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   Science & Technology Review
2013, Vol.31, No. 16
08 June 2013

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卷首语

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 3-3. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 161 )
科技风云

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 7-7. ;  doi:
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特别栏目

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 82-82. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 90-92. ;  doi:
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科技事件

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 9-9. ;  doi:
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Exclusive

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 15-15. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.16.001
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Abstract ( 213 )

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 16-16. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.16.002
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 17-18. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.16.003
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 19-20. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.16.004
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Abstract ( 182 )
Articles

Nine-hole Parallel Cutting Technology of the Shaft Excavation in One-step

ZHAO Guoyan;ZHAO Jingqing;LI Qiyue
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 21-25. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.16.005
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Abstract ( 219 )
To solve the problem of the small section and the low altitude in the shaft excavation, the nine-hole parallel cutting technology of the shaft excavation in one-step is proposed in this paper. Firstly, according to the rock failure mechanism in cutting blasting, the main parameters of the shaft excavation are identified. The parallel cutting method works on modes of four empty holes and the diameters of the hole and the empty hole are 0.11m and 0.25m, respectively, and the distance between the cutting hole and the empty hole is 0.46m. Then, the numerical stimulation of the cutting blasting, as the key of the nine-hole parallel cutting mode technology of the shaft excavation, is carried out by the LS-DYNA 3D software and the cavity formation can be visualized. The results of the numerical stimulation show that the parameters are reasonable so that the lotus-shaped cutting cavity can be formed by the main cutting hole blasting and the auxiliary cutting hole can further expand the cavity size. Finally, based on the theoretical analysis and the numerical stimulation and with the engineering case of the shaft excavation by blasting in an open-pit mine in mind, the field experiment is carried out with the selected parameters and a 23. 4m patio is formed with section of 4m×4m. The results of the experiment have verified the accuracy of the numerical stimulation and the feasibility of this technology of the shaft excavation in one-step.

Static Release of Heavy Metals from Sediments of Reservoir

ZHANG Wei;GONG Xijun;WANG Xiuhua;LIU Zonglai;MA Yanan;ZHANG Fengjun
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 26-29. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.16.006
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Abstract ( 249 )
The sediment is an important part of aquatic ecosystems, as the accumulation of various nutrients and pollutants among other ingredients in reservoirs. This paper studies the release of heavy metal pollutants from sediments of a reservoir, through simulation experiments with heavy metals, Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cu, focusing on the static release of heavy metal pollutants in surface sediments and bottom sediments of a reservoir. The release concentration curves of 5 kinds of heavy metals Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cu are obtained, and the concentration change trend of the release curve are analyzed. In addition, the pollutant release rate and the release amount of the heavy metals are calculated. It is shown that the release concentrations of heavy metals in the bottom sediment of the reservoir are relatively lower than those in the surface sediment and have relatively smaller impact on the overlying water quality too. The release rate and the release amount of the heavy metals in the surface sediment are higher than those in the bottom sediment by about one order of magnitude.

Eclipse Numerical Simulation Techniques for Polymer Surfactant Flooding: Theory and Practice

ZHENG Hao;SU Yanchun;ZHANG Yingchun;ZHOU Fengjun;WANG Yuejie
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 30-34. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.16.007
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Abstract ( 335 )
The reservoir numerical simulation, as a mature technology, is widely used in the adjustment and the optimization of the production measures in the oil exploration, and the oil recovery improvement. Although the numerical simulation softwares of chemical flooding are numerous, but their basic principles and the realization methods are similar. This paper takes the Eclipse numerical simulator as an example, discusses the basic principle and the numerical simulation implementation of the polymer-surfactant flooding, presents the laboratory parameters required and the determination methods. A new method of constructing the capillary desaturation curve is proposed by combining the numerical simulation calculation with the oil displacement experiments, and with a special oilfield as an example, the parameter selection and the sensitivity analysis are shown: the polymer concentration is 1500mg/L, and the surfactant concentration is 0.1%.

