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   Science & Technology Review
2022, Vol.40, No. 24
28 December 2022

Reviews

Foreword
Papers
Science and Technology Humanities
Special to S&T Review
Suggestions
Exclusive:Energy Strategy
Appendix
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Hot!

Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (24): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 84 )
Foreword

Much to explore beyond molecule

TANG Benzhong
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (24): 1-4.
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Abstract ( 57 )
Special to S&T Review

Reducing carbon emissions by recycling bulk materials: Potentials and pathways

SONG Lulu, XIONG Xiaoping, CHEN Weiqiang
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (24): 5-13. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.24.001
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Abstract ( 24 )
The recycling of renewable resources is a feasible, cost-controllable, replicable and popularizable carbon emission reduction scheme, which is a strong support for achieving sustainable development and carbon neutrality. In view of the lack of quantitative assessment of carbon emission reduction potential of renewable resources recycling, this study evaluates the recycling potential of bulk material resources, including cement, sand, gravel, brick, lime, glass, rubber, wood, plastics, asphalt, steel, aluminum and copper. In particular, the carbon emission reduction path and carbon neutralization potential of the steel and cement industries with "high energy consumption, high emission and high output" were sorted out and quantitatively assessed. The calculation results show that the demand for bulk material resources will continue to decrease after reaching the peak around 2025, and the amount of scrapped material resources will increase after 2030. The amount of scrapped material resources will reach about 5.46 billion tons per year in 2060, and the proportion of construction waste will be as high as 90% and concentrated in the southeastern coastal provinces. From 2019 to 2060, the reduction of demand for bulk material resources has led to the continuous reduction of carbon emissions. If the circular economy strategies are coordinated, the CO2 emissions in 2060 will be reduced to 430 million tons per year, 77% lower than the emission level in 2018. Among them, the recycling of scrap metals, especially scrap iron and steel, has the greatest potential for CO2 emission reduction. If the recycling rate of scrap iron and steel is increased to more than 90% in 2060, the carbon emissions of the iron and steel industry in 2018 will be reduced by 90%, and the carbon emissions will be reduced by 440 million tons. In contrast, due to the limitation of recycling technology and product recycling value, cement production can only achieve CO2 emission reduction by improving resource efficiency and prolonging product service life. Finally, this study describes the resource recycling policies, models and technologies that need to be deployed during the "14th Five-Year Plan" period as the key period and window period to promote the recycling of renewable resources. Our study provides important support for the realization of carbon neutrality goals.
Suggestions

Exploration and practice of constructing transformational associations for science and technology

XIE Zhiyuan
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (24): 14-19. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.24.002
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Abstract ( 23 )
As bridges and ties between the Party or the Government and the workers in science & technology, associations for science and technology should strengthen their self-improvement under the guidance of the General Secretary Xi Jinping's important expositions and requirements on mass organizations and scientific and technological innovation, taking "politics, progressiveness, and mass-oriented" as the fundamental attributes and requirements. Considering the features of the mass groups in the new era, the corresponding development law, and the attributes of the association for science and technology, the requirements on the development and construction of the association for science and technology is clarified under the guidance of the mass organizations reform principles, and the development orientation of the association for science and technology in strengthening high-level scientific and technological self-reliance and self-improvement is determined. Considering the "Four Aspects" development requirements and the "Four Services" construction standards, and aiming at the construction of an open, hub-like, and platform-based transformational organization, it is proposed to construct the association for science and technology as a“red” , practical, people-serving, intelligent and branded organization.
Exclusive:Energy Strategy

Research on development strategy of China nuclear energy modernization

YE Qizhen, SU Gang, HUANG Wen, YANG Yong, ZHANG Donghui
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (24): 20-30. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.24.003
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Abstract ( 31 )
Breakthroughs have been made in the development of China's independent third generation nuclear power brand and innovation of advanced nuclear energy systems has been steadily and continuously promoted. The strategic role of nuclear energy in supporting China's clean and low-carbon energy transformation and overall innovative development has been fully demonstrated. Faced with the major strategic decisions made by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on China's energy development in the medium and long term, with a view to 2035, the nuclear energy industry should further utilize its own advantages to meet economic and social development and its energy supply needs, to build a clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient energy system and to build a new power system with new energy as the main body ("two constructions"), effectively benchmarking the global technology development trend, actively responding to the complex international situation, adopting a strategic scenario study, and proposing the symbol & path suggestion of the modernization of nuclear energy industry. Focusing on the analysis of the development trends of the industry in terms of realizing zero-carbon scale development, nuclear energy leading scientific and technological innovation, realizing nuclear fuel closed cycle and long term development, the strategic goals of nuclear energy modernization development are put forward. Meanwhile, development scenarios are forecast in such fields as safe and stable operation of new power system, diversification of nuclear energy supply system for ensuring urbanization, energy efficiency improvement in the field of energy consumption assisted by nuclear energy process heat, hydrogen production from nuclear energy and the construction of low-carbon hybrid energy system for promoting the transformation from energy to resources, and it is proposed to spend about 15 years to realize the modernization of nuclear energy, in a long period of time to support the realization of the "emission peak & carbon neutrality" goal.

