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  • Scientific Comments
    JIANG Shanyu, WANG Feng
    Science & Technology Review. 2023, 41(3): 29-36. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2023.03.002
    By analyzing the variation of investment from 2011 to 2020, the transformation characteristics of China's geological work in the past decade and its future trend are analyzed in combination with the current situation and demand characteristics of economic and social development. It is shown that with the continuous decline of investment in the past decade the structure of geological work has been deeply adjusted, with the old driving force accelerating retreat and transformation, and the new driving force booming under the demand stimulation. The minerals exploration remained the mainstay in China, and oil/gas exploration was kept in an orderly manner. Explorations of gold, copper, iron, lead and zinc and other traditional minerals suffered the greatest impact while explorations of graphite, uranium and other emerging strategic minerals enjoyed increasing demand. Agricultural geology, urban geology, environmental geology, disaster geology survey evaluation and monitoring, geothermal resources survey and other new fields ushered in the development opportunities, leading the direction of China's geological transformation. Regional geological survey, hydrogeological survey and marine geological survey were gradually adjusted to meet basic needs. Geological science and technology and comprehensive research, geological data service and informatization were improving to support the continuous transformation of geological development.
  • Scientific Comments
    LI Guigen
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(22): 120-129. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.22.013
    The 2021 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to two chemists, Benjamin List and David W.C. MacMillan for their contributions "for the development of asymmetric organocatalysis". This paper reviews the source, the innovation and the background of the Nobel prize work. The chiral chemistry, the chiral catalysts and the asymmetric organic catalysis and their control of chirality are explained, along with the categories of the organic catalysis and the catalysts. The important contributions of Chinese scientists in the field of the organic asymmetric catalysis are introduced, and the development, the research status and the future of this field are highlighted.
  • Scientific Comments
    GU Xiaodan, LUO Lingling, CHEN Hongbing
    Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39(7): 112-119. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.07.013
    Considering the current dilemma the environmental design methodology is facing, the paper analyzes the characteristics of environmental design ecology methodology based on the theory of affordance. It is shown that the methodology takes ecological holism as the cornerstone of environmental design method research and takes ecological law as the basic criterion of environmental design. The affordance connotation, the mechanism of human-environment coordination, is taken as the principle and method of environmental design so as to achieve the coordination between human and environment at the level of behavior and the resonance at the level of emotion, to achieve transcend the function of human design, and construct the ecological self from the aspects of ecological practice and ecological experience.
  • Scientific Comments
    ZHONG Hua, FAN Shaoping, NI Ping, AN Xinying
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(23): 23-30. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.23.003
    This paper takes the statistical yearbook and paper databases as data source, and combs the key data of innovation and development of health and health science and technology in China, including key indicators of resource structure, innovation output and innovation impact. It is concluded that China has made a series of research progresses in the field of health and health science and technology, which cover the establishment of health and health science and technology innovation system, continuous improvement of system design, rapid updating of R&D capability and level, continuous emergence of scientific and technological achievements, and ceaseless enhancement of the role of scientific and technological innovation in ensuring health.
  • Scientific Comments
    WU Heqi
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(23): 31-38. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.23.004
    As a national strategy, big data technology aims to benefit all people through the smart medical model. In response to the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic, medical big data technology embodies many values:effective scheduling of medical resources, AI medical treatment, prediction of outbreaks, monitoring of outbreaks, trends, etc. However, while big data technology becomes an important technical means in medical field, new problems and challenges in data risks also arise. It has become difficult for regulation design to coordinate conflicts between data protection and data use. This article sorts out the current status of personal medical data regulation, analyzes the shortcomings of data regulation in combination with medical practice, and proposes a construction logic of perfecting China's data regulation by drawing on foreign data regulation, that is, with the overall interests of society being the core, system design is carried out on the premise of balancing interest relationships and data abuse is included in data regulation. Scenario concepts are also introduced to modify consent rules and to promote the formation of data de-identification standards.
  • Scientific Comments
    LI Ming, TANG Weiwei, FAN Quanlin
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(22): 86-94. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.22.010
    The space weather becomes a global challenge to the human society in the new era. Europe is heavily influenced by the space weather and makes much effort to address the threats of extreme space weather events. This paper reviews the space weather related programs and the ground-based and space-borne monitoring facilities that Europe has built independently or through international cooperation; focusing on the assessment and recommendations for a consolidated european approach to space weather-as a part of a global space weather effort, for enhancing the ability of Europe to respond to space weather risks and its contribution to the global space weather effort. Europe plays an important role of the global space weather effort. China and Europe can jointly contribute to creating a community of shared future for mankind.
  • Scientific Comments
    XUE Shu, HE Guangxi
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(13): 135-140. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.13.016
    Strengthening basic research is an important way and task to cope with the changes in the international scientific and technological competition pattern and enhance China's scientific and technological innovation and development capabilities. The "0 to 1" basic research work plan clarifies the focus and the methods of the basic research policy support. This paper analyzes the relationship between the basic research policies and the economic and social development levels, and the key topics such as the basic research support funding, the support directions, the talent evaluation, the study styles and the international cooperation in the above-mentioned policies.
