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   Science & Technology Review
2019, Vol.37, No. 22
28 November 2019

Focus

Foreword
Papers
Science and Technology Humanities
Review
Exclusive: Rehabilitation technical aids and engineering
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Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 46 )
Foreword

Opportunity, challenge, and urgent effort for the growth of Chinese astronomy studies

WANG Jingxiu
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 18 )
Exclusive: Rehabilitation technical aids and engineering

Innovation of rehabilitation and assistive technology

FAN Yubo
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 6-7. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.22.001
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Abstract ( 14 )

Research progress of rehabilitation training assistive technology

LI Zengyong, XIE Hui, XU Gongcheng, HUO Congcong, MA Lifang, FAN Yubo
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 8-18. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.22.002
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Abstract ( 18 )
The rehabilitation training is a necessary treatment for the patients with stroke or other neuromuscular injuries. This paper reviews the researches of the rehabilitation training aids and the related assistive technologies at home and abroad, focusing on the rehabilitation training assistive technology in detection, rehabilitation training and treatment from the aspects of the rehabilitation function evaluation technology, the wearable technology, the neuroscience, the virtual reality and the multimodal control technology.

Application of wearable gait-assist technology in the fields of rehabilitation and elderly care

TAO Shuai, Lü Zeping, XIE Haiqun
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 19-25. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.22.003
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Abstract ( 18 )
The gait is one part of an individual's specific biological information, in the fields of medical health, athletic performance and biometrics. The wearable gait detecting system is a comprehensive system integrating hardware, software, data processing analysis and gait algorithm, and is easy to operate and to acquire the gait information of the subject in real-time and with high precision. It can be effectively used in the evaluation of the rehabilitation, the abnormal gait monitoring and the early warning of the elderly in line with the needs of the rehabilitation and pension field in the context of our aging society. With the accumulation of the gait data and the establishment of disease prediction models in different disease cohort studies, the gait detection and evaluation will find more important applications with broad application prospects in the field of the rehabilitation and the elderly care service.

Sensory interaction and control strategy in rehabilitation robot with active training

LIANG Wenyuan, BI Sheng
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 26-36. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.22.004
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Abstract ( 15 )
At present, there is a great demand for the rehabilitation training in China. For the patients of disability, the rehabilitation training is the main way for the functional recovery. Compared to the passive training, the rehabilitation robot with active training can induce and encourage the patients to actively participate in the rehabilitation training process, and then achieve a better long-term training effect. In this paper, the rehabilitation robot with active training is presented in the following four parts:the assistive technology, the sensory interaction, the control strategy, and the development tendency. In order to make the training system comfortable for the user, the system should be designed based on the human-centered prospective. The personalized modeling with a movement intention, could improve the control accuracy in the human-machine interaction. Finally, the most important key is to induce the patients to participate in the training actively in order to improve the neural stimulation training effect.

Intelligent walkers for disabled: Current state and future perspective

TAO Chunjing, YAN Qingyang, MA Lifang, HUANG Jian
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 37-50. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.22.005
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Abstract ( 13 )
China is facing the serious problem of a huge number of disabled people. The intelligent walkers can help the disabled to walk more easily and freely, improve the quality of life of the disabled, and effectively ease the conflict between the single traditional walker function and the diverse patient needs. The intelligent walkers are expected to provide a solution to solve some social problems such as the walking-aids for the disabled. This paper reviews the related researches of intelligent walkers that provide the mobility services for disabled people. This paper also reviews the senses, the interactions and the controls as well as the safety of the intelligent walkers. At the end of the paper, the development of the intelligent walker by combining new materials and artificial intelligence is discussed.

Advances in intelligent technology of paraplegic walking orthosis

ZHANG Xiaoyu
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 51-59. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.22.006
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Abstract ( 10 )
The paraplegic walking orthosis is a kind of orthosis being used to assist the paraplegic patients standing and walking. The intelligent paraplegic walking orthosis is a special functional intelligent walking accessory based on the walking robot technology. A combination of the robotics, the biology, and the rehabilitation engineering assists the patients with the thoracolumbar spinal cord injury to stand, walk, and climb stairs like the normal people. This paper reviews the research progress and the representative research results of the paraplegic walking robot at home and abroad, including its basic components, technical characteristics and existing problems, as well as its future development.

