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   Science & Technology Review
2022, Vol.40, No. 12
28 June 2022

Reviews

Foreword
Papers
Science and Technology Humanities
Special to S&T Review
Exclusive:Organoids
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Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (12): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 170 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (12): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 254 )
Special to S&T Review

Progress of scientific research and application progress of the International Space Station in 2021

HAN Lin, WANG Haiming, FAN Weiwei, LI Chao, LI Guopeng, YANG Fan
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (12): 5-12. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.12.001
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Abstract ( 123 )
This paper reviews the latest scientific research and application activities of the International Space Station (ISS), to provide a reference for the scientific planning of China's space station, with the overall situation of scientific research and application activities of the ISS from October 2020 to October 2021 considered in six categories, including the technology development and demonstration, the physical science, the biology and biotechnology, the educational and cultural activities, the human research, and the earth and space science, focusing on the new experiments and achievements to reflect the scientific research and application progress during this period. It is shown that, the large-scale research and application activities are continued on the ISS in 2021, with the U.S., Japanese, European and Canadian space agencies supporting 313 experiments in six categories, including more than 40 percent of new experiments conducted on the ISS for the first time. Meanwhile, the ISS is at the peak of scientific research and application output, and all six categories continue to produce new highlight scientific results, such as the discovery that the biomining is even more effective in the microgravity conditions and the observation of the Earth's blue jets, which has attracted a wide attention from the global science community.

History and prospect of organoids research

HE Kangxin, ZHANG Jingyu, QIAN Jingjing, LI Lanjuan
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (12): 13-27. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.12.002
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Abstract ( 132 )
The traditional monolayer cell cultures (cell lines) have been widely used, however, such models fail to recapitulate the cellular heterogeneity, the structure, and the functions of the primary tissues. The organoids, which are tiny, self-organized three-dimensional tissue cultures derived from the stem cells, possess the histological features and the physiological functions highly similar to those of the deriving organs. The patient-derived organoid models have excellent characteristics, such as the humanization, the personalization, the good simulation ability, and the self-organization. Recent research advances show that the organoid models have served as a promising tool in three scenarios, namely, the personalized drug response prediction, the new drug development, and the organoid biobank. The organoid technologies refer to a series of organoid model-related technologies that have a wide range of application prospects in various aspects, for instance, the developmental biology, the regenerative medicine, the disease research, the drug development, and the precision medicine, with high social and economic benefits at the same time. Therapeutic products developed based on the organoid techniques can help achieve precision medicine. Currently, the trends of the organoid technology are influenced by a combination of four factors, specifically, the demand and challenge drivers, the technology and knowledge drivers, the resource and factor drivers, and the ethical and regulatory constraints. This paper discusses the research history and the development trends, focusing on the advantages, the limitations, and the potential applications of organoid models and technologies.
Exclusive:Organoids

Modeling colorectal cancer with organoids: Clinical applications and challenges

LI Jingwei, CHEN Hao, SHA Weihong, XIONG Xia, ZHOU Jian
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (12): 28-41. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.12.003
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Abstract ( 80 )
The colorectal cancer is one of the most common digestive tract tumors globally, which seriously threatens the human health. In recent years, a gratifying progress has been made in the organoid culture technology, making the organoid technology an essential new tool for studying the colorectal cancer mechanisms and the clinical translation. This paper reviews the niche signaling pathways in the colorectal cancer, the application progress of the organoid technology in the colorectal cancer modeling, the tumor microenvironment research, the drug screening and the individualized therapy, as well as the current challenges of the organoid technology and the future development directions of the organoids from the perspectives of the organoid culture technology standardization and the engineering technology applications.

Applications of organoids-on-a-chip in disease models in vitro

WANG Li, LUO Shaman, ZHANG Miao, WEI Wenbo, QIU Junjun
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (12): 42-52. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.12.004
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Abstract ( 120 )
To gain a better insight into the mechanisms of the human disease calls for stable and reliable in vitro and in vivo models to reproduce the physiological and pathophysiological processes of human tissues and organs. Cellular and animal models provide critical tools for modeling the human condition, but due to the deficiencies of these methods, we may fail to comprehend the human diseases accurately. Organoids originate from the stem cells based on the cellular self-organization and development principles, and are similar to the native organs in structure and functions. However, most organoids can not mimic the functions of the mature organs due to lacking controllable biochemical and biophysical stimulations. Organ-on-a-Chip is an emerging cutting-edge technology in the last decade by culturing multiple cells on the microfluidic chips to model the physiological and pathological microenvironments of the organs veritably. This technology provides three dimensional microphysiological systems with the tissue-tissue interface and the multiple physicochemical stimulations. Organoid-on-a-Chips, the integration of the organoids with the organ-on-a-chip technology, provide a better biomimetic environment for the traditional organoid culture system and avoid the shortage of the conventional organoid technology. The organoid-on-a-Chip technology promises to be a potential in vitro disease model. In this review, we focus on the construction of disease models on the organoid-on-a-chip and the research advances in the disease mechanism. We also discuss the current obstacles and the future trend of this technology.

