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  • Special Issues
    YAO Ruifeng, LOU Zhiyong, XIE Daoxin
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(7): 20-25. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.07.003
    Plant hormones regulate every step of the plant life cycle. Elucidating the perception mechanism of plant hormones by their receptors is crucial for understanding plant growth and development, protecting plant and the associated ecosystem, as well as for enhancing food security worldwide. Plant branching is mainly regulated by the branching hormone strigolactone and related phytohormones. The study on the molecular basis of strigolactone action, especially the perception mechanism, has made important breakthrough in recent years:The strigolactone perception mechanisms in the monocot plant rice, the dicot plant Arabidopsis and the parasitic weed Striga have been systematically elucidated, revolutionarily revealing a non-canonical hormone perception mechanism which is different from the reversible "ligand-receptor" perception mode that has been gradually established during the past century. These findings will provide theoretical guidances for breeding crops with ideal architecture as well as for combating the root parasitic weed. In this short review, we will give a brief introduction to the recent advances in strigolactone perception.
  • Special Issues
    QIN Chuan
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(24): 20-26. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.24.001
    The laboratory animal science is a newly emerging discipline that integrates the theories and the methods of biology, veterinary science, bioengineering, medicine and other disciplines. It takes experimental animals and animal experiments as the research objects, and is closely related to life sciences and medical sciences. The development of systematic biological materials and related technologies is a strategic support for the national science and technology development system. This paper reviews the history of the development of experimental animals, the current situation at home and abroad, the achievements and deficiencies of domestic experimental animals, and puts forward some suggestions on the future development of experimental animals. This paper serves to provide a reference, for the scientific and technological innovation of relevant disciplines and the improvement of people's health.
  • Special Issues
    ZHANG Lianfeng, CUI Shao
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(24): 27-31. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.24.002
    The laboratory animals mainly involve three categories, namely, the conventional laboratory animals, the spontaneous mutation laboratory animals and the genetic engineering laboratory animals. The laboratory animal models play an important role in the development of life sciences, medical sciences and other related disciplines. The laboratory animal science in China started relatively late, but with the increase of the national funding, China has gradually developed its own research and development system and laboratory animal resources, and is catching up with the United States and Japan in specific fields. This paper reviews the commonly-used laboratory animal models at home and abroad, in order to provide a reference for the development of the laboratory animal science in China.
  • Special Issues
    LI Changlong, SHANG Shujiang, ZHU Desheng
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(24): 32-39. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.24.003
    The laboratory animal is an important tool in the life science and the biomedical industry. The laboratory animal welfare not only ensures animals'health and happiness, but is also important for generating accurate, reliable, and repeatable results in the laboratory. With the development of society, more and more researchers become aware of the significance of the laboratory animal welfare. Ensuring the laboratory animal welfare facilitates the progress of science and technology. At the same time, the progress of science and technology also promotes the laboratory animal welfare. This paper reviews the history of the development of the concept and the requirements of the laboratory animal welfare. The mutual beneficial role between the progress of science and technology and the development of the laboratory animal welfare is specially addressed. The deficiency in the laboratory animal welfare in China is pointed out, and it is hoped that the laboratory animals can better serve the human health and the social development.
  • Special Issues
    CHENG Shujun
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(24): 40-47. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.24.004
    This paper reviews the technological progresss and the regulatory acceptance of alternative methods, including the development of the concept of alternative to the animal test, which can be divided into three phases as the starting accumulation, the regulation acceptance and the accelerated development.. The focus is on the theories of the Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-First Century (TT21C), the Adverse Outcome Pathway(AOP) and the integrated testing strategy, The new technologies include the reconstructed tissues and the multiorgans-on-chip, the stem cells, the " omics-"technology, and the non-testing approaches, and the high throughput and the high content screening are integrated into the alternative methods, with obvious interdisciplinary features. The standardized alternative methods and the personalized in vitro methods are applied in the assessment of health related products of chemicals,cosmetics,medicals and other biological products. It is concluded that the technology of the alternative to the animal testing is not only an important part of lab animal science, but also an innovative tool for scientific progress and with the prospect of industrialization.
