Abstract: Mobile ad hoc networks are a kind of self-organizing and self-reconfiguring networks. They can be established anytime and anywhere without the presence of stationary radio stations or fixed infrastructures. Thus they are regarded as an effective support tool for the communication of a lunar exploration multi-robots system. Generally speaking, there are two issues, the efficient energy conservation and the real-time communication, that are important for the lunar exploration multi-robots system. However, these two issues do not have a satisfactory answer with concurrently existing Ad hoc routing algorithms. Hence, an optimization design of the routing protocol is the key for the Ad hoc networks with the objective of the energy conservation and the constraint of the real-time communication. For that purpose, a node's energy consumption model is built based on the analysis of the network topology of the communication system. Then, a mathematical model is proposed to carry out the optimization for the optimal path. Moreover, a new power-aware routing scheme is presented based on the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) according to the engineering requirements of the lunar exploration multi-robots communication system. With constraints of hops, total transmission power, and node's remaining energy, the modified distributed Bellman-Ford algorithm is employed to find the optimal path. Simulation results show that the routing protocol designed in this paper performs better for the lunar exploration multi-robots system than others.