A comprehensive overview on vehicular ad-hoc network

  • LI Tong, NIU Minjie, LÜ Jun
  • Department of Information Engineering, Academy of Armored Force Engineering, Beijing 100072, China

Received date: 2015-11-23

  Revised date: 2016-10-11

  Online published: 2017-03-20


Vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) is considered an integral part of the future intelligent transportation system (ITS) that has the potential in improving traffic efficiency, road safety and traveler's comfort. VANET is a subset of mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) and does not depend on any fixed infrastructure. The nodes are highly mobile and the network topology changes rapidly. It differs from MANET in terms of architecture, characteristic, application and challenge. In this paper, the latest research progress in VANET network architecture, communication protocols, modeling and simulation, information management and cloud computing is surveyed; the research methods are briefly discussed; and the directions for future research and development are also provided.

Cite this article

LI Tong, NIU Minjie, LÜ Jun . A comprehensive overview on vehicular ad-hoc network[J]. Science & Technology Review, 2017 , 35(5) : 73 -81 . DOI: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.05.009


[1] Saif Ai Sultan, Moath M, Al Doori, et al. A comprehensive survey on vehicular ad hoc network[J]. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 2014, 37(1):380-392.
[2] Zarifneshat M, Khadivi P. Using mobile node speed changes for move-ment direction change prediction in a realistic category of mobility mod-els[J]. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 2013, 36(3):1078-1090.
[3] Fleming B. Smarter and safer vehicles[J]. IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, 2012, 7(2):4-9.
[4] Baraa T, Raed A, Mahamod I. Vehicular communication ad hoc routing protocols:A survey[J]. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 2014, 40(2):363-396.
[5] Jakubiak J, Koucheryavy Y. State of the art and research challenges for VANETs[C]//2008 IEEE 5th Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC). Las Vegas:IEEE CCP, 2008:912-916.
[6] Whaiduzzaman M, Mehdi S, Abdullah G, et al. A survey on vehicular cloud computing[J]. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 2014, 40(4):325-344.
[7] Akbari Torkestani J. Mobility prediction in mobile wireless networks[J]. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 2012, 35(5):1633-1645.
[8] Sharef Z T, Alaradi A E, Sharef B T. Performance evaluation for WiMAX 802.16e OFDMA physical layer[C]//Proceedings of the 4th In-ternational Conference on Computational Intelligence, Communication Systems and Networks (CIC-SyN). Phuket:IEEE, 2012:351-355.
[9] Toor Y, Muhlethaler P, Laouiti A. Vehicle ad hoc networks:Applications and related technical issues[J]. IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials, 2008, 10(3):74-88.
[10] Moustafa H, Zhang Y. Vehicular networks:Techniques, standards, and applications[M]. Boca Raton Florida:CRC Press, 2009.
[11] Mo J, So H W, Walrand J. Comparison of multichannel MAC protocols[J]. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 2008, 7(1):50-65.
[12] Lin Liang, Xiang Yong, Chang Cuyu, et al. Performance observations on MAC protocols of VANETs in intelligent transportation system[C]//WRI International Conference on Communications and Mobile Computing 2009(CMC 2009). Yunnan:IEEE, 2009:373-379.
[13] Taleb T, Benslimane A, Letaief K B. Toward an effective risk-con-scious and collaborative vehicular collision avoidance system[J]. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2010, 59(3):1474-1486.
[14] Yu Jianfa, Yin Chengguo. An improved MAC protocol in mobile vehic-ular ad-hoc networks[C]//ICEES 2011. Singapore:Elsevier, 2011:1992-2000.
[15] Xu Qiu, Fan Haikuan, Guo Shuangfei, et al. A context-aware MAC protocol for VANETs[J]. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2013, 7992(1):151-162.
[16] 唐伦, 王晨梦, 陈前斌. 车载自组织网络中基于时分复用的异步多信道MAC协议[J]. 计算机学报, 2015, 38(3):673-684. Tang Lun, Wang Chenmeng, Cheng Qianbin. An asynchronous multichannel MAC protocol based on TDMA in vehicular ad hoc network[J]. Chinese Journal of Computers, 2015, 38(3):673-684.
