Abstract：As a new type of production factor, data has many characteristics that are different from traditional production factors. Data has become the focus of public policy in various countries in the wave of fourth industrial revolution. The United States, European Union, United Kingdom, and China, as leaders and catch-up's of the international competitive landscape in the fields of big data and artificial intelligence, have recently introduced many public policies around data use and protection. This article systematically reviews the historical lineage of the four countries' policies, summarizes the characteristics of their data governance policy frameworks, and based on an international comparison presents three enlightenments for future development of China’ s data governance policies. First, data governance policies should be based on national core interests and compatible with the development of China's digital economy. Second, both data utilization and protection should be considered in order to promote the common development of innovation and governance. Finally, the construction and leadership of digital infrastructure and data standards should be highlighted.