiveness is of great significance to determine the developmental direction of the national scientific research and to guide the development of universities and departments of the government. This paper uses a hybrid weighting method based on the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure the national scientific research competitiveness index of basic medical disciplines of OECD countries and analyses the competitiveness of different countries and their rankings. The results show that the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan and France have the highest competitiveness index among 28 OECD countries in the field of basic medical disciplines. In addition, the competitiveness of Finland, Greece, New Zealand and Portugal sees a great volatility, but the rest of the OECD countries are in a stable level. From a regional perspective, North America, Northern Europe and Western Europe have higher average scientific research competitiveness index, while Southern and Central Europe are on the low side. Therefore, OECD countries should strengthen their scientific research cooperation, learn from each other. OECD countries with low competitiveness should catch up with the countries with high competitiveness to promote a rapid development and to reach a balance in the regional science and education development.

Selection of interdisciplinary priority areas of the United States National Research Council and some food for thought: A case study of marine science

LIU Huihui, YANG Ming, SUN Li, YANG Guoliang
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (14): 44-50. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.14.006
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (3688 KB)  ( 19 )
Abstract ( 38 )
The selection of interdisciplinary priority areas is of great significance for the government to formulate relevant development plans and resource allocation adjustments. At present, China pays not enough attention to the selection of interdisciplinary priority area. This paper analyzes the selection practice of the interdisciplinary priority area in marine science in the National Research Council (NRC). With a brief introduction of the NRC working mechanism, this paper investigates the selection process of the NRC's interdisciplinary priority area and explores its implications for the selection of interdisciplinary priority areas in China.
Reviews

Development and change of research and market in the field of genetically modified mouse in China in recent 20 years

MA Ning, LI Zhenghua, SHI Ji, QIAO Yu, WANG Dayong, GAO Xu
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (14): 51-58. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.14.007
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (1201 KB)  ( 22 )
Abstract ( 74 )
Experimental zoology in China began to develop in the early 1980s. With the rapid development of China's reform and opening up, China's experimental animal science and industry have entered the regular development stage. Genetically modified mice, as an important part of experimental animals, have developed rapidly in China in the past two decades, and have been successively applied in life science and basic medical research, antibody drug evaluation, antibody drug research development and other transformation applications. This review is to expound the development situation of genetically modified mice through the classified statistics and research methods on the six aspects including national investment, institution construction, market development, academic exchange, work focus and achievement accumulation. Finally, this review summarizes the standard establishment process and research development of genetically modified mice in China in the past two decades.

Research progress and key problems of rainfall slope experiment

LI Rongjian, BAI Weishi, WANG Zhijun, PAN Junyi, SUN Ping, HUO Xuting
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (14): 59-65. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.14.008
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (808 KB)  ( 54 )
Abstract ( 33 )
The occurrence of landslide is closely related to rainfall, which can not only change the water distribution of slope soil but also reduce the strength of soil, and may become the main factor to trigger the failure of slope. Aimed at slope stability analysis under rainfall infiltration, the mechanism of the landslide is analyzed based on the indoor slope rainfall model tests and the slope field rainfall tests, with focuses on rainfall condition, research ideas, test methods and test techniques of indoor slope model tests and slope field tests. The advantages and disadvantages of current indoor slope rainfall model tests and slope field rainfall tests are discussed, the key problems of the indoor slope rainfall model tests and slope field tests are addressed, and the future developments of the indoor slope rainfall model tests and slope field tests are prospected.
Papers

The safety supervision of unmanned aircraft systems in China

JIN Wei, SHANG Yong
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (14): 66-77. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.14.009
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (2251 KB)  ( 35 )
Abstract ( 34 )
With the vigorous development of Unmanned Aircraft Systems(UAS), it becomes necessary and urgent to speed up the relevant legislation and strengthen the UAS safety supervision. This paper studies the existing laws and regulations related with the UAS in China, analyses various management measures and policies, as well as the problems for the UAS supervision, and based on the mainstream practices and experiences of foreign countries, we suggest that the UAS safety supervision in China should focus on the key links of "manmachine-environment", establish a unified control platform at the national level, speed up the formulation of relevant regulations and standards. standardize the use of anti-UAS equipment, and promote and improve the safety supervision system of the UAS in China by means of safety testing and pilot publicity.

