1. School of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Zhuhai, Zhuhai 519088, Guangdong Province, China;2. School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract: The nitration reaction is an important reaction in synthesis of medicine, explosives, dyes, pesticides, and it plays a very important role in organic synthesis. Advances of the new green radical nitration are introduced. The new non-traditional nitric acid nitration systems mainly include two types: NO2+N-hydroxyphthalimide(NHPI) nitration system, and NO2+O3/O2+ inorganic catalyst nitration systems. The development, mechanism and application of the two nitration systems with different nitrating agents are also introduced. Moreover, the mechanism and application of some recent radical nitration reactions are summarized. Green radical nitration is not only environmentally friendly but also has high atom economy and selectivity, offering the possibility of selective nitration of C atoms in heterocyclic compounds. The new green radical nitration is expected to become a valuable trend in the research of nitration.