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   Science & Technology Review
2013, Vol.31, No. 9
28 March 2013

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卷首语

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 3-3. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 203 )
科技风云

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 7-7. ;  doi:
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特别栏目

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 11-11. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 12-12. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 81-81. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 90-92. ;  doi:
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科技事件

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 9-9. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 132 )
Exclusive

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 15-17. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 137 )
Articles

Impact of Lanthanide Contraction on the Structure and Electric Transport Properties of the Nano Powder by Doping with (La0.8Ln0.2)2/3Ca1/3MnO3

HE Ning;LI Qinglun;QI Yang;ZHANG Caibei
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 18-22. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.09.001
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Abstract ( 453 )
A series of doping (La0.8Ln0.2)2/3Ca1/3MnO3 (Ln represents La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, and Er, respectively) nanometer level crystals were prepared by using the sol-gel method with the same experiment conditions. It is shown that the average lattice constant and tolerance factor varies monotonically with the increase of atomic number of doping elements for the series of samples, the average lattice constant a is gradually decreased, the average lattice constant b is essentially unchanged, and the average lattice constant c is slightly reduced in general; tolerance factor t is gradually reduced in the range between 0.925 and 0.918, however with the lanthanide contraction of samples, the system remains the perovskite structure. For samples with different doping elements, there is a big discrepancy in the surface morphology and electric transport properties of samples; the distribution of each particle sizes is from 30 nm to 800nm and the transition temperature is from 82K to 194K. At zero field, the transition temperature Tc for the cerium-team (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, and Eu) doping samples does not exhibit a monotonic changes, while its behavior changes from metallic state to insulated state with the increase of atomic number; and Tc for the yttrium-team (Gd, Dy, Ho, and Er) doping samples increases with the increase of atomic number and is in accordance with the monotony of lanthanide contraction.

Functionalization of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes for Sustained-releasing Ofloxacin

LI Sanqing;LIU Yaochi;YU Jingang
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 23-26. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.09.002
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Abstract ( 512 )
As the third generation of synthetic flouroquinolone antibacterials, the ofloxacin is a potent antifungal agent with a broad antifungal spectrum, a strong antibacterial activity, the ability of completely oral absorption,a wide distribution in tissue and a high bioavailability. By using the nitric acid to treat multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) under the microwave irradiation, the carboxyl groups were introduced onto the MWNTs and the oxidized MWNTs (MWNTs-COOH) were prepared. Catalized by the p-toluenesulfonic acid, the poly(ethylene glycol) modified MWNTs (PEG-g-MWNTs) with good dispersivity were synthesized. The PEG-g-MWNTs composites were used as the drug delivery for drug loading/releasing of the ofloxacin. It is indicated that the PEG-g-MWNTs has a great load rate (92.8%) for the ofloxacin, which can be sustained, controlled and released in the phosphate buffer solution (pH=7.4) in 24h.

Transmission Characteristics of Electromagnetic Wave Through Soil Surface Covered by Snow

TIAN Wei;REN Xincheng
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 27-30. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.09.003
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Abstract ( 262 )
The rough surface of snow and soil is simulated using a rough surface of exponential type. The transmission characteristics of electromagnetic wave through the soil surface covered by snow is investigated using the hybrid method based on the Method of Moment (MoM) and the Kirchhoff Approximation (KA). The snow surface and the soil surface are divided into an MoM region and a KA region by the hybrid method. The angular distribution of the transmission coefficient is obtained by the numerical calculation. The influences of the root-mean-square height of the snow surface and the soil surface, the type of the snow layer, the soil moisture, the thickness of the snow layer on the transmission coefficient are analyzed. It is indicated that the root-mean-square height of the snow surface, the type of the snow layer and the soil moisture have a considerable influence on the transmission coefficient,, but the influence of the root-mean-square height of the soil surface and the thickness of the snow layer can be neglected.

