Abstract：Based on previous studies of Wenchuan earthquake, combined with the results of field studies in August 2010, with human factors as the focus, the mountain environment system can be divided into three sub-environmental systems, that is, the natural environment, the social environment and the ecological environment of the mountainous area. Accordingly, this earthquake would be related with four environmental effects in three sub-environmental systems including destructive effects for the natural environment, earthquake damage effects and inductive effects for the social environment and ecological effects for the ecological environment. These environmental effects of Wenchuan strong earthquake in mountain regions were systematically analyzed. These hazard effects are dramatic and are closely related to one another. Some of them were almost simultaneous or one following another, with a tremendous destructive effect in the earthquake-hit areas. The analysis of environmental effects of the Wenchuan earthquake in mountain areas can provide a scientific and theoretical basis for environmental recovery.