Opportunity and challenge of the Regional and Global Energy Interconnection Initiative under the cooperation mechanism of the Clean Energy Ministerial

ZHU Zheng, LI Shuaihu
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (24): 31-37. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.24.004
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Abstract ( 23 )
The Clean Energy Ministerial is currently the highest-level intergovernmental multilateral international cooperation mechanism in the field of clean energy in the world. As one of the founding member states, China has actively participated in international multilateral cooperation in the field of clean energy and takes the lead in initiating the regional and global energy interconnection initiative. Based on the experience of the role as a coordinator of the Regional and Global Energy Interconnection Initiative, this paper fully participates in the international cooperation in the fields of clean energy development and regional power grid interconnection, analyzes the significance of power grid interconnection in promoting clean energy consumption, studies the opportunities and challenges of the Regional and Global Energy Interconnection initiative under the international multilateral cooperation mechanism, and puts forward relevant policy recommendations which has been recognized by the Secretariat of the Clean Energy Ministerial, and provides reference for the governments and partners to promote power grid interconnection.

Hydrogen energy industry standardization system: Comparison and insights from China and abroad

ZHANG Can, ZHANG Mingzhen
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (24): 38-49. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.24.005
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Abstract ( 24 )
Under the goal of "emission peak and carbon neutrality", the hydrogen energy industry with standardization and orderly development is an important part of China's energy structure in the new era and new stage, and how to build a standardization system to ensure the high-quality development of China's hydrogen energy industry is a subject worthy of deep consideration. This paper firstly discusses the significance of hydrogen energy standardization in guiding industrial development, reducing trade barriers and enhancing industrial competitiveness, etc. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) are the most important international standardization organizations for hydrogen energy, the European Union is making every effort to build a regional standard system for hydrogen energy, the United States has the most complete industrial standard system for hydrogen energy, and the construction of Japan's standard system for hydrogen energy safety is worthy of our reference. Meanwhile, there are also problems such as insufficient market foresight and feasibility, lack of standards in subdivided fields, imperfect coordination mechanism of standardization groups, and limited participation in formulating international standards. By comparing the standardization system of hydrogen energy industry in China and abroad, the study provides inspiration and reference for the development of standardization of hydrogen energy industry in China.

Research status of solar collector types and their thermal performance enhancement technologies

LI Guozhu, WANG Shuai, HUANG Kailiang, LI Huixing, FENG Guohui, WANG Qingqin, SUN Zixuan, CUI Meihua
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (24): 50-63. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.24.006
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Abstract ( 30 )
Solar collectors are the core of solar heat utilization technologies, and the thermal performance and heat collecting efficiency determines the development and popularization of solar utilization technologies. In this paper, the typical methods and application areas of solar thermal utilization are summarized, the heat collecting principles and type structures of solar collectors are described and analyzed. To improve the thermal performance of solar collectors, the latest research progress and technology trends of some specific aspect are systematically summarized, including solar collector structure optimization, new collector absorption materials, phase change energy storage technology integrated into solar collector, and solar thermal concentrating technology. Furthermore, the shortages of the current research are also pointed out and the prospects for the future research are provided.

Study on the initial sensitivity of prompt response self-powered neutron detector in Nuclear Reactor

WU Xiong, CAI Li, ZHANG Xiangju, LU Haoliang, JIANG Jieqiong
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (24): 64-71. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.24.007
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Abstract ( 16 )
In this paper, the prototype with Cobalt-59 emitter as a representative of instantaneous SPND was developed and modeled to calculate its initial sensitivity. This calculation model is based on Monte Carlo method of multi-particle coupling transportation. And some important details, such as the physical characteristics of cobalt SPND, the generation of signal current, were discussed thoroughly. The research results from this model are compared with experimental results by using gold foilactivation methods and show a very good agreement. The maximum relative error is not greater than 5%. It demonstrated that this method can be successfully applied in SPND calculation and better than determinism method.
Reviews

