Abstract: Anemia is a common complication of cancer patients. The incidence of cancer-related anemia is associated with gender, age, characteristics of tumor, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Being one of the most important factors in the Quality of Life (QOL) of cancer patients, anemia reduces the QOL by inducing tissue hypoxia. Degree of anemia is associated with the efficacy of chemotherapy, sensitivity of chemotherapy agents, and resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy agents. Thus, the prognosis of patients with cancer-related anemia undergoing chemotherapy is poor, as compared with those without anemia. In addition, the reduced hemoglobin level decreases the sensitivity of tumor cells to radiation therapy, as an independent prognostic factor. Numerous factors are involved in the pathogenesis of cancer-related anemia, such as tumor itself, treatments and nutrition. The use of recombinant human erythropoietin is becoming a new standard of care for cancer patients. Various well-controlled studies show that the use of erythropoietin (EPO) increases the hemoglobin level, thereby decreases the need for frequent transfusions and improves the tumour responses, cancer-free survival and quality-of-life parameters for cancer patients. To better understand the cancer-related anemia, numerous clinical trials on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatment of cancer-related anemia have been conducted, showing that Chinese Medicine is of good efficacy in treatment of cancer-related anemia.