Prediction of Soft Soil Foundations Settlements Based on Self-memorization Principal of Dynamic System

HUANG Rendong;JIN Hao;WANG Hong
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 31-35. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.09.004
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Abstract ( 198 )
The foundation settlement is a nonlinear dynamic system development process, and based on the fact, "the self-memorization principle of the dynamic system" is introduced to predict the soft soil foundation settlement accurately. Taking a nonlinear ordinary differential equation derived from the bilateral difference principle as a dynamic kernel, a soft soil foundation settlement based self-memorization model is constructed and applied to the Shan-Fen Expressway soft foundation settlement prediction. It is shown that with the introduction of the self-memorization principle, the soft soil foundation settlement prediction can be improved in the accuracy and the range of applications, which provides a new way to predict the soft soil foundation settlement.

Seismic Inversion Constrained by High-resolution Sequence Stratigraphy Framework and Its Applications

CAO Tong;GUO Shaobin
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 36-39. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.09.005
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Abstract ( 270 )
During the reservoirs exploration and development, the impedance inversion method based on seismic data could be adopted to predict the reservoir distribution. Especially in the stage of reservoirs development, it is necessary to know the thin layer and thin interbed reservoirs distribution and to take measures in the further development. In order to acquire accurate inversion results, it is important to build a refined initial model. Although the impedance inversion is based on log and geological data, the initial model built on the traditional structure interpretation results is not accurate enough, and is unable to reduce multi-solution problem of seismic inversion. The impedance inversion based on high-resolution sequence stratigraphy framework has been introduced. First the high-resolution sequence stratigraphy classification results could be calibrated in the seismic profile by the synthetic seismogram. Then every sequence interface must be interpreted in the seismic profile. As to the sequence interface that does not have the corresponding seismic wave in seismic profile, it could be traced according to the logging data. The initial model for the log-constrained impedance inversion has been constructed on the basis of the interpretation of high-resolution sequence framework. Finally the reservoirs distribution is able to be required from the inversion results. The method is successfully applied to the Gaotaizi Oil field of Daqing Placanticline. The predictive reservoirs have been confirmed by the later real drilling data. The case study indicates the wide application prospects for the inversion method constrained by high-resolution sequence framework in the prediction of the thin interbed reservoir.

Similar Criteria Derivation for the Physical Simulation of Water Flooding in the Plate Model of Ultra-low Permeability Reservoir and Its Applications

TENG Qi;YANG Zhengming;LIU Xuewei;XIONG Shengchun;YU Rongze;FENG Cheng
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 40-45. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.09.006
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Abstract ( 250 )
In order to improve the water flooding physical simulation similarity theory, on the basis of previous studies, the similarity rules of water flooding in the ultra-low permeability reservoir are deduced with the basic equation considering the nonlinear seepage characteristic of fluid in ultra-low permeability reservoirs. By using the inspectional analysis method, the physical significance of each similar rule is analyzed, and the conversion relationships between the model parameters and reservoir parameters are determined. Through the selection of the corresponding outcrop rock with the actual reservoir, the simulation scheme is able to realize the similarity of two phase flow characteristics, capillary force characteristics, and nonlinear seepage characteristics in between the model and the reservoir prototype. The conclusions are able to provide the theoretical guidance for the physical simulation of water flooding in the ultra-low permeability reservoirs.

Numerical Simulation for Division of Phase Zone Displacement: with Gao89 as an example

WANG Jie;TAN Baoguo;LÜGuangzhong
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 46-49. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.09.007
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Abstract ( 235 )
Using the CO2 flooding to enhance the oil recovery is a development trend. The three displacement modes are the miscible, the near-miscible, and the non-miscible flooding modes. By means of expanding the oil volume, reducing the viscosity, decreasing the interfacial tension, and increasing the injection volume, the CO2 flooding can substantially enhance the oil recovery. The reservoir in the block Gao89 is of low porosity and ultra-low permeability. The oil in the block Gao89 is divided into eight pseudo components by the crude oil compound. The phase matching is done, including the volumetric factor, the oil density, and the oil viscosity. The MMP of the oil in this area is 28.94MPa. The simulation result agrees with that of the slime-tube test. With the numerical simulation, the production index is adjusted and the fracture distribution is obtained to accurately match the production performance. The static bottom hole pressure of the prediction agrees with that of the test, which verifies the simulation. Based on the numerical simulation for the block Gao 89 reservoir model, different displacement modes are established for the production gas oil ratio, the pressure relationship correlation diagram and the identification standards, with different gas saturations, interfacial tensions, and oil viscosities in different displacement patterns. Accordingly, the displacement pattern for the key well is identified. The method can serve as a guideline for the field application.

