1. School of International and Public Affairs, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China;
2. School of Public Policy and Administration, Xi'an Jiatong University, Xi'an 710049, China;
3. Bureau of Academic Division, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
Abstract：The innovation is the first important driving force of the development. The human resource in the S&T is the mainbody of the S&T innovation activities, in innovation networks of the scientific societies and others. Based on the panel data of 31 provincial regions in China, this paper discusses the impact of the human resource in the S&T and the scientific societies on the S&T innovation performance. The main findings are as follows. First, the human resource in the S&T plays a fundamental role in the S&T innovation. Second, the scientific society's function with regard to the S&T innovation is through moderating the human resource in the S&T, but its direct effect is not significant. Third, the positive influence of the financial support on the S&T innovation should match the circumstance of the human resource in the S&T. According to the findings, the following suggestions are put forward. First, the human resource in the S&T and the personnel training of the S&T talents should be promoted to realize an innovation-driven development. Second, the scientific societies should be oriented as a service platform and be enhanced to stimulate the vitality of the national innovation system. Third, the resource of the S&T innovation should be allocated proportionally to enhance the capability of the national innovation system.