Abstract：The urban and rural energy supply system refers to the supply system that provides electricity supply, heat supply and fuel supply for buildings and industrial production. Urban and rural energy supply system includes the transmission and distribution system, intermediate transition system, and consumption and regulation of end-users. Carbon neutrality targets will revolutionize this system. This paper systematically discusses the structure, characteristics and regulation of the new electricity system and heating supply systems towards China’s zero-carbon target, as well as the direction of the fuel system. This paper discusses the tasks that need to be accomplished in each period to achieve zero carbon goal in three timeframes, and gives a pathway to a zero carbon energy supply system.