Optimization of the Trunsition from One Mining Area to the Next Engineering for Mining in Section Surface Coal Mine

SONG Ziling;WANG Zhaodong;FAN Junfu
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 50-54. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.09.008
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Abstract ( 436 )
The open pit with coal seams in several approximately horizontal mining sections is mined in sequence. When the mining of the previous section is about to end and that of the next section is about to start, the striping and the coal mining engineering must be optimized, in order to have a smooth mining transition. As an example, consider the mine engineering for transferring from one mining area to the next in Pingshuo Anjialing surface coal mine. The so-called L form project, the fanlike project and the dig ditch project are proposed. The three projects are compared with respect to the production stripping ratio, the time taken for transferring from one mine area to the next, the mine and overburden transportation distances and the economic benefit by adopting the projects. Based on the comparison, the L form project is adopted. For the determination of the next mining engineering location, we put forward a two section V-P curve connecting scheme, analyzing the production stripping ratio and the mining transition time, to finally establish the mining transition scheme. The annual stripping and mining coal engineering load of the two sections is optimized.

Numerical Simulation of the Relation Between Slenderness Ratio and Flight-Characteristics of KE-rod

WANG Yingchun;WANG Jie;WANG Kun
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 55-58. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.09.009
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Abstract ( 201 )
This paper studies the effect of the slenderness ratio on the dispersion characteristics of the aimed KE-rod warhead, with the nonlinear dynamic analysis software LS-DYNA, 11 different slenderness ratios of the KE-rod are considered, and the relationship among the KE-rod speed, the spatial distribution and the slenderness ratio is obtained When the slenderness ratio is greater than 5 and less than 11, the speed of the KE-rod increases with the slenderness, and when the slenderness ratio is greater than 11, the speed decrease slowly; for the spatial distribution, when the slenderness ratio greater than 5 and less than 8, the spatial distribution of the KE-rod is more intensive, when the slenderness ratio is greater than 8, the distribution is relatively dispersed and uniform, when the slenderness ratio is 11, the velocity and spatial distribution of the KE-rod is optimal. The simulation results are basically consistent with those in the literature, and differ slightly with those obtained by experiments. The simulation results can provide a reference for the design of this type of warhead.

Vision Integration Model of Receptive Field and Its Application

ZHANG Jian;ZHAO Bing;LI Yongqiang;CHANG Qifeng;LU Peng
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 59-64. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.09.010
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Abstract ( 182 )
The visual information in the brain is passed layer by layer. Almost all the visual signals from the retina go through the receptive field of the primary visual cortex (V1 area) and pass on to a more advanced visual cortex after processing. The receptive field of V1 is mainly responsible for extracting the image shape, direction, color and other information, with the spatial domain of locality, time and frequency domain direction and choice, as well as sparse response characteristics. From the view of natural image statistics, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is one of the main methods to model early computational vision. However, the space arrangement of basic functions (independent components of natural image) decomposed by basic ICA is chaotic and their amplitudes are uncertainty. This decomposition result is contradicted with physiological mechanisms of vision. So, a new computational model is proposed to simulate two important mechanisms of vision which are visual cortex receptive field topology construct and synchronous oscillation among neuron group. To solve the problem of train image fault detection, a new algorithm was proposed based on above compute model. The experiment results show that, the new algorithm can increase fault detection rate effectively compared with traditional methods which absence of above two important mechanisms of vision.

