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   Science & Technology Review
2013, Vol.31, No. 2
18 January 2013

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卷首语

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 3-3. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 163 )
科技风云

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 7-7. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 203 )
特别栏目

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 12-12. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 13-13. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 14-14. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 55-55. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 81-81. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 89-89. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 94-94. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 95-95. ;  doi:
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科技事件

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 9-9. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 113 )
科技工作大家谈

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 11-11. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 131 )
Exclusive

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 15-17. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 150 )
Articles

Loose Particles Cemented by Microbially Induced Magnesium Carbonate

RONG Hui;QIAN Chunxiang;LI Longzhi
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 18-21. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.02.001
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Abstract ( 284 )
Loose particles could be cemented by the microbial induced calcite into a bio-sandstone with a certain mechanical strength. This technique could be used to repair the surface defects in the cementitious materials and in the treatment of foundations. In order to determine whether other carbonate minerals induced by microbe have the similar properties as the calcite, loose particles were cemented by microbially induced magnesium carbonate. The samples with bacteria and without bacteria are compared, and it is shown that the microbially induced magnesium carbonate could also have the same cementation function while adopting the same molding process and the injection time. In addition, the microstructure of the microbially induced white precipitate, the bio-sandstone was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and. was shown to be the magnesite with the morphology of needles. The mechanical test shows that the microbial induced magnesium carbonate cementation of unconsolidated sand particles in the form of sand column (bio-sandstone) has a certain compressive strength.

Quantitative Study on Landslide Volume, Gravitational Potential Energy Reduction, and Resulting in Regional Centroid Change Triggered by 2010 Yushu Earthquake

XU Chong;XU Xiwei
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 22-29. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.02.002
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Abstract ( 268 )
As the main form of seismic ground response, landslides triggered by earthquake have received much attention in recent years. However, the researches on landslides volume, gravitational potential energy reduction triggered by earthquake and resulting in regional centroid change are almost absent. The aim of the study is to carry out quantitative study on landslide volume, gravitational potential energy reduction, and resulting in regional centroid change triggered by 2010 Yushu earthquake. The results show that (1) the total volume of the 2036 landslides triggered by the Yushu earthquake is 2.94×106m3 and the landslide erosion thickness throughout the study area is 2mm. (2) The materials of these landslides moved from the elevation of 4140.681m~4147.539m to the elevation of 4106.394~4113.251m, resulting in the average dropped distance of 27.430~41.145m. (3) The gravitational potential energy reduction related to the landslides is (2~3) ×1012J. (4) The average regional elevation of the study area is 4427.160m. The value is constant with the assumption that the accumulation materials retain in situ. Whereas it changes from 4427.160m to 4427.158m under the situation of all landslide materials moved out of the study area. (5) Based on the assumption that all landslide materials moved out of the study area, the elevations of the crust centroid for the study area changes from 2222.45967m to 2222.45867m, that means, due to the landslides the dropping value of crust centroid for the study area is 1mm. Whereas the value is 0.0066~0.0099mm, assuming that the materials retain in situ.

Basic Features of Late-stage Fault System in Xijiang Southern Half-sraben and Its Controls on Hydrocarbon Accumulation

PENG Guangrong;LIU Congyin;WU Jianyao;XU Yingjing;HUANG Feng;WEN Huahua;LAN Qian
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 30-36. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.02.003
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Abstract ( 307 )
The basic features of late-stage faults are studied based on the structure interpretations of seismic data and geometry and kinematics of fault system. The results indicate that in the Xijiang southern half-graben, the majority of the late-stage faults trend towards NWW-SEE direction under the tensional shear stress field, showing negative flower structure in seismic profile and structural styles including parallel style, cross style, echelon style, and feather style, etc. in the section. The late-stage faults mainly distribute in the south side of the half-graben. Based on the related research on trap forming, timing of hydrocarbon filling, and activities of late-stage faults, the late-stage fault system mainly plays three important roles in oil accumulation. They are fault controlling trap, namely, the late-stage faults control the formation and distribution of Neogene structural traps, the oil migration and spatial distribution dominated by the late stage faults, the good fault sealing abilities; and ultimate hydrocarbon accumulation in Neogene strata controlled by the lat-stage faults.

