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   Science & Technology Review
2012, Vol.30, No. 35
08 December 2012

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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 3-3. ;  doi:
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科技风云

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 7-7. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 8-8. ;  doi:
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特别栏目

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 12-12. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 95-95. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 96-96. ;  doi:
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科技事件

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 9-9. ;  doi:
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科技工作大家谈

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 11-11. ;  doi:
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Exclusive

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 15-19. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 103 )
Spescial Issues

Microscopic Mechanism of Binary Combination Flooding in Low Permeability Reservoir

XIONG Shengchun;SUN Junchang;HE Ying;TIAN Wenbo
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 20-24. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.35.001
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Abstract ( 259 )
The permeability stress-sensitivity of formation rock is one of the most important research subjects in the petroleum industry and geotechnical industry. A capillary tube-pore network flow model is presented in order to explain permeability stress-sensitivity based on permeability stress-sensitivity experiments. The new model fully considers the complex connectivity among pore throats, pore structure tortuosity, different types and sizes of pore throats, and their different contribution ratios to the rock permeability. When effective stress is loaded on the low permeability rock samples, the larger pore throats, as the main flow channel, are firstly compressed smaller. Therefore, both fluid flow resistance and pore tortuosity simultaneously increase; it is the main reason that the rock permeability dramatically declines in the initial period for increasing effective stress. Since there are less large pore throats in the rock with lower permeability, those larger pore throats compressed smaller could have a greater impact on the rock permeability. Therefore, the smaller the rock initial permeability is, the stronger its stress-sensitivity is. Comparing with the experimental results for pore structure deformation, the new model is very reasonable for explaining the permeability stress-sensitivity of low permeability rock.

Effect of Different Types of Seepage Fluid on Permeability

CHE Tingxin;WANG Xuewu;TIAN Wenbo;ZHAN Jianfei;HAN Xue
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 25-28. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.35.002
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Abstract ( 448 )
Permeability is a crucial parameter to evaluate the ultra-low permeability reservoir. The permeability of ultra-low permeability core samples was tested by using both nitrogen and helium. The factors affecting permeability were analyzed, including fluid types, displacement pressure, slippage effect, and their interaction. The research indicates that slippage effect exists, when the permeability is tested by either nitrogen or helium, however, there are differences in the results. With the same displacement pressure, the permeability tested by helium is bigger than that tested by nitrogen, and the differences are even more significant for the lower pore pressure. It is indicated that when helium at low pore pressure is used for the test, the slippage effect makes a bigger contribution to the permeability, since the diameter of helium molecules are smaller, and the molecular free length is longer. Slippage effect is stronger, especially for the lower permeability core samples.

Microscopic Mechanism of CO2 Flooding in Extra-low Permeability Reservoirs

ZHANG Yingzhi;YANG Zhengming;TANG Ligen;ZHANG Shuo;LIU Xuewei
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 29-32. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.35.003
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Abstract ( 245 )
By means of NMR, oil gas chromatography, slim tube experiments, and extra-low permeability core physical simulation experiments, the produced oil and residual oil acquiring from slim tube experiments both in CO2 immiscible flooding and CO2 miscible flooding are analyzed. Combined with the NMR results obtained from the physical simulation experiments for extra-low permeability core, the microscopic mechanism of CO2 flooding in low permeability reservoirs is discovered. It includes three aspects: The components before C18 are mainly extracted by CO2 immiscible flooding, while the CO2 miscible flooding not only could extract the components before C18, but also could extract components C19-C25; low-carbon molecules are initially extracted, with the ongoing flooding, higher-carbon molecules are gradually extracted; Compared with crude oil and immiscible flooding residual oil, the components of miscible flooding residual oil consist of smaller proportion of light components and larger proportion of intermediate and heavy components, causing lager residual oil viscosity; The residual oil viscosity changes and the asphaltene precipitates caused by miscible and immiscible gas flooding make a part of pore fluid immobile and the graph of NMR shifted left.