  • Scientific Comments
    ZHANG Hongtao
    Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37(11): 6-8. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.11.001
    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted the investigational BTK inhibitor Zanubrutinib (BGB-3111) a breakthrough therapy designation for the treatment of adult patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) who have previously received at least 1 prior therapy, on Jan. 15th 2019. This paper introduced the definition of the breakthrough therapy designation, the breakthrough achievements of Zanubrutinib, the significance of this event to Chinese pharmaceutical R&D enterprises.
  • Scientific Comments
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(22): 6-7.
  • Scientific Comments
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(22): 6-6.
  • Scientific Comments
    SHEN Samuel
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(17): 14-18. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.17.002
    All technological revolutions have led to social changes. The past three major waves of human development-from the agricultural revolution and the industrial revolution to the most recent information revolution-all brought profound changes by means of the "disruptive technologies" of the time. Today, the disruptive technologies, from cloud computing and big data to artificial intelligence, are having a tremendous impact on the world economy, and even on the global landscape, on an annual basis. The world's leading nations have attached great importance to their ability to anticipate future technologies,leveraging disruptive technologies to improve core technological capabilities. This paper discusses eight trends, two environments and the seven-layer model of disruptive technologies with focus on the transformative role of cloud computing and artificial intelligence in digital economy.
  • Scientific Comments
    LIU Yong, ZENG Xianfang
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(17): 19-22. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.17.003
    Deep learning has recently made a huge breakthrough in the field of computer vision. What makes it succeed is using a large amount of labeled data for supervised learning with deep neural networks. However, labeling a large-scale dataset is very expensive and time-consuming. To solve the large-scale dataset annotation issue, Apple's Shrivastava team tried to achieve unsupervised learning of simulated images with existing computer simulation techniques and adversarial training methods, thereby avoiding the expensive image annotation process. They had three innovations, namely a ‘self-regularization’ term, a local adversarial loss, and updating the discriminator using a history of refined images so that the real image is generated while retaining the input image features. The experiment results showed that the method can generate highly realistic images. The team also quantitatively analyzed the generated images by training a gaze estimation model and a hand posture estimation model. The results indicated a significant improvement over using synthetic images and achieved the state of the art on the MPⅡGaze dataset without any labeled real data. However, the researchers didn't conduct any experiment in complex scenarios involving multiple objects. The application of the proposed method still has limitations in complex scenarios.
  • Scientific Comments
    WANG Hong, XIANG Xiaodong, ZHANG Lanting
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(14): 15-21. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.14.003
    Abstract (1385) PDF (1465) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    The working models of the Materials Genomic Engineering can be roughly classified into those of the experiment-driven, the computation-driven and the data-driven. The last kind of model is consistent with the fourth paradigm of scientific approach of a fundamental change from "trial and error" to "data-intensive". Such a paradigm shift allows one to acquire the composition-structureprocess-performance relationship, as the basis for the rational design of materials, in a faster, cheaper and more accurate way. It represents the core concept and the future direction of the MGI. In this data-centric scientific era, the ability to quickly obtain a large amount of materials data becomes essential. Thus, the "data foundries"-the centralized materials data generation facilities based on high-throughput experiments and high-throughput computations are the key infrastructures for meeting the future data needs. It is contemplated that the data and the artificial intelligence will become the foundation for building the materials science of the future.
  • Scientific Comments
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(12): 13-14. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.12.002
    1933年F.Zwicky利用光谱红移测量了后发座星系团中各个星系相对于星系团的运动速度。发现它们的速度弥散度太高,对应的质光比在100以上。因此星系团中应该存在大量的不可见物质,这开启了现代暗物质研究。之后陆续有支持暗物质存在的研究结果出现,1970年V.C.Rubin和W.K.Ford对仙女座大星云中星体旋转速度开展了高精度的光谱测量,探测到了远离星系核区域的外围星体绕星系旋转速度和距离的关系。观测结果表明在相当大的范围内星系外围的星体的速度是恒定的。这意味着或者牛顿引力定律是不正确的,或者星系中有大量的不可见物质并不分布在星系核心区,并且其质量远大于发光星体的质量总和。由此开始,星系及星系团中暗物质存在这一假说逐渐被天文学界广泛接受。
  • Scientific Comments
    ZHANG Chengmin, YANG Yiyan, ZHI Qijun
    Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36(12): 15-21. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.12.003
    This paper analyzes the relationship between the achievements of the ancient astronomy and the scientific goal of the FAST (Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope) in China. The guest star, recorded firstly by the astronomers of Song dynasty in 1054, was recognized as the supernova explosion and shown as a Crab nebula, in which a pulsar was formed. Now, the FAST is making the pulsar observation, for understanding the above guest star. The pulsar and its discovery history are reviewed in this paper; furthermore, with a scientific confidence, based on the guest star recorded in 1054 and the FAST for the pulsar search, we try to answer the hard question put forward by Joseph Needham on why the modern scientific revolution did not happen in China despite the high prosperity reached in Song dynasty. It is well acknowledged that science is a common property of the mankind, while China made a great contribution to its initial development, Europe did its best in the Renaissance, and the expansion of Mongol helped the scientific and cultural exchange between the East and the West.