  • Special Issues
    GAO Hong
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(24): 54-56. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.24.006
    Basic medical research, drug development and medical device evaluation involve laboratory animals and animal experiments. The scientific conditions and the animal welfare management of laboratory animals are regarded as a symbol of modernization of science and technology in a country. This paper reviews the animal experiment, the animal welfare and the animal ethics in recent years. In view of the protection of the animal welfare and the animal ethics, and the basic conditions for building a country of innovative spirits, guaranteeing the national scientific security, building a social environment of humanity and creating a favorable international environment, it is urgent to pay attention to the animal welfare and animal ethics.
  • Special Issues
    GUO Zongkuan, HUANG Qingguo
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(23): 12-15. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.23.001
    The Nobel Prize for Physics 2017 was divided, one half awarded to Rainer Weiss, the other half to Barry Clark Barish and Kip Stephen Thorne, for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves. In this paper we introduce the academic experiences of these scientists, and interpret the scientific significance of this important discovery from theory, experiment and data analysis.
  • Special Issues
    MA Chen, ZHANG Heping
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(21): 14-25. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.001
    Abstract (699) PDF (1301) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    Human gut microbiota is of great importance, as indicated by accumulated evidences of its close association with human health. As an internalized ‘microbial organ’, the gut microbiota provides many functions that are not encoded in the host genome but shown to be essential to human health, such as short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and vitamin synthesis. Such health-relevant functions may be considered ecosystem services provided by the gut microbiota for the host. A number of factors influence the composition and metabolic activity of the colonic microbiota, and probiotics are believed to be an important regulator of intestinal bacterial diversity and metabolism in addition to genetic factors and diet. Probiotics are living micro-organisms that confer beneficial effects to the host, and it is believed that they hold great potential for regulating intestinal bacterial metabolism. Recent evidence has shown that probiotics play major roles in maintaining equilibrium and stability of enteric microbiota, which in turn aids in gastrointestinal functions, including control of transit time, bowel habits, nutrient bioavailability, and modulation of gastrointestinal immune activity. Therefore, aiming at the characteristics of population structure and function of intestinal flora research, to develop of probiotic strains intestinal flora to adapt to our country crowd is of great importance. It is urgent to establish microbial models for early diagnosis of disease and at the same time to vigorously develop excellent probiotic bacterial species resources as an effective scientific guidance and replacement therapy in order to solve the antibiotic resistance problem, by combining intestinal flora and human disease diagnosis and treatment.
  • Special Issues
    ZUO Li, HAN Weijuan
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(21): 32-36. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.003
    Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal disorder, which can affect the quality of children's life and cause mental stress. Defection of the gastrointestinal barrier and imbalance of the inflammatory effect could be the physiopathological mechanism. Research shows that probiotics can improve the function of the barrier and promote the secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. Symptoms are controlled and patients get efficacy in this therapy, but the mechanism and the application of probiotics are currently still under investigation. This review concerns the pathogenic mechanism of IBS, as well as the mechanism, efficacy and safety of the probiotics.
  • Special Issues
    MA Yonghui, WANG Jun
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(21): 37-42. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.004
    Human microbiome research and its relationship with health and disease have increasingly become a hot area in biomedical science. Biobanking human microbiome is fundamental for the development of human microbiome research. However, human microbiome research and biobank are facing many serious ethical, social and regulatory challenges that must be addressed. In this article, we examine three core ethical and social issues, i.e., informed consent, ownership, privacy and risks. Next, we employ fecal microbiota bank and fecal microbiota transplantation as a case study to discuss how to determine a suitable healthy donor. We conclude the article by providing some regulatory and governance suggestions for policy makers to develop successful policy response.
  • Special Issues
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(21): 143-143.
    每年7月,送走了课题组的毕业生,在上海一所重点大学任教的A教授都会有点忐忑和期待——明年加入课题组的博士生会是谁?
  • Special Issues
    WANG Li
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(15): 15-19. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.15.001
    Abstract (1313) PDF (3723) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    The history and status quo of artificial intelligence technology are analyzed. Then several core issues are discussed including the connotation of information war, artificial intelligence technology development trend, and speeding up our army artificial intelligence application. Finally, some constructive thinking is put forward for the development of artificial intelligence technology application in China's military field in the future.
  • Special Issues
    YU Qi
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(15): 28-33. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.15.003
    Among the army helicopters, armed helicopter is a kind of equipment that deserves the name of attackor, so it is called attack helicopter. With the advent of such helicopters, army helicopters are playing their poles not only in logistics but also in the forent. As a weapon, armed helicopter is a firing platform at over low altitude. This article introduces the foreign armed helicopter development and analyzes its combat capability, weapon configuration and actual combat application.
