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  • Exclusive:Science and Technology Ethics
    WANG Xiaoyan, XU Fei
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(18): 13-20.
    With the rapid development of modern science and technology, while emerging science and technology brings about progress and well-being to human society, its potential uncertainty also makes various risks and crises increasingly apparent. This paper analyzes the historical causes of frequent scientific and technological ethical problems in China, and points out that these problems are not only the historical necessity of modern scientific institutionalization and professional development, but also the results of the disadvantages in the process of learning and catching up, At the same time, they are closely related to the ethical environment of different cultures between China and the West; It is concluded that the construction of scientific and technological ethics governance and the development of science and technology for human well-being are the only way for China to achieve a high-quality development of science and technology in the future and to maintain all-round competitiveness; In terms of the path selection, it is suggested that the development of science and technology should be synchronized with the ethical governance. In the overall position of a community with a shared future for mankind, the ethical governance should be used to promote the scientific and technological innovation. Through the detour of the ethical governance, we should accelerate the construction of a powerful country in science and technology and achieve self-reliance in high-level science and technology.
  • Exclusive:Science and Technology Ethics
    GE Haitao, AN Hongxuan
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(18): 21-30.
    The establishment of the National Science and Technology Ethics Committee and the issuance of the guidelines on strengthening science and technology ethics governance, mark a new page for China's science and technology ethics governance system. This paper reviews the emergence and the development of modern science and technology ethics issues, and the construction of China's science and technology ethics governance system, as well as related research results of the CAST, and analyzes several prominent issues such as the policy implementation, the subject responsibility, and the ethical literacy, as related with the policy and the main principles of the construction of China's science and technology ethics governance system in the new era. The future direction of the science and technology ethical governance is to promote the development of the science and technology for human well-being and in responsible manners, for the formation of a vision of scientific and technological ethics governance with multi-party co-governance and shared responsibility.
  • Exclusive:Science and Technology Ethics
    ZHANG Xiaoyang, XIAO Wei
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(18): 31-39.
    The document "Guidelines on Strengthening the Ethical Governance of Science and Technology" clarifies the five ethical principles in the fields of science and technology that China's contemporary science and technology development must follow: to improve human well-being, to respect the right to life, to adhere to the principle of fairness and justice, to take a reasonable risk control, and to maintain openness and transparency. These principles can be used to form and promote the ethical governance mechanisms for scientific and technological development, the norms, the policies and the guidelines concerning different fields and issues. A good understanding of these five ethical principles becomes a key link in the science and technology ethical governance mechanism, and in the formulation of relevant norms, policies and guidelines. The bioethics is taken as a sample field to explore the five principles and to provide some guidelines for their implementation. This paper discusses the five ethical principles based on some bioethical theories and practical problems, to explain the different ethical conflicts in scientific and technological innovations and practical activities, and how to use these principles to coordinate these conflicts and cope with different ethical dilemmas and challenges.
  • Exclusive:Science and Technology Ethics
    DU Zhizheng
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(18): 40-48.
    This paper discusses the connotations of the holistic ethics and the system ethics. The holistic ethics refers to the ethical consensus recognized in a certain period and a certain range, which depends on the generation of the system ethics. The system ethics is the systematization and the legalization of the ethical requirements and practices. It is generally studied and formulated by relevant institutions to provide reasonable value orientation for institutions as the soul of institutions. It is shown that the status change from the individual virtue to the holistic ethics is a basic feature of contemporary ethics and moral, and an important transformation of the ethical practice paradigm. The system ethics and the institutional ethics are important and urgent topics in current ethical theoretical research and ethical practice, especially for medical ethics and high biotechnology ethics.
  • Exclusive:Science and Technology Ethics
    ZHANG Lei, ZHANG Xinqing, LI Fei
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(18): 49-55.
    This paper explores the ethical cognition state of members of the ethic committee in China. Based on the data of a random sampling survey of 11164 medical researchers nationwide initiated by the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences in 2020, with 960 of them served as members of ethics committees, their cognition state, cognitive ways and related influencing factors of ethical knowledge are analyzed. More than 70% of the ethics committee members have a doctor's degree, a senior professional title and overseas experience, and 90.8% of them have read three or more related medical documents. Significant differences are found in the understanding of the medical ethics documents among the ethics committee members from different units (χ2=39.60, P<0.01). 95.2% of them understand the scientific research ethics. 98.4% of them are familiar with the four basic principles of the scientific research ethics, significant differences are found between male and female members (χ2=5.75, P =0.05), and different units (χ2=12.87, P<0.05). 90.0% of them understand the ethical review of the biomedical research, significant differences are also found between those with and without overseas experience (χ2=3.93, P<0.05), and different units (χ2=32.38, P<0.01). All ethics committee members have some appropriate ethical knowledge acquisition method. The influencing factors of the ethics committee members' understanding of the scientific research ethics include the age (OR=1.88, P<0.01) and the overseas experience (OR=1.80, P=0.06), and the influencing factors of their understanding of the ethical review include the age (OR=1.47, P<0.01) and the unit type (OR=0.69, P=0.03). It is concluded that the ethics committee members' ethical cognition is generally better than that of medical researchers, the medical institutions should pay more attention to the construction of the ethics committee. Special training organized by the unit, by the scientific research projects and the self-study programs are the main ways for the ethics members to obtain ethical knowledge. To properly intervene the influencing factors affecting their cognition of ethical knowledge can effectively improve the degree of cognition and comprehensively improve the quality of the ethical review.