Self-powered technology and implantable cardiac electronic medical devices

WU Li, LUO Ruizeng, XUE Ziao, WU Yuxiang, LI Zhou
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (12): 53-65. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.12.005
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Abstract ( 94 )
As the main component of the human circulatory system, the cardiovascular system plays an important role in maintaining the normal life activities of the human body. Limited by the battery life of the traditional implantable cardiac electronic medical devices, it is difficult to achieve the long-term, uninterrupted monitoring and treatment. The newly developed self-powered technology solves this problem. In this paper, we review the types and the principles of the self-powered technology, and the application of the self-powered technology in the implantable cardiac electronic medical devices from three aspects: the energy supply, the sensing and the electrical stimulation. The development of the self-powered implantable cardiac electronic medical devices is discussed from the perspectives of the energy collection and storage management, the long-term biocompatibility of the implants, and the biological effects of the electrical stimulation.
Reviews

Research progress of non-thermal plasma desulfurization technology

XIA Shiyang, MA Wenxin, MI Junfeng, DU Shengnan, YANG Shuang, YU Jingshang
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (12): 66-72. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.12.006
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Abstract ( 82 )
Aiming at the effective treatment of SO2 gas with wide range, large displacement, and heavy pollution, the traditional desulfurization technology has economic and technical limitations, while non-thermal plasma technology has the advantages of high removal efficiency, and wide applicability for purifying polluted gases, and has received extensive attention and research.. The article introduces the research progress of three non-thermal plasma technologies removal of SO2 by electron beam, corona discharge, and dielectric barrier discharge. The technical mechanism and influencing factors are reviewed, and possible research trends of non-thermal plasma desulfurization technology are analyzed.

Development on smart pavement under the background of autonomous driving

GUO Runhua, LIU Siquan, ZHOU Jing
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (12): 73-89. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.12.007
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Abstract ( 103 )
This paper reviews the research progress and the development trend of the smart pavement in the context of the autonomous driving. Three key technologies of the smart pavement are identified to realize the cooperative interaction with the AVs, the self-navigation technology provides the location information for the AVs by embedding the vehicle navigation signs in the pavement; the self-sensing technology can recommend the safe speed for the AVs and reduce the traffic accidents through the perception and the analysis of the road weather information and the traffic flow information; and the self-charging technology involves problems of the high electromagnetic resistance and the thermal conductivity pavement materials and the new composite pavement structures, related with the feasibility of the charging system. Three advanced construction technologies of prefabricated pavement technology are discussed, the BIM and the 3D printing are used by the smart pavement to ensure the service life of the refined construction and the embedded components. Finally, it is pointed out that in addition to the key technical problems, the promotion of the intelligent pavement also faces social, economic, legal and environmental non-technical problems.

Brain-computer interface applications in education: Trends and challenges

CHEN Jingjing, WANG Fei, GAO Xiaorong, ZHANG Yu, LI Zhuoran, ZHANG Dan
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (12): 90-101. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.12.008
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Abstract ( 94 )
This paper reviews the technology and the concept of the brain-computer interface, from the three important technical features: the individualization, the real-time nature and the scenario-based property, as well as the research progresses in education from the three aspects: the learning state recognition, the individual learner trait assessment and the learning disability intervention. The problems of existing researches are then analyzed. Finally, the future application directions of the brain-computer interface are discussed in terms of understanding and optimizing the existing educational scenarios and creating new educational scenarios.

An analysis of US space nuclear power development trend

GONG You, WANG Xinyan, XIA Yun
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (12): 102-106. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.12.009
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Abstract ( 122 )
Because of its outstanding advantages, in major countries such as the United States (U.S.) and Russia, the space nuclear power becomes a key to building strong space-based capabilities and taking strategic advantages in space. Recently, the U.S. government has successively formulated strategies and policies on the development of the space nuclear power to ensure its leading position in the space competition. In order to accurately identify focuses and goals of the U.S. space nuclear power, this paper reviews the latest progress in the space nuclear power in the U.S. and analyzes the development trend to help the decision making of the space nuclear power in China. It is shown that the U.S. is accelerating the strategic deployment of the space militarization at the national level and is developing the space nuclear power as a national strategy. For the first time, the U.S. puts forward systematic and comprehensive policies, goals, principles, roadmaps for developing the space nuclear power, to establish a high-level organization and a coordination mechanism to ensure the effective implementation of relevant strategies and policies. The U.S. space nuclear power will achieve a rapid development based on its solid technical foundation and will provide a disruptive and powerful driving force for the construction and development of the U.S.
Papers

