Abstract：Based on archive materials, this paper studies the process of the preparation and the reasons and the influence of the stranding of the academician system in China from 1980 to 1981. The preparation of the academician system started from Hu Qiaomu's proposal and unfolded by Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and State Scientific and Technological Commission. Hu was the director of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and the member of the CPC Central Committee. In 1980, under the promotion of Hu Qiaomu and Fang Yi and the arrangements of Qian Sanqiang, Yu Guangyuan and Wu Heng, and others, two documents were finalized. One is the Draft of Regulations of Academician System of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. The other is the Report on the Problems of Establishment of Academician System. The executive meeting of the State Council approved the report, prepared by the three units, on October 21, 1980. According to the academician system regulated by the preparatory work, the two academies planned to establish the lifelong and pure academic honorary academician system through electing outstanding scientists to establish real academic authority in China. But the plan was stranded in 1981. The main reason of this result is that many members of Chinese Academy of Sciences strongly opposed to carry out the academician system during the fourth meeting of members of the Academy in May, 1981. The reasons of their opposition were that the regulated academician system was not only radical and idealistic for them, but also in conflict with the system of the members of Chinese Academy of Sciences. The plan's stranding is one factor that the Chinese Academy of Sciences failed to establish parallel systems of the academician and the member of the Academy.