Abstract: There are about 35 HIV vaccine candidates around the world entered into early phase of clinical trial at the beginning of 2005. The selected antigens usually could induce both cellular and humoral immune response. Currently the HIV vaccine candidates include traditional vaccine (killed or attenuated vaccine), peptide, protein subunit, DNA vaccine and live vectorial vaccine. The immunization strategies were developed to increase the immunogenicity through antigen priming/boosting, and mucosa immunization. There are both modification, immune adjuvant co-inoculation, numerous opportunities and challenges in the field of Chinese HIV vaccine research, therefore, we should work closely and effectively to facilitate HIV vaccine development.