Petrological Characteristics and Sedimentary Environment Analysis of the Permian of Songkan Section, Tongzi County, Guizhou Province

LUO Jinxiong;HE Youbin;WANG Dan;LI Weiyang;WEN Jing
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 37-44. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.02.004
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Abstract ( 404 )
The Permian of Songkan section at Tongzi County, Guizhou Province is a typical section in South China, which is composed of the Qixia, Maokou, Longtan and Changxing Formations with a thickness of 484.02m. The field measurements and lab studies show that the rock types of this section are rather simple, including limestones, shale, dolostones and siliceous rocks. Limestones can be further divided into bioclastic limestones, bioclastic-bearing limestones, microcrystalline-fine crystalline limestones and eyeball shaped limestones. The eyeball shaped limestones were mainly developed in the lower part of the Qixia Formation and the middle to lower parts of Maokou Formation. They were formed by the interaction of sedimentation and diagenesis under the influence of upwelling. The dolostones are dominated by calcitic dolostones distributed in patches. They were mainly developed in Qixia and Maokou Formation, and probably formed by burial dolomitization. Siliceous rocks can be divided into two types of the nodule-, lump-and band-like rocks and the bedded siliceous rocks, which were formed by metasomatism; and the source of silicon is related to the hydrothermal activity. According to the analyses of lithology, palaeontology, sedimentary structures and geochemistry, two kinds of sedimentary environments were identified. They include the shore zone and the carbonate platform, and locally there are shallow banks in the platform. The analysis of the sedimentary environment evolution indicates that two sedimentary cycles of transgression and regression occurred in the Permian. The first transgression began in the Early Qiaxia Age, ended in the Late Maokou Age. In the Early Longtan Age, the second transgression began and lasted until the Late Changxing Age.

Effects of Cracks on the Rhizospheric Environment of Populus Cathayana

DU Tao;BI Yinli;ZHANG Jiao;YIN Nan;YU Haiyang;FENG Yanbo
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 45-49. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.02.005
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Abstract ( 453 )
By means of the field investigation, the study area and sample plant were determined in Bulianta coal mine of Shendong Area. And then soil samples in rhizosphere were collected before and after underground coal mining. Through the analyses on experimental data, the effects of surface cracks caused by underground coal mining on the rhizospheric microhabitat of Populus cathayana are analyzed. The results indicate that for the rhizosphere of Populus cathayana, in terms of quantity, bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi are in a descending order. There is a significant distribution precept of the microorganism amount, enzyme activity, and water content of soil and pH value in different seasons. The surface cracks reduce microorganism quantities, enzyme activities, hyphal density, mycorrhizal infection rate, soil water content, and electrical conductivity of soil in the rhizosphere of Populus cathayana. With the time goes by, the effects of surface cracks on the rhizospheric microhabitat of Populus cathayana are gradually weakening.

Application of Unascertained Clustering Method in the Thickness Prediction of Excavation Damaged Zone

ZHAO Guoyan;WU Hao
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 50-55. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.02.006
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Abstract ( 248 )
Firstly, the forecast method of unascertained clustering is optimized and then is applied to the thickness prediction of Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ). Afterwards, combined with the characteristics of underground pressure and the support theory of EDZ, five major factors of roadway, that is, depth, span, the intensity of surrounding rock, rock joint development degree, and excavation basal area are regarded as the discriminant factors for predicting the thickness of EDZ. Based on 17 groups of measured data, a classification model of EDZ thickness and the uncertainty measurement function of each factor as well as its weights are obtained. Meanwhile, the computing formula for the forecasting value is also given. Then, the classification grade for waiting forecast sample is estimated by the unascertained measurement distance, the forecasting value of EDZ thickness is also able to be calculated by combining the average value of EDZ thickness with each classification patterns. With the inspection, the computation results show that the average relative errors of the method are 5.13% and they are 13.61% and 10.17%, respectively by the methods of neutral network and support vector machine, respectively. In order to further test its reliability, the method is used to make prediction on the EDZ in Maluping mine and the predictive value is compared with the measured value as well. The results indicate that predicted value fits measured value quite well; unascertained clustering method is reliable and practical has been proved and it could be applied to the actual engineering.

DOA Estimation Based on Node Data Correlation for Sensor Network

ZHAO Shan;CHEN Xinhua;YU Bei;SUN Changyu
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 56-60. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.02.007
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Abstract ( 199 )
The estimation of Direction of Arrival (DOA) is an important area in the signal processing of hydroacoustical array. A sensor network consisting of multiple vector hydrophones is able to make DOA estimation by using the sound pressure and particle velocity of the location for each node, and the coordination cooperation from every node could determine the location of the target sound source. Based on vector hydrophone characteristics, correlation, and DOA algorithm theory, the influence of correlation on the DOA algorithm is analyzed through the simulation. It is able to improve the frequency spectrum of the nodes data and the cross correlation by analyzing and processing the data of actual lake trial. Since each node data contains the serious noise, as a result, it causes the frequency spectrum situation to become very bad. After data signal processing, the requirements of DOA algorithm on data correlation are met, and the broadband noise interference is able to be effectively inhibited. It is indicated that after the actual data processing, the line spectrum signal of node stands out and the cross correlation of various nodes has been improved. The practicality of the study is proved.

