|Shale Gas Produced Water Contamination and Its Comprehensive Treatment
|WU Qingyun1,2, ZHENG Meng1,2, HU Yunxia1,2
|1. Research Center for Coastal Environmental Engineering and Technology of Shandong Province, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003, China;
2. Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003, China
Abstract: Shale gas is considered a form of clean unconventional natural gas with low carbon footprint and huge reserves, and has increasingly attracted attention as a new energy resource around the world. In recent years, the hydraulic fracturing technique has become very common in wells for shale gas drilling, which consumes tons of fresh water and produces a large amount of high salinity water. Managing the produced water and promoting cost-effective water reuse is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. In this article, the hydraulic fracturing process is reviewed and the composition of shale gas produced water is analyzed. Then, the promising techniques of treating wastewater, including mechanical vapor compression, membrane distillation, reverse osmosis, forward osmosis, electrocoagulation, and ozone catalytic oxidation, are reviewed respectively, followed by a discussion on their advantages and challenges. It is concluded that the hybrid system combing more than one technique to treat wastewater could be a promising approach to real application.
Received: 25 November 2013
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