  • Special Issues
    ZHAO Weikang, XU Rong, YUAN Weiqun, YAN Ping
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(15): 34-39. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.15.004
    The high temperature ablation in the process of pulsed high current discharge would reduce the insulation performance of the insulation support and affect the life and efficiency of the system. To investigate the destructive effect of ablation on epoxy resin insulation, we use argon arc welding to modify the surface epoxy resin with different values of ablation current, time, distance and area so as to obtain samples with different ablation situations. The surface resistivity and surface flashover voltage of the samples are then measured. The results show that the insulation property of the epoxy resin after high temperature ablation degrades greatly. Scanning electron microscopy and energy spectrum analysis indicate that the increasing surface roughness and oxide would reduce the insulation property of epoxy resin.
  • Special Issues
    WANG Li, ZHANG Long
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(15): 40-44. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.15.005
    Under the new situation, an in-depth analysis of the opportunity for China to construct its science and technology innovation system is presented, and DARPA's successful experience in innovative culture, organization, project management and other aspects is overviewed In view of the constraints that restrict the development of science and technology innovation of military enterprises, a mode of thinking to build the innovation system is put forward. Through the establishment of innovation system it is possible to explore the management mechanism of science and technology innovation zone under new situation, so as to provide references for system construction of military enterprise science and technology innovation.
  • Special Issues
    YAN Xiaoyong
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(14): 15-22. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.14.001
    Abstract (990) PDF (1524) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    The spatial interaction network is the space-embedded directed network with flows of people, goods or information among places. Examples of spatial interaction networks include the international trade network, the migration network, the transportation network and the inter-city telecommunication network. Understanding and predicting spatial interaction patterns of these networks are of importance in various disciplines, including the regional science, the transportation science and the economic geography, with many practical applications in the urban or transportation system planning, the epidemiology of infectious diseases, and the location-based services. This paper first introduces briefly two classic spatial interaction models:the gravity model and the intervening opportunity model, and then reviews some recent advances in data-driven spatial interaction models, including the radiation model, the population-weighted opportunity model and the random walk models on spatial interaction networks. This paper also discusses some challenging problems in modeling the spatial interaction networks, such as the individual mobility behavior diversity, the group choice decision behavior experiment and the datadriven modeling approach for the human activity-travel behavior.
  • Special Issues
    CHEN Bokui, JIANG Yanqun, YAN Dengcheng, WANG Binghong
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(14): 23-26. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.14.002
    The traffic network and the communication network play a more and more important role in modern life. Almost all people use these two networks everyday. Thus the governments around the world increase the investment in their infrastructure. However, increasing the infrastructure alone, such as broadening the road and the bandwidth, can not meet the growing demand. More importantly, we must focus on optimizing management and making the best use of existing infrastructure in order to improve the performance of these two networks. The key to improving the efficiency is to design effective path strategies. In this paper, we first give a brief introduction of the similarities and the differences between the traffic network and the communication network. Then we review the route choice strategies used to guide the vehicle and path strategies used to guide the pedestrian in the transportation network, and the routing strategies in the communication network. By comparison, we find that the strategies based on the global information are better than those based on the local information. However, due to the factor of the network size, the strategies based on the local information are more suitable for the communication network, and the strategies based on the global information are more suitable for the transportation network.
  • Special Issues
    LIU Ming, YAN Yamei, HUANG Yan
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(14): 27-33. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.14.003
    In view of the increasingly serious urban traffic problems, it is of great significance analyzing and studying the characteristics of the complex urban transportation network to solve urban traffic problems and rationally plan the city layout. This paper firstly introduces the relevant theories of complex systems, including several statistical properties commonly used in the study of complex systems and the development of complex network based on different topologies. Then, the applications of complex network in the urban transportation system are elaborated by analyzing the traffic flow, the influence of different topologies on the transportation network, the network center node, the cascade failure phenomenon and the network stability, respectively. Finally, the future research direction and the development trend of the complex systems in the urban transportation network are pointed out.
  • Special Issues
    FANG Jinqing
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(14): 34-41. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.14.004
    The network science has entered the new stage-the super network science. The exploration of the supernetwork becomes one of the frontier issues both at home and abroad in recent years. This paper briefly discusses the characteristics of the supernetwork, with 2 typical examples, focusing on the importance of the theoretical model. The difficulty of nonlinear hyper-network mathematical problems is highlighted. The research route and the progress of multi-level hyper networks are reviewed. At the end of the paper, we put forward some questions, as the food for thought.