Multi-delivery Centre Multi-type Vehicle Scheduling Problem Based on the Partition and the Design of Genetic Algorithm

MA Yuhong;YAO Tingting;ZHANG Haoqing
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 61-67. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.02.008
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Abstract ( 235 )
A large scale multi-delivery centre multi-type vehicle scheduling problem is considered. Firstly, based on the method of gravity center partition, the multi-delivery centre multi-type vehicle scheduling problem is transformed into the single-delivery centre multi-type vehicle scheduling problem, the partition method is simple, and reduces the amount of computations. Then based on the minimum delivery cost, a mathematical model of multi-delivery centre multi-type vehicle scheduling problem is established; the model considers not only the basic transportation cost, but also the driver's salary expenses, including the basic wage and overtime pay. In the model of multi-delivery centre multi-type vehicle scheduling, one car is able to provide service for more customers, however a customer must be served only by one car. According these characteristics, a new chromosomal hybrid encoding scheme is put forward, and the techniques of segmented crossover and mutation is used, the method effectively retains the father's generation superiority of chromosome fragments, therefore remarkably improves the convergence speed of the genetic algorithm. The results of numerical simulation verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm.

Permeability Prediction of Heterogeneous Sand Reservoir Based on Flow Units Classification

SONG Ning;LIU Zhen;ZHANG Jianfeng;YANG Shuaishuai;GUO Haiying
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 68-71. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.02.009
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Abstract ( 223 )
Putaohua sand reservoir with medium-low porosity and medium-low permeability is heterogeneity in nature at D404 block of Xinzhan oilfield, Songliao Basin. By integrating core test with petrophysics logs data to classify flow units and to built the accurate permeability prediction model for identifying oil and water formation and interpreting the degree of water flooded layers. Putaohua reservoir would be divided into four distinct sub flow units on the principles of the flow unit classification, therefore the relationship between porosity and permeability is significantly improved, and different flow units are identified based on core data and wire-logging. The multiple-statistic equation of the Flow Zone Indicator (FZI) is built up by screening compensation density log, deep induction resistivity log, and middle induction resistivity log which are able to best characterize the accumulation property of reservoir, and an identification model of flow unit is obtained. The porosity permeability models of each flow unit are established by using core analysis data, which obtain effective result in Putaohua reservoir of D404 Block, and permeability prediction accuracy is improved. The workflow methodology could be used in other sandstone formation.
Reviews

CO2 Storage Mechanism in Deep Saline Aquifers

LI Haiyan;PENG Shimi;XU Mingyang;LUO Chao;GAO Yang
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 72-79. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.02.010
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Abstract ( 266 )
The storage of CO2 into saline aquifers is the best way to mitigate the green house effect. The storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers mainly concerns the water storage, the residual gas storage, the dissolved storage and the mineral storage. The hydrodynamic trap is formed by the upward movement of CO2 to dense layers, which is trapped and aggregated in the geological body. The hydrodynamic traps include the open and the enclosed traps. The advantage of an enclosed trap is that the migration of CO2 is confined both horizontally and vertically, and the disadvantage is that the dissolution is restricted by the limited gas-water contact area. The advantage of an open trap is the significant quantity of CO2 dissolution caused by a large area of gas-water contact, and the disadvantage is the need of fine characterization of a large area to determine the possible gas leakage path and the need of regional monitoring. Due to the lag of the displacement and sucking phase permeability, a part of CO2 is stored as the residual gas to form the residual gas trap. The CO2 dissolved in water reacts with the ions of calcium, magnesium and iron, to generate carbonate minerals, and to form the dissolved storage. The mineral storage formed by the slow chemical reactions between CO2 and reservoirs rocks would generate carbonate minerals or bicarbonate ions. With different storage durations, the various storage methods play different roles, and the storage security levels also vary. The study of the storage mechanism of CO2 in saline aquifers will provide some guidance for China's CO2 sequestration project.
科技评论

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 80-80. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 82-82. ;  doi:
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主编心语

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 83-83. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 230 )
科技职场

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 85-85. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 86-88. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (2): 90-92. ;  doi:
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