Abstract：There are 20 rodent-borne diseases that have been ascertained in China. The names of diseases, rodent hosts, vectors and geographical distribution are listed in this paper. Plague, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and leptospirosis are three main rodent-borne diseases in China. The cases of these 3 diseases show a decreasing trend generally in 2000-2005 according to the surveillance data. The control measures include the control of infection sources, the cut-off of routes of transmission and the vaccination.