  • Special Issues
    LIU Qiang, FANG Jinqing, LI Yong
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(14): 42-49. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.14.005
    With the progress of the complex network research, it is found that the single network can not fully reflect the complexity and the diversity of the real network, and can not be used to depict and reveal the whole picture and the inherent law of the actual complex network. In the real world, there exist "networks of networks" or "supernetworks", with multi-levels and multi-dimensions, multi-attributes, multi-objects, interdependence, correlation and coupling characteristics, which become one of the most challenging frontier topics in the network science. This paper briefly reviews some research progresses of the supernetwork in recent years, with some results made by the network science group of China Institute of Atomic Energy in the research of multilayer supernetwork models and the top 500 enterprise High-Tech supernetwork. At present, the supernetwork research is just in its start step, and there are many unknown areas for us to explore.
  • Special Issues
    LI Ming, WANG Binghong
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(14): 50-55. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.14.006
    The percolation model describes the emergence of a giant component in a system, of which the sites are connected randomly with some mechanisms. Although the rule is very simple, the percolation model involves many concepts of statistical physics and nonlinear physics, and has also been applied to a large variety of natural, technological and social systems, most of which can be viewed as networks. In recent years, a new kind of networks, the multilayer networks, have been proposed to study the complex and interacting systems. Based on the percolation in these networks, a number of natural, technological and social problems have been solved. At the same time, the percolation transition itself also has some new properties, such as the discontinuous transition. This paper analyzes the mechanism of the percolation on multilayer networks first, and then briefly discusses the discontinuous transition in this model. Furthermore, the theoretical methods are also be reviewed.
  • Special Issues
    LI Yong, FANG Jinqing, LIU Qiang
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(14): 56-62. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.14.007
    Four hybrid ratios are introduced into the unified hybrid network model. They are more in line with the randomness, the uncertainty and the variable growing in the real world network. This paper discusses three types of entropy of complex networks:the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy (BGS), the extensive entropy Sq, and the open network entropy, as well as the relationship between the entropy and the hybrid ratios. From the essence of entropy, the function expression between the changing entropy of the network and the power-law of the scale-free network is revealed. Also the characteristics of the evolution mechanism and the complexity of the network are expounded.
  • Special Issues
    CUI Liyan, XU Xiaoke
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(14): 63-74. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.14.008
    Recently the framework of multi-layer networks was proposed as a new model of complex networks, and was used in widespread applications in many fields, such as the cascading failure, the information spreading, the link prediction and the network synchronization. In multi-layer networks, the correlation and the coupling between two layers of network structures might exist, so it is a very significant issue how to detect the structural correlation and quantify the correlation between the two layers. In this study we summarize and propose methods to measure the structural correlation of double-layer networks in three levels. The first level is to detect the overall connection relationship of the whole double-layer network. The second level is to test the degree correlation characteristics between all nodes at different layers. At last, the third level is to look for the connection relationship between the rich nodes at different layers. Although the three kinds of correlations are all dependent on the network statistics, these statistics are all without units. Furthermore, the sizes and the structures of different networks see a great difference. Therefore, absolute numerical values of some statistics often are not important and we put forward a variety of null models for double-layer networks as a reference. Through the hypothesis testing methods, we can quantify the structure correlation in double-layer networks, and try to analyze the intrinsic mechanism of inducing this kind of structure correlation. Finally, we use an empirical double-layer network(the global language multi-layer network)to verify the effectiveness of our methodology. This methodology can be used to detect the complex coupling between the layers in an empirical double-layer network, and for the better understanding of multi-layer networks and for new applications based on the structure complexity of multi-layer networks.
  • Special Issues
    QIN Chuan, KONG Qi, QIAN Jun, XIA Xianzhu
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(11): 10-14. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.001
    Laboratory animal science is a supporting platform and an indispensible part of life science research,and medical innovation and development as well.It is also one of the strategic resources of‘innovative country construction’,with strategic significance to the protection of human health,food safety,biological safety,and so on.Chian has witnessed the development of its own laboratory animal science industry for more than three decades.The key developments include,for example,the establishment of laboratory animal laws and regulations,standards,and administration system;the initial formation of scientific research,production and supply,quality control and training system;and ten world class laboratory animal technology platforms.This paper describes the present situation of the laboratory animal science development in China,and concludes the existing problems.In the end the paper makes several suggestions which may speed up the innovation and development of laboratory animal science and lay a foundation for the construction of life science and human health in China.