Biomechanics of orthoses of the foot and ankle

WANG Yan, ZHANG Ming
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 60-68. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.22.007
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Abstract ( 14 )
The foot is the most fundamental part of the human body for providing the body support, absorpting the impact and acting with the environment for propelling during movement. The ankle joint serves as a critical connection between the foot and the upper body. The problems in the foot and ankle will cause pain and weaken the functions of certain parts, and potentially result in further negative consequences to the lower limb, the pelvis even the spine. The orthoses of the foot and ankle, including the insoles, the braces, the arch supports and the ankle-foot orthoses, are used as non-surgical treatments to relieve pain, and compensate or retrieve functions. The foot orthoses could redistribute the plantar pressure distribution and realign the segments of the foot and ankle. The changes in the foot and ankle possibly will lead to biomechanical deviations in the upper body. It is critical to enhance the knowledge of the biomechanical consequences for the estimation of the efficiency and the optimization of the design of the foot ankle orthoses.

Advances in technical aids for diabetic foot

REN Weiyan, PU Fang, FAN Yubo
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 69-77. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.22.008
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Abstract ( 14 )
The diabetic foot is one of the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus. A well-designed footwear can effectively relieve the plantar pressure and optimize the pressure redistribution, to reduce the incidence of foot ulcers and amputation, and improve the health of the foot tissue and the quality of life in diabetics. This paper reviews the pre-clinical diagnosis of the diabetic foot, the design principles and the manufacturing technology of the diabetic foot orthoses, and related clinical effects. It is found that the current diabetic foot orthoses are mainly designed for optimizing the distribution of the plantar pressure, but without a proper physiological evaluation and an active protection, which should be considered in the further design of intelligent technical aids for the diabetic foot.

Technologies and applications of tactile sensory feedback of neural prosthetic hand

HAO Manzhao, LAN Ning
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 78-86. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.22.009
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Abstract ( 18 )
The neural prosthesis is an important aid that helps patients of physical disability to restore the functions of the limbs, so as to improve the quality of life. However, the motor control of the current prosthetic devices is still highly dependent on the visual feedback of the user, due to the lack of the perceptual feedback (tactile, proprioception, temperature, pain, etc.). Even through a long period of training, it is difficult for the user to achieve a fine and skillful manipulation of the prosthetic device, with a high rate of abandonment, or rejection of the device, especially, the prosthetic hands. Restoring sensory function for the prosthetic hand is essential and has become one of the major challenges in the field of the neurorehabilitation engineering and the medical robotics. Several neural technologies were developed to allow the restoration of the sensory ability, with sensory feedback technologies being applied to patients with the amputation and the spinal cord injury. A breakthrough of improvement in the functionality and the embodiment of the prosthetic hands is shown. This paper reviews the neural basis of the sensory function, the different types of neural technologies and their applications, as well as the latest developments in the sensory neural prosthesis technologies.

Clinical application of scoliosis orthosis

TAO Jing, HU Jun, ZHAO Liwei
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 87-93. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.22.010
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Abstract ( 15 )
The orthosis is the most effective method to treat the scoliosis without causing trauma when the patient is still in the stage of growth and development. With the clinical application of the scoliosis orthotics in the National Research Center for Rehabilitation Technical Aids in the past two years, 54 patients wearing the scoliosis orthotics are selected to analyze the correction effect and the value of the clinical application of the scoliosis orthotics in the conservative treatment of the scoliosis.
Review

The evolution of the urban resilience concept, and its research contents and development trend

ZANG Xinyu, WANG Qiao
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 94-104. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.22.011
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Abstract ( 18 )
In the concept of the urban resilience, the whole urban is taken as the object and with the main target of enhancing the ability of maintaining its function against various disturbances. Constructing a resilient city is an effective way to ensure its healthy and sustainable development. This paper reviews the studies of the urban resilience, including its concepts and properties; On the basic issues of the resilience (the concepts, the definitions and the features), some consensus is reached gradually, with the research emphasis shifting to three aspects of the theme, including the theoretical framework, the evaluation index and the promotion strategy. In view of the practical situation of the Chinese cities, it is suggested that the studies of the resilience should be extended in its breadth and depth, with the feature and the tendency in three levels (systematism, effectiveness and institutional).

