1. Center of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China;
2. Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing 100069, China;
3. China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China
Abstract：Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder. The clinical symptoms involve motor syndromes, such as bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity and gait disturbance, and non-motor syndromes, such as olfactory dysfunction, depression and constipation. The mechanism is still unknown. According to the classic pathology, it is the degeneration of dopaminergic neuron and Lewy body. However, this cannot explain all the manifestations. The studies of PD see a great progress in recent years. Our review focuses mainly on the biomarker, brain network and neuromodulation in PD.
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