  • Special Issues
    MU Gang, CUI Yang, CHEN Zhi, YAN Gangui, SUN Yong
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(11): 20-29. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.003
    With the high penetration rate of wind power,Jilin province is now facing a severe bottleneck in wind power accommodation,which has seriously restricted further development and utilization of wind energy resources.The factors causing the bottleneck include fluctuation of wind power,load level of power grid,and heating demand in the winter season.In order to solve the problem of wind power curtailment,development of intelligent wind power dispatching system which is suitable for strongly fluctuating power supply,and utilization of emerging technologies,such as thermal energy storage technology and wind-energy heat supply technology,to improve the regulating capacity of power grid and increase the scale of electric load are two effective ways.According to the present situation of large-scale wind power integration of Jilin Province,this paper introduces the current situation and existing problems of wind power forecasting technology,thermal energy storage technology and wind-energy heat supply technology,and expounds the application and development trend of these key technologies for wind power accommodation.
  • Special Issues
    CHEN Xiaolong, GUAN Jian, HUANG Yong, HE You
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(11): 30-38. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.004
    To deal with the difficulty in radar signal processing,effective and efficient detection of low-observable targets in complex environments is an ongoing research hotspot.On the one hand,due to strong clutter and complex motion of a target,the signal may be extremely weak such that it is hard to detect the signal either in time domain or in frequency domain.On the other hand,the signal resources of traditional radar are limited and cannot achieve refined description of the target itself.Therefore,it is urgent to develop new system and technology for radar target detection.In this paper,we firstly summarize the main difficulties for low-observable target detection.Then,we systematically review conventional radar moving target detection methods.Finally,we discuss the future development from the perspective of detection techniques and systems.
  • Special Issues
    JIA Ping
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(11): 39-46. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.005
    Application and current development of some precision instruments and equipment in China,together with several key supporting technologies,are introduced.Gaps between China and developed countries and the future expansion capacity are analyzed.According to the national “Thirteenth Five-Year” development plan,trends and main areas of precision instruments and equipment are discussed.
  • Special Issues
    LI Yubao, XIA Jinmeng, LUN Dongdong
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(11): 47-51. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.006
    Heavy metals in soil stem from human activities which result in significantly high heavy metals contents in soil and lead to the phenomenon of ecological environment quality deterioration.Heavy metal contamination of soil is essentially an irreversible process.Many organic chemicals require a long time to degrade.Once contamination occurs it is difficult to recover by merely cutting off pollution sources.Therefore there have been a lot of soil treatment methods for heavy metals.Compared to physical and chemical remediation,phytoremediation has several advantages such as small investment,low cost,economical profit and less disturbance to the soil environment.This paper reviews four hytoremediation techniques for heavy metal contaminated soil remediation and describes both domestic and foreign heavy metal pollution control.Finally,the future development in this area is prospected.
  • Special Issues
    CHEN Hong, GUO Lulu, BIAN Ning
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(11): 52-59. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.007
    Abstract (661) PDF (2091) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    With the rapid development of control,perception,communication and actuator technology,the intelligent vehicle based on electrification,automation and networking has become a major trend in the automotive industry.At the same time,the challenges posed by the intelligent vehicle have raised great interest.From the perspective of automotive automation and intelligent development process,automobile intelligentization can be divided into four stages including driver-assist,semi-automatic,highly automated and fully automated.This paper introduces two technical routes of the present automotive intelligence research which are dominated by automobile enterprises and research institutes.Also given are deep analysis of the characteristics and meanings for each aforementioned development stage of automobile intelligentization.The challenging problems of automobile intelligentization such as multi-source information fusion,intelligent car control architecture,interactive driving are summarized.Finally,some suggestions on the intelligent development of Chinese automobile enterprises are given.