Variations of research directions of atmospheric sciences in the German-speaking regions in the past 47 years

XU Jingwei, ZHI Xiefei, XU Min
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (14): 78-85. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.14.010
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (1615 KB)  ( 13 )
Abstract ( 21 )
In order to better understand the development of atmospheric sciences in the world and provide a guidance for the optimization and the adjustment of the course setting for atmospheric sciences for universities and colleges in China, this paper collects over 7000 graduation theses on atmospheric sciences in the German-speaking regions from 1969 to 2015, and analyzes the variations of the number of theses in each year, and explores the reasons for the rapid growth of the number of theses. It is shown that the number of theses on the atmospheric sciences in the German-speaking regions see obvious phases during the past 47 years, which can be roughly divided into three periods:the slow growth period, the rapid growth period, and the accelerated growth period. The growth rate of the first two periods is mainly related to the population growth, the growth rate in the third period is closely related to the social needs and the technological innovation. With the refining of the research directions in the atmospheric science field, since the 1990s, the differences between the proportions of different research directions are narrowed, as compared with those in the 1970s and the 1980s; in the past 47 years, the five research directions with the highest proportions among the 27 research directions are the atmospheric sounding, the applied meteorology, the climate and climate change, the atmospheric physics, and the dynamic meteorology, where the growth rate of the number of theses on applied meteorology is the highest, especially in the past 20 years, which means that the interdiscipline researches of atmospheric sciences and other industries are booming, and this trend will be further strengthened with the increasing social demand.

Torsional shear property and algorithm of failure stress in joint strength of structural loess

LUO Jianwen, LI Rongjian, WANG Zhijun, ZHU Qiaochuan, DU Zhiwei, YAN Rui
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (14): 86-92. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.14.011
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (2470 KB)  ( 50 )
Abstract ( 50 )
There are a large number of steep loess slopes in the northwestern region of China. The loess structure would be greatly reduced by rainfall or disturbance, which may lead to the occurrence of landslides. Therefore, it is of great theoretical significance to carry out the researches on torsional shear strength test and tensile strength test of structural loess. In this paper, firstly, the failure characteristics of structural loess are analyzed using a newly developed test device for torsion shear test. Secondly, based on the results of torsional shear test, the joint strength formula which can comprehensively consider the tensile and shear properties of structural loess is validated. Finally, an algorithm of calculating failure stress is derived based on the joint strength. The results show that the failure torques of intact loess and remolded loess gradually decrease with the increase of water content, and the failure torque of intact loess is greater than that of remolded loess. In the torsional shear test, the failure stress circle is tangent to the joint strength failure line, which verifies that the joint strength formula has a reasonable experimental basis. The joint strength and the derived algorithm of calculating failure stress can provide a more realistic way for the evaluation of loess slope disasters.

The protective effect of Angelica keiskei chalcones on the damage of HaCaT cells induced by ultraviolet B

LI Lei, KONG Hangru, ZHONG Wenwen
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (14): 93-99. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.14.012
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (839 KB)  ( 8 )
Abstract ( 38 )
The protective effect of Angelica keiskei chalcones on the damage of HaCaT cells induced by ultraviolet B(UVB) is investigated.. HaCaT cell with oxidative damage induced by ultraviolet B is incubated with Angelica keiskei chalcones at concentrations of 20 μmol/L, 10 μmol/L and 5 μmol/L for 24 h. The cell viability as well as the apoptosis rate are determined by MTT method and flow cytometer, respectively. The MDA content of cells and activities of SOD, CAT and Caspase-3 are determined by kit method. The mRNA expression of BCL-2 and Bax is evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Compared with the normal control, the cell viability, SOD, CAT activity and the expression level of BCL-2 mRNA in the irradiation model group are decreased while the MDA content, apoptosis rate, Caspase-3 activity and Bax mRNA are increased. The viability, SOD, CAT activity and BCL-2 mRNA expression of cells incubated with 20 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L are increased while the apoptosis rate, Caspase-3 activity and Bax mRNA expression are decreased, compared with the irradiation model group. All the differences are significant (P<0.05). Angelica keiskei chalcones may protect HaCaT cells from oxidative damage and decrease apoptosis rate by regulating the mRNA expression of BCL-2 and Bax.
Science and Technology Fund

Clair C. Patterson: Discoverer of the age of the Earth

SHEN Yulong
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (14): 100-104. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.14.013
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (838 KB)  ( 14 )
Abstract ( 26 )
Clair Cameron Patterson was an American geochemist. By using lead isotopic data from the Canyon Diablo meteorite, Patterson calculated the age of the Earth:4.55 billion years, a figure far more accurate than those suggested at the time, and this figure has remained largely unchallenged since 1956. Patterson had first encountered the lead contamination in the late 1940s. His work on this subject led to a total re-evaluation of the growth in industrial lead concentrations in the atmosphere and the human body, and his subsequent campaigning was seminal in the banning of tetraethyllead in gasoline. This paper introduces Patterson's life experiences and scientific achievements, especially the process of his scientific exploration.

Copyright © Editorial office of Science & Technology Review
Tel: +86-10-62138113 Fax: +86-10-62138113 E-mail: jdbbjb@cast.org.cn
京ICP备14028469号-1