Preprocessing Techniques for Hyperspectral-Images

YANG Yanjie;ZHAO Yingjun;QIN Kai;LU Donghua
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 65-67. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.09.011
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Abstract ( 253 )
This paper discusses the processing of the CASI/SASI hyperspectral-image data obtained by Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology. The process flow, the technical details and the technical points of the hyperspectral processing are summarized. The problems of the hyperspectral data processing, such as the large hyperspectral data amount, the long processing time and the image stitching difficulties are discussed and the related countermeasures are proposed. A better application model and the technical support are provided for high spatial resolution hyperspectral data. The airborne hyperspectral images would be distorted due to the effect of the terrain, so the high resolution DEM data should be treated by orthorectification. Under different conditions when the ground images are obtained from the equipment on the plane, the same object on two images would have different colors, so the color difference should be eliminated. A great number of tests show that the CROSS model of the ENVI software can eliminate the color difference. As the space and spectral resolutions of the hyperspectral images are improved, the data volume increases. So the problem of the large volume data would add more difficulties and slow the speed of the hyperspectral image disposition. The spare time of the airborne hyperspectral images acquisition procedure should be used to do some work of the hyperspectral image pre-process. The characteristic bands are used to do the re-sampling of the hyperspectral images, which can improve the efficiency and increase the extraction speed of the hyperspectral images.

Seamless Automatic Conversion of Geological Data from CASS to MapGIS

ZHANG Donghua;LI Hongyu;ZHAO Xiuying;XIE Bin
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 68-71. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.09.012
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Abstract ( 225 )
With the development of the domestic GIS technology, the geographical information systems are widely used in various domestic industries. The south CASS data format is mainly used in digital surveying and mapping, along with the GIS technology. To reduce the cost of the GIS application system and to improve the GIS system efficiency, the timely updating of the GIS data and the geological and mineral resources is of great significance. The MapGIS software is often used in the geological fields, but the CASS software is often used in digital surveying and mapping, and their data formats are quite different.. In view of practical applications, this paper discusses the formats of the data characteristics and the conversion method between CASS and MapGIS. To read the CASS data, the CASS diagram entity types are subdivided into point, line, surface, text, and block. Then the data are converted to the MapGIS format as dot, line, face, text, and sub graph. In the conversion practice for the Inner Mongolia Baotou Habuqin iron mine topographic map, the automatic conversion of the two kinds of data formats are realized and the data loss is reduced in the process of conversion.
Reviews

Applications and Prospects of Dry Tailings Disposal at Home and Abroad and Dehydration Technology

ZHOU Keping;LIU Fuping;DENG Hongwei;RUAN Dexiu
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 72-79. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.09.013
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Abstract ( 203 )
In order to apply the dry tailing stacking technology better and promote the development of the tailings disposal technology, the papers on the dry tailings disposal in the Database of Ei Compendex and Chinese Academic Periodical Full Text are searched and analyzed by using statistics methods, and based on the analysis, the application status and the research progress of the dry tailings disposal technology at home and abroad are reviewed, with examples, including the effects of the tailings concentration and the rainfall on the dry heaping of tails and the priciples, advantages and limitations of the dry tailings disposal. The domestic dry tailings disposal is compared with that in other countries. The present situation of the dehydration technology and the key technology of the dry tailings disposal are also reviewed. The tailings pressure filtration dehydration technology, the tailings thickening-pressure filtration/thickening-filtration dehydration technology and the tailings classifying-thickening- pressure filtration dehydration technology are considered as the three most commonly used dehydration technologies. The related dewatering equipment is briefly discussed. The technical and management issues on the current dry tailings disposal technology are analyzed. At last, the future prospect for the application of the dry tailings disposal is suggested.
书评

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 80-80. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 128 )
主编心语

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 83-83. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 107 )
科技纵横捭阖

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 84-84. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 110 )
科技职场

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (9): 85-85. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 125 )

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