55 years after pulsar discovery: Future of FAST telescope

ZHANG Chengmin, CUI Xianghan, WANG Dehua, YANG Yiyan, ZHANG Jianwei, YU Jing, SUN Yihong, WANG Shuangqiang, WU Qingdong, PAN Yuanyue, ZHOU Shiqi, YE Changqing
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (24): 72-77. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.24.008
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Abstract ( 30 )
Pulsars discovery is one of the important milestones in human understanding of the universe. In this paper, we briefly introduce the pulsar research of recent 55 years, including the verification of gravitational waves and general relativity, the findings of millisecond pulsars, pulsar periodic jumps, pulsar radio radiation efficiency, fast radio bursts and extragalactic pulsars. we look forward to the potential of the Chinese FAST telescope for the discovery of new types of special pulsars in the future, including black hole pulsar, sub-millisecond pulsar, and new double pulsar systems, which will lead to more accurate validation of gravitational wave experiments; the fine structure of pulsar radiation is also studied by FAST with high sensitivity and high precision, and the physical mechanism of pulsar radiation will be deeply understood.
Papers

Research on topological characteristics of special equipment safety accidents time series

JIN Lianghai, XIA Lu, CHEN Shu, SHAO Bo, LIU Jia, FAN Ling, YAN Yuerong
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (24): 78-84. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.24.009
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Abstract ( 36 )
In order to reveal the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the time series of special equipment safety accidents, taking the time series of different types of special equipment safety accidents in China from 2005 to 2020 as the research object, the visualization method was used to convert the time series of special equipment safety accidents into a topology network diagram to generate a topology network structural model; using topological network theory to analyze topological network characteristic parameters such as node degree, network density, weighted clustering coefficient, power law index, betweenness centrality, etc., the time series law of special equipment accidents was mined. The results show that: The topological networks of various special equipment safety accident time series have small-world characteristics and scale-free characteristics; the clustering coefficients of the topological networks are all large, and the community structure is obvious; the node with greater betweenness centrality corresponds to the corresponding year, the greater the probability of an accident. The topology network analysis method used in this paper can more concisely and intuitively display the topology network structure of the time series of special equipment safety accidents, and more comprehensively characterize the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the time series of special equipment safety accidents, which can provide a theoretical basis for the prediction of special equipment safety accidents.

Scientific and technological innovation, Industrial structure upgrading and common prosperity: Theoretical construction and empirical analysis——A case study of Zhejiang Province

LI Chunlin, PAN Fanfan, HE Yixiong, CHEN Junqi, ZHANG Mingya
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (24): 85-93. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.24.010
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Abstract ( 31 )
From the perspective of science and technology innovation, the research path of "science and technology innovationindustrial structure upgrading-common prosperity" is established. The intermediary effect model is used to explore the internal relationship between science and technology innovation and common prosperity and the path mechanism of industrial structure upgrading in the process of science and technology innovation promoting common prosperity. The following conclusions are drawn: (1) the common prosperity degree of Zhejiang Province increases with the improvement of scientific and technological innovation level; (2) industrial structure upgrading in Zhejiang Province not only has a positive impact on common prosperity, but also plays an intermediary role in the process of scientific and technological innovation promoting common prosperity, showing the transmission path of "scientific and technological innovation-industrial structure upgrading-common prosperity"; The mediating effect between industrial structure upgrading and technological innovation and common prosperity is 5.7%; (3) the level of government participation is an important factor affecting common prosperity. Based on the above conclusions, it is believed that we should attach great importance to and give full play to the leading role of scientific and technological innovation in the process of achieving common prosperity, and maximize the effect of scientific and technological innovation in promoting common prosperity through the intermediary role of industrial structure upgrading. Meanwhile, it is emphasized that we should give better play to the regulatory role of government intervention.
Science and Technology Humanities

Zhu Kezhen's spiritual code for building meteorological observatory network in China

FU Banghong, GUO Qing
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (24): 94-100. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.24.011
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Abstract ( 38 )
This paper reviews Zhu Kezhen's role in building China's meteorological network and discusses the scientist's spirit that he displayed in the process. The analysis shows that as the founder of Chinese meteorology, Zhu Kezhen not only led the development of Chinese meteorology, but also infused the Chinese meteorological community with the spiritual motivation of serving the country with loyalty, working with diligence and precise, integrating leniency and strictness, seeking truth and dedicating to the common cause.
Appendix

General Contents of Science & Technology Review in 2022, vol.40

Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (24): 101-116.
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Abstract ( 34 )

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