[17] Lochert C, Hartenstein H, Tian J, et al. A routing strategy for vehicular ad hoc networks in city environments[C]//Proceedings of the IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium. Meguro-Ku:IEEE, 2003:156-161.
[18] Lochert C, Mauve M, Füßler H, et al. Geographic routing in city scenarios[J]. ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, 2005, 9(1):69-72.
[19] Ahmed S, Kanere S S. SKVR:Scalable knowledge-based routing architecture for public transport networks[C]//Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. Los Angeles:ACM, 2006:92-93.
[20] Cheng P C, Weng J T, Tung L C, et al. GeoDTN + Nav:A hybrid geographic and DTN routing with navigation assistance in urban vehicular networks[C]//MobiQuitous ISVCS. Dubin:IEEE, 2008:61-82.
[21] Durresi M, Durresi A, Barolli L. Emergency broadcast protocol for in-ter-vehicle communications[C]//Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems. Fukuoka:IEEE, 2005:402-406.
[22] Korkmaz G, Ekici E, Ozgüner F, et al. Urban multi-hop broadcast protocol for inter-vehicle communication systems[C]//Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Workshop on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. New York:ACM, 2004:76-85.
[23] Tao Song, Xia Weiwei, Shen Lianfeng, et al. A cluster-based directional routing protocol in VANET[C]//Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference on Communication Technology. Nanjing:IEEE, 2010:172-175.
[24] 秦华标, 肖志勇. 基于位置信息的稳定分簇路由协议[J]. 华南理工大学学报(自然科学版), 2010, 38(6):1-5. Qing Huabiao, Xiao Zhiyong. A position based stable clustering routing protocol[J]. Journal of South China University of Technology (Natural Science Edition), 2010, 38(6):1-5.
[25] Chen Y S, Lin Y W, Lee S L. A mobicast routing protocol in vehicular ad-hoc networks[J]. Mobile Networks and Applications, 2010, 15(1):20-35.
[26] Kihl M, Sichitiu M, Ekeroth T, et al. Reliable geographical multicast routing in vehicular ad-hoc networks[C]//Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Wired/Wireless Internet Communications. Berlin:Springer-Verlag, 2007:315-325.
[27] Souza A B, Celestino J, Xavier F A, et al. Stable multicast trees based on ant colony optimization for vehicular ad hoc network[C]//Proceedings of International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN'13). Bangkok:IEEE, 2013:101-106.
[28] Yiton Y, Tian K, Huang K, et al. D-ODMRP:A destination-driven on-demand multicast routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks[J]. IET Communications, 2012, 6(9):1025-1031.
[29] Shrestha R K, Sangman M, Ilyong C, et al. Vertex-based multihop vehicle to infrastructure routing for vehicular ad hoc networks[C]//Proceedings of the 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Honolulu:IEEE, 2010:1-7.
[30] Yong Ding, Chen Wang, Li Xiao. A static-node assisted adaptive routing protocol in vehicular Networks[C]//Proceedings of the 4th ACM International Work Shop on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. Montreal:ACM, 2007:59-68.
[31] Luo Jie, Gu Xinxing, Zhao Tong, et al. A mobile infrastructure based VANET routing protocol in the urban environment[C]//Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Communications and Mobile Computing (CMC). Shenzhen:IEEE, 2010:432-437.
[32] Pan H Y, Jan R H, Jeng A A K, et al. Mobile-gateway routing for vehicular networks[C]//IEEE VTSI APWCS. Singapore:IEEE, 2011:2-10.
[33] Jain R, Puri A, Sengupta R. Geographical routing using partial information for wireless ad hoc networks[J]. IEEE Personal Communications, 2001, 8(1):48-57.
[34] Yoon J, Noble B D, Liu M, et al. Building realistic mobility models from coarse-grained traces[C]//Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications and Services. Uppsala:ACM, 2006:177-190.
[35] Fiore M. Mobility models in inter-vehicle communications literature[R]. Torino:Department of Electronics, Polytechnic Institute of Torino, 2009.
[36] 杨卫东, 冯琳琳, 刘伎昭. 车载自组织网络中网络连通特性研究[J]. 通信学报, 2012, 33(Z1):48-53. Yang Weidong, Fen Linlin, Liu Jizhao. Network connectivity characteristics for vehicular ad hoc network[J]. Journal on Communications, 2012, 33(Z1):48-53.
[37] Naumov V, Baumann R, Gross T. An evaluation of inter-vehicle ad hoc networks based on realistic vehicular traces[C]//Proceedings of the 7th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing. Florence:ACM, 2006:108-119.