Numerical Simulation of Weak Gel Flooding for Fractured Reservoir Based on Fracture-matrix Coupling

ZHAO Dongfeng;LIAO Xinwei;WANG Shaoping;YIN Dandan;WANG Xiaoming;YE Heng
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 35-40. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.16.008
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Abstract ( 255 )
Due to the fact that the method of black oil model equivalent treatment fracture is unable to reflect the property of crack in the reservoir quite well, based on the theory of fracture-matrix coupling seepage, a 3D numerical model for oil-water two-phase fractured reservoir is established. By using the numerical model, the effect of different reservoir geology and development conditions on the weak gel modulation drive is researched, and the distinctiveness evaluation for the main influential factors is conducted, and the reservoir conditions for fractured reservoir appropriate flooding are put forward. By taking Jiangsu Oilfield as an example, the orthogonal analysis method is used to process the optimization design for real reservoir displacement parameters, the study results involving the utilization of weak gel modulation for fractured reservoir are able to improve recovery efficiency and have practical significance.

Leakage and Fire & Explosion Hazards of Liquefied Hydrocarbon in Storage Tanks

FU Zhimin;CAO Feifei
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 41-46. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.16.009
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Abstract ( 352 )
The hazards of leakage and fire & explosion of liquefied hydrocarbon in storage tanks are related to the high flammability of liquefied hydrocarbon and the storage conditions such as temperature and pressure. The leakage frequency of the pressurized tank of liquefied hydrocarbon is 4.7×10-5 per tank per year, in which the catastrophic rupture frequency is 4.7×10-7 per tank per year. The order of magnitude of the leakage frequency for the refrigerated tank of liquefied hydrocarbon is almost the same as that of the pressurized tank. And the catastrophic rupture leakage frequency of both the double containment tank and the full containment tank are 1.0×10-7 per tank per year. The heat absorption capacity and the freezing damage of liquefied hydrocarbon are related to its physical properties such as the atmospheric boiling point, the latent heat of vaporization, the specific heat capacity, the storage temperature and pressure of liquefied hydrocarbon, and the environment factors. The freezing damage of the refrigerated liquefied hydrocarbon is more serious due to its strong endothermic effect than that of the pressurized liquefied hydrocarbon if the leakage occurs. The vapor cloud explosion, the venting fire and the pool fire are common types of fire & explosion for both the pressurized liquefied hydrocarbon and the refrigerated liquefied hydrocarbon. Compared with the refrigerated liquefied hydrocarbon, the vapor cloud explosion and the venting fire for both gas and liquid phases, and the ground pool fire are easily formed for the pressurized liquefied hydrocarbon. And the boiling liquid expansion vapor explosion with fireball is a typical hazard. For the refrigerated liquefied hydrocarbon, the vapor cloud explosion may occur when the released refrigerated liquefied hydrocarbon enters a confined space such as a sewer system or an underground conduit system. And the venting fire and the pool fire are formed at the gas phase vents and the containment pit. The heat transfer vapor explosion may occur when the leaked refrigerated liquefied hydrocarbon contacts with water.

Defect Detection for the Bottom Plate of Oil Tank Based on Ultrasonic Lamb Waves

HUANG Zhiqiang;WANG Mingbo;WANG Weibin;KANG Yewei;LI Qin;ZHOU Yi
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 47-50. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.16.010
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Abstract ( 192 )
Aiming at the situation that the bottom edge plates of oil tank often corrode in the process of long-term service, a kind of detection technology based on ultrasonic lamb wave had been developed. Relevant experimental study is carried out. The equipment for auto-testing tank is designed. Simulation analysis on the steel plate with the thickness of 14mm is conducted; the curve of excitation angle is calculated. The result is that for the lamb wave of A0 mode, optimum excitation angle is 70°. The experimental model with the ratio of one to one for refined oil tank bottom plate of 20000m3 is designed and processed. By using designed UT350 flat guided wave testing system, the experiment is developed on the model plate, the best test results is obtained while the excitation signal frequency is 490 kHz. The result of experiment indicates that low frequency pulse signal of A0 mode lamb wave is able to detect the defects of large-sized plates. The tank bottom automatically detection device that walks close to the storage tank wall is designed; the device is able to realize the continuous, high efficiency, and stability online detection process for the defect of oil tank bottom plate. The research results and designed device achieve the defect detection for the bottom plate of oil tank. The technique provides security for the safe operation of the storage tank.