  • Special Issues
    SUN Zhaoyan, MEN Yongfeng, LIU Jun, SHI Qiang, YANG Xiaoniu, AN Lijia
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(11): 60-68. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.008
    Abstract (476) PDF (1024) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    Since the concept of polymers was proposed in 1920 by Hermann Staudinger,polymeric materials have gradually stepped into human's life and become one of the most representative and promising materials in materials science.With the development of science and technology,polymer materials,being an important material for national security and industry,have become an important cornerstone of modern industry and high-tech industry.The development of polymer science is directly related to the progress of agriculture,energy,information,environment,population and other areas.At the same time,the intersection and combination of polymer science with material science,information science,life science and environmental science have also played an important role in promoting social progress and improving human living quality.This article describes the development and potential application of high performance polymer materials in terms of general polymers,biomedical polymers and energetic polymers,and points out that the development of high performance polymer materials will directly promote national economy.
  • Special Issues
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(11): 69-70. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.009
    21世纪是高科技的时代,也是微创外科的时代,目前,以高科技引领的微创外科,正在以前所未有的步伐飞速发展。大批先进的腹腔镜显示系统、高科技手术器械、机器人手术及操作系统的应用,使微创外科领域进入了一个全新的时代,绝大多数传统开腹手术,如各种疝修补、阑尾切除、脾切除、胃肠道手术、肝胆道系统手术、胰腺手术等腹部外科手术都可以在腹腔镜下完成。
  • Special Issues
    CHEN Dexing, LI Xiaoyong, XU Gang
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(11): 71-76. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.010
    Minimally invasive surgery in the practice of general surgery has undergone 30 years of development,from the initial simple holecystectomy to today's almost all general surgery involving gastrointestinal,hepatobiliary,pancreas,spleen,abdominal surgery,just to name a few.And it is still developing very rapidly.This paper reviews the application of minimally invasive surgery in the hepatobiliary system,the pancreatic system,the spleen system,gastric cancer,colorectal cancer and so on.Moreover,the application of surgical robot in abdominal surgery is briefly introduced.
  • Special Issues
    RONG Peijing, FANG Jiliang, YU Yutian, LI Shaoyuan, ZHAO Jingjun, CHEN Yuanyuan, LI Xiaojiao, LIU Bing
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(11): 77-84. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.011
    Abstract (747) PDF (1506) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    Chinese acupuncture is a treasure of the ancient Chinese science.Evidences show that acupuncture can transmit signals through stimulating body surface to the brain where the signals are integrated and sent to the whole body,so as to regulate organs'function through the neuro-endocrine-immune system,improve human body harmony and treat diseases.Nowadays,neuromodulation technique represents a trend.In the U.S.the program of stimulating peripheral activity to relieve conditions (SPARC),which is similar to electro-acupuncture,has been conducted at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) since 2016.In this article,we briefly summarize the current situation of acupuncture and brain-related studies in both traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine,and try to explore the therapeutic mechanisms of acupuncture from the perspective of neuromodulation.Understanding the operational mechanisms of acupuncture from the central and peripheral nerve systems will be of great significance to the AI development on account of acupuncture neuromodulation in the future.
  • Special Issues
    SHAN Baoci
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(11): 85-90. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.012
    The appearance of functional imaging technology provides an effective means for acupuncture research.In this paper we review the imaging research progress of acupuncture and moxibustion from three aspects,i.e.,acupoint specificity,acupuncture treatment of different diseases,and the basic factors of acupuncture.Then,we address some problems in the current study of brain functional imaging in acupuncture and moxibustion that need to receive more attention from relevant researchers.Finally,we talk about the prospect of the study on acupuncture and imaging.
  • Special Issues
    GUO Lanping, ZHOU Li, WANG Sheng, KANG Chuanzhi, HAO Qingxiu, YANG Wanzhen, ZHOU Liangyun, LI Zhenhao, MA Zhonghua, HUANG Luqi
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(11): 91-98. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.013
    Through collection and analysis of relevant literature,the contents of heavy metals lead,arsenic,cadmium and mercury in Chinese herbal medicine are statistically analyzed under the ISO international standard of “Chinese medicine-Chinese herbal medicine heavy metal”.It is shown that the four kinds of heavy metals have excess rates of 3.46%,4.03%,2.91% and 1.41%,respectively,being the highest excessive ones in animal species.In addition,flowers,leaves,and whole grass have relatively higher contents of heavy metals,and they are followed by root and rhizome,stems and trees,while fruit and seed classes have the minimum exceeding rates for heavy metals.At present,the limits of heavy metals in various countries and regions are mainly based on plant medicinal materials,and there is no unique limit to heavy metals in animal medicines.Therefore,it is necessary to speed up the research and standard development of heavy metals in animal medicines.