Spatial differentiation and comprehensive zoning of cultivated land function in Hebei province since 1996 to 2016

QIN Yanjie, LIU Xin, TANG Shoupu, WU Aibin, ZHAO Yanxia, SHEN Huitao
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (12): 107-117. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.12.010
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Abstract ( 114 )
Taking 147 counties in Hebei Province as the research target, the cultivated land function is evaluated. The dominant function coefficient and the Moran index are used to measure the evolution of the cultivated land dominant function and the spatial agglomeration characteristics, respectively. According to the characteristics of the dominant function and the spatial agglomeration of the cultivated land, the cultivated land function zones are divided. It is shown that: (1) The cultivated land function of Hebei province is evolved from a single one to a composite one from 1996 to 2016, in which the productive and ecological functions are strengthened and the social functions are weakened. (2) The spatial agglomeration degree of the cultivated land function in Hebei Province is high, and in an upward trend. In the space, the cultivated land functions show the high-value agglomeration with the production and ecological function distributed in the Southeast Plain Area and the social function distributed in the Northwest Mountainous Area. (3) The cultivated land of Hebei Province is divided into four functional areas: the production function advantage area, the ecological function advantage area, the social function advantage area and the function low value discrete area. In order to realize the multi-functional aim of the cultivated land, the management measures of the cultivated land should be implemented according to the principle of the leading function and the comprehensive benefits in different functional areas.

Clinical efficacy of different insulin regimens in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis

XI Tao, CHENG Zejun, XING Xinjun, GU Wei
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (12): 118-122. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.12.011
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Abstract ( 110 )
In this study, 50 DKA patients admitted in our hospital from May 2017 to May 2020 are included as the subjectsin this study, and they are divided into the Insulin Lispro group and the Insulin Aspart group. It is shown that there is no significant difference in the recovering time of the blood glucose, and the complication rates between the two groups (P>0.05); in the Lispro group, the fasting blood glucose and the postprandial 2 h blood glucose levels are lower than those in the Aspart group, and the recovery times of the negative urinary ketone and the bloody pH value are shorter than those in the Aspart group. It is suggested that the insulin Lispro has certain advantages in the treatment of the DKA, with higher speeds of controlling the blood glucose and correcting the DKA.

Legal regulation for medical application of gene editing technology

ZHU Bingqiang
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (12): 123-129. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.12.012
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Abstract ( 102 )
There are obvious deficiencies in the medical risk regulation and control of the gene editing technology through the civil law and the criminal law, and the reinforcement must be made by the administrative law. From the perspective of the constitutional theory of life, the medical application of the gene editing technology needs to be regulated and controlled through a scientific administrative approach. It is suggested to regulate the medical application of the gene editing technology by the scientific administration. To achieve this goal, the concept of the gene editing medical treatment needs to be defined scientifically; the technical rules on the regulation of the medical application of the gene editing technology need to be improved; the penalty provisions need to be set scientifically and fairly. In addition, it is necessary to improve the legislative level and to form a comprehensive, systematic and special technical regulations for the gene editing. In terms of the administrative supervision, it is suggested to give individual case permission under a comprehensive review. And we should strengthen the openness of the administrative supervision and reform the mechanism of the ethical review. As for the administrative justice, a fair administrative dispute resolution system for the gene editing is necessary with reasonable basic principles for the dispute adjudication, the appropriate methods of a balancing of interests, the people jury system and the experts as the witness play big roles in the system.
Science and Technology Humanities

Carrying forward the spirit of scientists in the new era

WEI Yonglian, WAN Jinbo
Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40 (12): 130-136. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2022.12.013
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Abstract ( 209 )
The new era calls for building a world power in science and technology and promoting the self-reliance of highlevel science and technology, and higher requirements are put forward for the scientific and technological workers. It is necessary to carry forward the spirit of scientists and create new monuments of innovation and new spiritual characteristics. This paper reviews the development process of scientific spirit and scientist spirit, and analyzes the significance of carrying forward scientist spirit in the new era. In view of the problems and challenges faced by the multi-department promotion the communication system of the spirit of scientists, the work style and the study style construction and the micro-ecological construction of scientific community, four basic paths of carrying forward the spirit of scientists in the new era are proposed: perfecting the collaborative promotion mechanism of departments and institutions; improving the communication system of the spirit of scientists; establishing the bottom line requirements for the construction of work style and study style; and strengthening the micro-ecological construction of scientific community.

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