Abstract： This paper reviews the recent developments of studies of thermochemical conversion of concentrated solar thermal energy to chemical energy. The conversion has the advantage of producing long term storable energy carriers from solar energy and enables solar energy transportation from the sunbelt to remote population centers. The thermochemical conversion pathway is characterized by a theoretical high efficiency. However, there are special features in solar processes in comparison to conventional thermochemical processes-high thermal flux density and frequent thermal transients because of the fluctuating and intermittent insolation-and conventional industrial thermochemical processes are generally not suitable for solar driven processes. Therefore, the adaptation to such features of solar thermochemical processes has been an important R&D task in this research field. Thermochemical steam or CO2 gasification of coal, steam or CO2 reforming of methane, and splitting of fossil fuel, are industrially important endothermic processes to produce useful chemical fuels such as hydrogen, synthesis gas and C2-hydrocarbons, which have been considered as solar thermochemical processes. The technical difficulties and potential to conduct these endothermic processes by utilizing concentrated solar radiation as the process heat are recommended here. A low temperature solar thermochemical power plant with inherent CO2 recovery using methanol-fueled chemical-looping combustion is also given.