[38] Razvan S, Emmanuel C, André-Luc B. Simulation of vehicular adhoc networks:Challenges, review of tools and recommendations[J]. Computer Networks, 2011, 55(14):3179-3188.
[39] Leea E, Ohb S Y, Gerlaa M. RFID assisted vehicle positioning in VANETs[J]. Pervasive Mobile Computing, 2012, 8(2):167-179.
[40] Kakkasageri M S, Manvi S S. Push-pull based critical information gathering in VANETs:Multi-agent system based approach[C]//Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference In Vehicular Electronics and Safety (ICVES 2009). Pune:IEEE, 2009:1-6.
[41] Liu Congyi, Chigan Chunxiao. Structure-less message aggregation (SLMA):Reliably and efficiently improve information precision and certainty for VANETs[C]//Proceedings of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2010). Miami:IEEE, 2010:1-6.
[42] Kakkasageri M S, Manvi S S. Safety information gathering and dissemination in vehicular ad hoc networks:Cognitive agent based approach[C]//Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology (CCIT 2011). Bangalore:Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011:254-264.
[43] Cao Z. Proof-of-relevance:Filtering false data via authentic consensus in vehicle ad-hoc networks[C]//Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM Workshops. Phoenix:IEEE, 2008:1-6.
[44] 刘雪峰, 张玉清, 王鹤, 等. 一种后向撤销隐私安全的车载自组织网络快速匿名消息认证[J]. 协议电子与信息学报, 2014, 36(1):94-100. Liu Xuefeng, Zhang Yuqing, Wang He, et al. An efficient anonymity message authentication with backward secure revocation for vehicular ad hoc networks[J]. Journal of Electronics & Information Technology, 2014, 36(1):94-100.
[45] Hsiao H C. Flooding-resilient broadcast authentication for VANETs[C]//Proceedings of the 17th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking. Las Vegas:ACM, 2011:19-23.
[46] Moreno M T. System design for information dissemination in VANETs[C]//Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Intelligent Transportation (WIT). Hamburg:ACM, 2006:27-33.
[47] Koubek M, Rea S, Pesch D. Reliable delay constrained multihop broadcasting in VANETs[J]. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, 2010, 3(4):1-13.
[48] 朱欣娟, 周千明. 一种VANET信息查询模式及分析[J]. 电子科技大学学报, 2013, 42(6):911-915. Zhu Xinjuan, Zhou Qianming. VANET information query mode and its analysis[J]. Journal of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 2013, 42(6):911-915.
[49] Sanaei Z, Abolfazli S, Gani A, et al. Heterogeneity in mobile cloud computing:Taxonomy and open challenges[J]. IEEE communications surveys and tutorials, 2013, 16(1):369-392.
[50] Gerla M. Vehicular cloud computing[C]//Proceedings of the 11th Annual Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop (Med-HocNet). Ayia:IEEE, 2012:152-155.
[51] Bordley L, Cherry C R, Stephens D, et al. Commercial motor vehicle wireless roadside inspection pilot test[C]//91st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington:Transportation Research Board, 2012:1312-1335.
[52] Olariu S, Hristov T, Yan G. The next paradigm shift:From vehicular networks to vehicular clouds[C]//Mobile Ad Hoc Networking:Cutting Edge Directions, 2nd. Hoboken:IEEE, 2013:645-700.
[53] Mousannif H, Khalil I, Moatassime H. Cooperation as a Service in VANETs[J]. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 2011, 17(8):1202-1218.
[54] Ma Y, Chowdhury M, Sadek A, et al. Real-time highway traffic condition assessment framework using Vehicle-Infrastructure Integration(VII) with artificial intelligence(AI)[J]. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems. 2009, 10(4):615-627.
[55] Blosseville J M. Driver assistance systems, a long way to AHS[C]//2006IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium. Meguroku:IEEE, 2006:449-449.
[56] Fussler H, Schnaufer S, Transier M, et al. Vehicular ad-hoc networks:from vision to reality and back[C]//2007 Fourth Annual Conference on Wireless on Demand Network Systems and Services. Obergurgl:IEEE, 2007:80-83.
[57] Ghangurde M. Ford SYNC and microsoft windows embedded automo-tive make digital lifestyle a reality on the road[J]. SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars-Electronic and Electrical Systems, 2010, 3(2):99-105.