Demand Forecasting of Missile Spare Parts Based on Logistic Regression, Markov Process and Improved Grey Bootstrap Method

ZHAO Jianzhong;XU Tingxue;LI Haijun;YIN Yantao
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 51-55. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.16.011
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Abstract ( 231 )
In order to enhance the forecasting accuracy of intermittent demands of missile spare parts, a combined forecasting model based on the logistic regression,Markov process and the improved improved grey Bootstrap method is proposed. This model splits the sample series into the explanatory series and the auto-correlated series. The probabilities of nonzero demands for the explanatory series in the lead time is estimated by a Logistic regression model, the probabilities of nonzero demands for the auto-correlated series in the lead time is estimated by the Markov process, and they are combined to obtain the probabilities of nonzero demands in the lead time. Finally the demand distribution is determinated by the improved grey Bootstrap method, where, the bootstrap sampling is made, and the data are matched by GM(1,1). Based on the principle of the grey bootstrap, the resample method is improved to avoid the bootstrap being repeatly resampled in a small sample case, and the GM(1,1) twice data fitting model is used to solve the problem of the credibility of the bootstrap's simulated result in a small sample case. Experimental results show that the combined forecasting model can significantly reduce the prediction errors and the method is effective, feasible and practical for forecasting the demands of missile spare parts.

Design of Speedy Exit Runways

ZHONG Xiaolei;WANG Kechun;PENG Yin;DAI Shuangtian;BI Zheng
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 56-59. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.16.012
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Abstract ( 357 )
The design of speedy exit runways for an airfield is an important problem in airport engineering. For the civil aviation, the specifications of FAA and ICAO can be used. But for an airfield used by small airplanes, some problems will crop up. From an analysis of the representative plane of the speedy exit, it is shown that it can be divided into two segments: the turnoff and the fillet. The part of the turnoff can be described by the turning radius and the turning angle, the other part of the fillet can be described by the offset of the airplane. So these are the parameters to be studied. Through analyzing the landing track of the airplane on the runway, the relations between the exit angle and the distance of the runway to the taxiway, and between the offset in the fillets and the distance of the exit are obtained for 5 types of airplanes making swerves at the speeds of 10,15,20m/s,25 and 30. In the end, the paper put forward a new design method for the radii R, the exit angle and the fillet, for the design of speedy exit runways of military airfields.

Theory for River Functional Regionalization and A Case Study

ZHAO Yinjun;DING Aizhong;PAN Chengzhong;XU Xinyi;LI Yuanyuan;LI Jianqiang
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 60-64. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.16.013
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Abstract ( 261 )
The river function regionalization is the foundation to regulate and guide the river development and protection. In the context of the river function classification, this paper elaborates on the connotation and the principle of the river function regionalization, constructs a river function regionalization system that includes four regions (protect zone, retention zone, development and utilization zone, and buffer zone) and eleven sub-regions, and gives division indexes and methods. The river function regionalization is used in the main stream of the Yellow River as an example. The Yellow River is divided into 21 primary functions including three protect zones, five buffer zones, eleven development and utilization zones. The results show that the proposed river function regionalization system and methods are rational and feasible, and can regulate and guide the river development and protection as a new management tool.

