Abstract：Rice is the most important grain crop in China, and the paddy field is one of the main sources of methane (CH4). It is essential that we should sustain the increase of rice yield under the energy-saving condition and at the same time limiting the emission of methane. This paper reviews the studies on direct/indirect energy-saving and emission-mitigating in the paddy field, emphasizing their importance to food security, soil quality improvement and prosperity of farmer's living standards. The comprehensive effects of conservational farming system, infiltrating irrigation and efficient fertilization on energy-saving and emission-mitigation are assessed. Three types of rice cropping systems with energy-saving and emission-mitigation are identified in the context of the characteristics of Chinese rice cropping regions, and some incentive policies are suggested in view of energy-saving and emission-mitigation in high yield rice production. More attentions should be paid to technology support system, as well as the construction of ecological compensation mechanism for energy-saving and emission mitigation. Moreover, some measures should be taken to cultivate the awareness of rice producers on energy saving and emission reduction in high yield rice production.