Current status and tomorrow of mycelium based plastics

WAN Jie, YIN Qingyang, WENG Duan
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 105-112. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.22.012
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Abstract ( 10 )
Mycelium based plastic shows advantages of being low cost, eco-friendly, safe, inert and renewable, and therefore has the potential to replace polystyrene for a wide variety of applications such as packaging, construction, and transportation. This paper reviews the achievement and current status of the technology based on mushroom cultivation for mycelium based plastics. Synthesis process, property advantages, major applications and industrialization progresses are also briefed. Prospects of both technology and application are discussed in the end.

Research trend of worldwide lung cancer during recent 40 years based on bibliometric analysis

XU Zhiyong, DONG Zhiqiang
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 113-125. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.22.013
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Abstract ( 14 )
The present study analyzes the worldwide research status and the development trend of the lung cancer based on papers published in SCI-indexed journals, with bibliometric analysis of the data from the SCI-E database of the WoS during 1979-2018 to assess the research situations of the lung cancer based on the number of articles, the year of publication, the countries, the institutes, the sources of journals, the discipline fields and the highly cited papers in ESI. There are 178694 published papers in total. It is indicated that the number of yearly published articles shows an overall upward trend all over the world. Among all countries, the top 10 countries are the USA, China, Japan, Italy, Germany, England, France, Canada, South Korea, and Netherlands. Harvard University of the USA has obvious advantages on the research of the lung cancer. Worldwide research activities in the field of the lung cancer show the characteristics of an interdisciplinary development. The rank of the journals, institutes and highly cited papers are overwhelmingly dominated by those from the USA. Shanghai Jiaotong University is the only institute in China in the top 10 publishing institutes. In recent years, the number of lung cancer articles from China published in SCI-indexed journals has been increased dramatically and has ranked the 2nd in the world, but the quality of articles is not as good as the quantity. The research of the lung cancer in China should be closely integrated with the clinical application.
Papers

Design knowledge cloud service platform based on distributed resource environment

MA Xuefen, DAI Xudong
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 126-132. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.22.014
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Abstract ( 9 )
A knowledge service resource platform for the product design based on the cloud service and the Internet is developed in order to effectively solve the technical problems in the product design under a distributed resource environment. The knowledge service process, and the architecture and the function of the resource platform are designed according to the characteristics of the modern product design and knowledge service. The resource platform is constructed by using JAVA, J2EE and HTTP/Web Service/JSON technologies. It is composed of the basic support layer, the service platform layer, the function layer and the user layer. Its main functions include the user function, the management function, the IOS/Android access function and the Third-Party platform entry function. With the technical service of the "sliding bearing wear test" as an example, the whole application process of the resource platform is introduced. The application results for two years show that the design knowledge service resource platform based on the cloud service in a distributed resource environment has a remarkable reliability and is of practical value.

Accounting of construction CO2 footprint and its mechanism analysis based on PB-LCA in Hunan province

ZHANG Wang
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 133-142. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.22.015
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Abstract ( 14 )
Based on PB-LCA method, taking typical hot summer and cold winter areas of Hunan province as an example, this paper sets up a macro-construction CO2 footprint model at the provincial level, quantitatively measures and compares CO2 footprints and their changes in each stage of the construction during 2004-2016, and uses geographical detector technology to analyze the influence mechanism of construction CO2 footprint. Main conclusion is as follows. The construction CO2 footprint was the trend of the overall fluctuating growth; building materials preparation and construction operations were the two major stages of the construction CO2 footprint, while the CO2 footprint of construction and construction demolition stage was relatively small; the CO2 footprint of building materials preparation stage mainly came from steel and cement, and the CO2 footprint of public buildings was on the rise. But the CO2 footprint of residential buildings had a tendency of fluctuating drop. The construction development degree, energy structure and tertiary industry proportion were the three main influencing factors of construction CO 2 footprint. Thus, reducing consumption of building materials, especially steel and cement, reducing the proportion of coal consumption during construction and construction operation, and implementing limits of energy consumption and CO2 emission on public buildings are the main technical directions of energy-saving and CO2 reduction in construction.
Focus

Inheritance, challenge and countermeasure of scientific spirit

Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 143-148.
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Abstract ( 10 )
Science and Technology Humanities

de Broglie and his pilot-wave theory

CHEN Guanrong
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (22): 149-152. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.22.016
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Abstract ( 14 )
This paper gives a profile of the physicist Louis de Broglie (1892-1987) with regard to his academic life and scientific contributions, especially the past and the present developments of his pilot-wave theory.

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