Comparison Between Cell Suspension Shots and Tissue Mass Transfer in Osteosarcoma Animal Model Establishment

LIU Zhenfeng;REN Xiaoqiang;ASILA Ailijiang;FANG Rui;GAO Zhen;MENG Qingcai
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 65-68. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.16.014
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Abstract ( 282 )
To establish an osteosarcoma model of the nude mouse osteosarcoma, and to compare the cell suspension shots and the tissue mass transfer of the two methods with respect to the tumor characteristics, the culture is continuously transferred into an injection group body and the MG-63 is screened to obtain the Du145 cell line with a top rate of tumor cells. The MG-63 cell suspension (25μL, about 1×105) is injected into the nude mouse tibial cavity; The organization block transplantation group will transplant the MG-63 cells into the subcutaneous tumor with the tumor tissue mass vaccination in the nude mouse tibial top. Then the two methods will be compared in the tibia bone sarcoma in the situ model with respect to the tumor characteristics, and the imaging methods are used to compare the tumor rate and the tumor characteristics. Postoperative has revealed after 2-3 weeks the visible local tumor formation, after 4 weeks in the X ray film the visible tibia of soluble tumor samples of bone formation above the average period, and at the same time in the lens the typical osteosarcoma pathological features. With the cell suspension method, the tumor rate is 85%, with the organization block method, the tumor rate is 95%, and their difference is significant (P<0.05). The serum alkaline phosphatase of the model group is obviously higher than that of the blank control group (P<0.01). With both methods, the nude mouse tibia can be formed in the in-situ osteosarcoma model, but with the method of organization block transplant, the tumor rate is higher, the tumor growth is faster, and the surrounding soft tissue damage is stronger, closer to human tumors with respect to the transfer characteristics as well.
Reviews

Progress in the Power Generation Technology with Variable Speed Pump Storage and Its Applications

HAN Minxiao;ABDALLA Othman Hassan
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 69-75. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.16.015
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Abstract ( 330 )
Variable speed pump storage is very likely become the effective measure for the control of power grid load frequency and for balancing fluctuation caused by renewable energy resources. Based on the principle introduction of variable frequency pump storage, the topology and configuration of frequency conversion and field excitation unit of typical converters used for variable speed pump storage are mainly described. Analysis indicates that the AC-AC cycle-converter has few devices and high reliability, however with limited range of frequency change and low response speed. Meanwhile the AC-DC-AC converter possesses the large range of frequency adjustment and high response speed, its cost performance rapidly raising, and would become the leading topology in the future development. The speed change principle and adjustment process are analyzed for the generator set operating in both generator mode and pump mode. Based on the characteristic curve of electric output power and rotating speed in generator mode, the optimum output power is able to be achieved by speed control. According to the relationship between the input power and speed in pump mode, the power extracting from electric grid is able to be controlled through speed control. The reference power could be calculated by combining the energy balance with fluctuating load, tracing power output generated by renewable energy resources, and the voltage stability control. By adopting a d-q decoupling strategy, the control of active power and reactive power for variable speed unit is able to be realized. Finally, by taking electric fence power adjustment, voltage fluctuation control, and wind generation power balance as example, the control function of variable speed unit to electric fence operation is addressed.

Role of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 in Physiological Regulation and Disorders of Phosphate Metabolism in Chronic Kidney Disease

ZHU Dongyan;WEI Yajuan;SU Rui;SUN Shulin;CAO Yanan
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 76-79. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.16.016
Full text: HTML (0 KB)  PDF  (861 KB)  ( 186 )
Abstract ( 186 )
The Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently discovered hormone, predominately produced by osteoblasts/osteocytes, whose major functions are to inhibit the renal tubular phosphate reabsorption and to suppress the circulating 1,25(OH)2D level. The chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health epidemic that would affect millions of people worldwide. The disordered phosphate homeostasis with elevated circulating levels of FGF23 is an early and pervasive complication of CKD. In this paper, we review the FGF superfamily, the mechanism of FGF23 in the phosphate and vitamin D metabolisms, and the relationship between FGF23 and PTH in CKD. In addition, we discuss the role of FGF23 in assessing the progression and the prognosis in CKD. The assessment of FGF23 may become an important diagnostic marker as well as a therapeutic target for the management of disordered bone and mineral metabolisms in CKD.
书评

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 80-80. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 142 )
主编心语

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 83-83. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 162 )
科技纵横捭阖

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 84-84. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 123 )
科技职场

Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (16): 85-85. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 158 )

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