Abstract：This paper analyzes the present state of industrial hydrogen production and application in China. Based on the industrial data and the basic theory of hydrogen production and conversion, a detailed evaluation of production capacity and by-product hydrogen resource is made, taken into account of the production of related chemicals including ammonia, methanol and petroleum products. Besides, the future hydrogen demands for the fuel cell vehicles by the year 2050 are analyzed with the scenario method, compared with the present hydrogen production capacity in China. Analysis results show that the present hydrogen consumption in China has reached to 12 million ton in 2007, with average annual growth rate of about 9%, most of which is used in three chemical industries, including ammonia, methanol and oil refinery. In the ammonia synthesis plants, to produce one ton of ammonia would consume, on average, 178.18~182.44kg hydrogen, and in the methanol plants the mean hydrogen consumption is 126.45~142.26kg. So the corresponding hydrogen consumption is 9.2 million ton and 1.3 million ton in ammonia and methanol synthesis processing, respectively. Besides, the 1.8 million ton hydrogen consumption could be deduced from Chinese hydro-cracking/hydro-treating ability for oil-refinery and the industrial data of hydrogen-consumption in each corresponding processing. Moreover there is also 6 million ton by-product hydrogen gas, which could be obtained during the carbonization process or the sodium hydroxide producing. While the by-product hydrogen is utilized in vehicles by means of fuel cell or internal combustion engine technologies, it could replace about 16 million ton of gasoline, or feed at least 6.86 million FCB (Fuel Cell Buses) or 27.03 million FCPV (Fuel Cell Passenger Vehicles) in the future. Finally, three scenarios of high-, mid- and slow-growth are defined to analyze the hydrogen supply and demand for vehicle. Under the slow-growth scenario, the by-product hydrogen gas will satisfy the FCV fleet energy demand till 2050; under the mid-growth or high-growth scenarios, the by-product hydrogen gas will satisfy the FCV fleet energy demand till 2045 or 2040, respectively.