  • Exclusive:Science and Technology Ethics
    ZHANG Hui, YAN Ruifeng
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(18): 56-62.
    The complex ethical issues arising from the development of the gene editing technology and the synthetic biology technology are reviewed in this paper. The common ethical disputes among the natural life view, the traditional culture view, the technological security and the social justice are analyzed, as well as the ethical differences in the ethical consequences, the ethical attitudes and the ethical governance. By developing a reasonable ethical reflection approach, the complex ethical challenges faced by the modern biotechnology and the scientific ethical position that should be upheld are prospected. This paper provides some guidance for the formulation of the forward-looking and targeted classified governance countermeasures in the future, to make the development of science and technology and the social ethics in harmony for the benefit of mankind.
  • Exclusive:Science and Technology Ethics
    TAO Yingshi, CHEN Qiao
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(18): 63-68. issn. 1000-7857.2022.18.008
    Precision medicine has greatly changed the concept of disease treatment and the mode of diagnosis and treatment, bringing unprecedented health benefits to human beings. Due to the complex interaction between individual and group in precision medicine, there arises a series of ethical issues, such as the paradoxes of privacy between individual patients and groups of patients, individual patients’lack of trust towards groups of medical personnel, coexistence of cooperation and competition between individual medical personnel and groups of medical personnel, and individual doctors bearing more and more ethical responsibility on groups of patients. This article argues that only when we agree with the value concept and practical needs of precision medicine, lay a basis of ethical consideration, and review the individual and group relationship in precision medicine, can we construct a“a community of shared future for patients”that strikes a balance between privacy protection and information sharing, a harmonious and friendly“doctor-patient community” , a“medical personnel community”with cohesive force, and improve the professional ethics of medical personnel to promote the realization of China’ s precision medicine strategy that everyone can participate in and share.
  • Exclusive:Science and Technology Ethics
    LU Yi, CUI Zhongliang
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(18): 69-78.
    Abstract (542) PDF (1769) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    In order to provide useful guidance for further improvement of AI ethics, this paper analyzes the current development trend of AI ethics researches in China. The relevant literature in China is reviewed, focusing on four research topics, including the development process of AI ethics, the governance of ethical risk, and the ethical responsibility of the main body. The causes of ethical problems are analyzed, and an analysis framework is constructed. Through the review, some limitations in the domestic researches are revealed, such as the disconnect between theory and practice, the lack of systematicness, the obsolescence of research direction, and the imbalance of research objects. In view of the above problems, according to the trend of AI ethical governance in China, and focusing on the forefront of AI technology, some suggestions are made: emphasizing that theories should be linked to practice, encouraging the systematic researches of disciplines, promoting the innovation of ethical research, and promoting the balance of research objects. Following the guidance of these four aspects, this paper proposes to build an AI ethics system with Chinese characteristics and promote the research of AI ethics.
  • Exclusive:Science and Technology Ethics
    SUN Xiaoyu, ZHENG Yujing, ZHOU Xu, KONG Ying, WANG Lanying
    This paper reviews the extensive researches of military ethics both at home and abroad, focusing on the theoretical development, the military technology ethics, the ethical issues in military practice and the military ethics. It is shown that the researches of the military technology ethics and the ethical issues in military practice will continue. In the future, the military ethics will focus on the international perspective, the specific needs of military practice will call for establishing military ethics and moral norms with the multiculturalism to meet the demands of the common interests of globalization.
  • Exclusive:Science and Technology Ethics
    LIU Xiaopeng, HE Fei
    Science & Technology Review. 2022, 40(18): 87-94.
    In order to uphold the scientific research integrity, China's related departments have issued a series of laws and regulations, and put forward guiding suggestions on the classification, the investigation procedures and the handling measures for the academic misconduct. The identification of the academic misconduct is the key link in the process from the investigation to the treatment, but it is difficult to formulate a generally applicable objective standard in identifying the academic misconduct. The identification very much depends on the subjective judgment of the academic community on the basis of the investigation. Based on a careful review , the influencing factors in the identifying process are analyzed, including the adequacy of launching conditions, the determination of the responsible persons, the effectiveness of the identified evidence, and the perspective of the identification. It is important to keep the subjective nature of the identifying mode in mind. It is suggested that the investigation and the identification should be carried out within the framework of laws and regulations to ensure the legitimacy of the procedures, protect the legitimate rights and interests of the persons concerned. A reliable identification conclusion should be drawn by the academic evaluation of the full investigation.