  • Special Issues
    ZHANG Danwei, LI Xi, JIANG Lixin
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(10): 26-31. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.10.003
    The remote cooperative diagnosis and treatment involves the use of information and communication technology and computer network to provide medical information or medical service from a distance. With its great advantages in optimizing medical resource allocation, reducing medical cost and improving medical service quality, it has become a burgeoning area of medicine, especially in China. This paper summarizes the basic concept and the history of remote cooperative diagnosis and treatment, focusing mainly on the present situation and existing problems in China, and the challenges and opportunities for the future development.
  • Special Issues
    DENG Huafeng, HE Qiang
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(10): 32-37. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.10.004
    In China, with the support of the national high technology research program, a series of important achievements have been made on hybrid rice with strong heterosis, the world record of rice yield in large area is created continuously, and the utilization of rice heterosis is in the international forefront. This paper summarizes the breeding and the application of hybrid rice with strong heterosis since the end of the 11th Five-Year Plan in China, including the theory and the technology of strong heterosis hybrid rice breeding, the discovery and the utilization of important functional genes, the breeding of parents and hybrid rice with strong heterosis, the commercial technology, the research and demonstration, and the application of hybrid rice with strong heterosis, and the research emphasis in next five years.
  • Special Issues
    XU Wei
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(10): 38-43. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.10.005
    Abstract (767) PDF (1615) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    Till 2016, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development had already accomplished the goal of building energy efficiency proposed in the 1980s, to upgrade the building energy codes in three steps of raising energy efficiency by“30-50-65”with the state in the 1980s as the baseline. Recently, the goal of building nearly zero energy becomes the main solution of global warming and climate change. This paper reviews the latest international trend of nearly zero energy building and analyzes the special condition in China. The guideline and standards/codes and the best practice of nearly zero energy building are analyzed, together with the bottleneck of the key technologies. At last, the envisage of New Three Steps of building energy efficiency from 2016 to 2030 are proposed, which are“Low Energy Building, Ultra-low Energy Building and Nearly Zero Energy Building”.
  • Special Issues
    LI Linlin, LU Shaoyong, MENG Wei, LIU Xiaohui, GUO Xiaochun, WAN Zhengfen
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(9): 13-22.
    In recent decades, lake eutrophication has severely limited the economic and social sustainable development in the lake basin. To repair the ecological environment and promote the development of the Yangtze river economic belt, solutions to the lake’s eutrophication problem are urgently needed. The six key lakes along the Yangtze river are taken as the research objects, and their historical changes, characteristics, cause analysis and control measures for eutrophication are discussed. It is shown that the eutrophication indexs of the six lakes have been gradually reduced in recent years and the state of lake eutrophication has a tendency of getting better. Causes of lake eutrophication are complex, the main influence factors include exogenous input and endogenous release. In terms of of lake forms and hydrological conditions, the six lakes are shallow lakes and mostly are closed or semi-closed state, which is advantageous to the accumulation of nutrients and algae growth. The control measures of exogenous input are relatively mature and can greatly reduce the nutrients discharged into the lake, such as the expansion of the sewage treatment plant, improvement of sewage treatment and supporting pipe network construction. But for internal release, the governance process is relatively complicated. At present there are mainly physical and chemical methods and technologies such as dredging, sediment oxidation, chemical precipitation, sediment cover, microbial agents, biological floating bed, and so on. Due to the differences of physical and chemical conditions, the applicable method to each lake is also different, so the appropriate lake endogenous control technology remains to be demonstrated. Controlling nutrients input from inside and outside sources, executing river ecological restoration and security governance, and management together could ensure the long-term effectiveness of eutrophic lakes governance.
  • Special Issues
    QIU Fuguo, XU Yanqiu, XU Junting, FU Kunming
    Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35(9): 23-29.
    Phosphorus is one of the main causes of eutrophication of water bodies. Constructed wetland can remove phosphorus effectively and economically. This paper discusses the mechanism of phosphorus removal in constructed wetland, and reviews the physical/chemical/biological reactions for phosphorus removal by wetland plants, microorganisms and media in the constructed wetland. The effects of temperature, dissolved oxygen, hydraulic retention time and hydraulic load on the phosphorus purification in constructed wetland are discussed. The development and application of non-media constructed wetland for pollutants removal in water are also discussed.