Effect of well bore Pressure Drop on the Horizontal Well Productivity with Non-linearSeepage

XIONG Jian;HUANG Liang;CUI Ling
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 33-38. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.35.004
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Abstract ( 259 )
A lot of research results indicate that the main factors affecting percolation features of gas flow include the start-up pressure gradient, slippage effect, and stress sensitivity. And the researchers have found that the start-up pressure gradient, slippage effect, and stress sensitivity have an effect on the productivity of the gas well in the low-permeability gas reservoirs. On the other hand, the low-permeability is often applied to the horizontal well technology in order to enhance the production of the gas well. In view of the characteristic of low permeability gas reservoirs, based on the steady seepage theory and the high speed non-Darcy, by using the coupling of formation percolation and wellbore flow of the horizontal well, taking the influence of the start-up pressure gradient, slippage effect, and stress sensitivity into account, a coupling model of formation percolation and wellbore flow is established, and the distribution of the shaft flow for the horizontal well is discussed by analyzing and calculating examples. The results indicate that the non-linear seepage characteristics have a big effect on the distribution of the shaft flow at the heel of horizontal well. The smaller the wellbore diameter is, and the larger the absolute roughness is, the bigger the decreasing extent of the shaft flow at the toe of horizontal well is, while the bigger the obvious increasing extent of the shaft flow at the heel of horizontal well is. The stronger the heterogeneity is, and the longer the length of the horizontal well is, the larger the decreasing extent of the shaft flow of horizontal well is.

Characteristics and Effects of Waterflooding Development in the Delayed Waterflooding Areas of Yanchang Oil Field

DUAN Jingjie;LI Pei;CHEN Fangping;WANG Min;SHI Bin;DING Lei
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 39-43. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.35.005
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Abstract ( 486 )
Yanchang Oil Field is located in the Loess Plateau, where the water resource is deficient and the ground conditions are hostile. In the oil field, waterflood had not been implemented and the well pattern was very irregular in the early development stage. In the recent years, for the efficient development of oil resources, a remedial waterflooding development mode has been implemented. The analysis on oil production, water cut, formation pressure, injection pressure, injection production ratio, and recovery is very important. The waterflood characteristics of Yanchang low permeability reservoirs are analyzed and studied in details and the waterflooding development effect and its influence factors are evaluated based on the waterflood practices of three major reservoirs in Yanchang Oil Field in order to provide the theoretical guidance for the efficient waterflooding development of Yanchang Oil Field. Different reservoir properties show different waterflooding development characteristics and need different waterflood policies. For the bottom water reservoirs of Yan'an formation. and the Chang 2 reservoirs of Yanchang formation. with weak bottom water development, the physical reservoir properties are relatively good with the permeability range of 2.0×10-3-80×10-3μm2, under the conditions of mild waterflood, the movement of reservoir fluid is mainly percolation among pores, all directions receive injected water evenly and the original irregular well pattern is basically suitable. Chang 6 reservoir of Yanchang Fm. is a fractured lithologic reservoir with poor physical properties, e.g. the permeability is of 0.3×10-3-2.0×10-3μm2, the waterflooding development is significantly impacted by the fracture directions and sand body distribution directions. The waterflood adaptability for the original irregular well pattern of the oil field is poor due to rapid increase of directional water cut and difficulties in late-stage adjustment. In addition, the strengthened waterflood mode along fractures is difficult to be implemented in the old well areas as well. It is concluded that for the irregular well pattern of Chang 6 reservoir, the measurement involving conventional water plugging and profile control would be an effective way to improve the waterflooding development effect. At the same time, a waterflooding development mode idea for increasing the amount of water injection wells and controlling the injection rate of each injection well is proposed. In addition, based on the features of Chang 6 reservoir, that is, there are many small vertically layers, the necessity for separate-zone water injection is put forward.

A New Mechanism for the Permeability Stress-sensitivity of Reservoir Rock with Ultra-low Permeability

ZHANG Qiaoliang;SUN Junchang;XIONG Shengchun;YANG Zhengming;LIU Xuewei
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 44-47. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.35.006
Full text: HTML (0 KB)  PDF  (1085 KB)  ( 156 )
Abstract ( 260 )
The permeability stress-sensitivity of formation rock is one of the most important research subjects in the petroleum industry and geotechnical industry. A capillary tube-pore network flow model is presented in order to explain permeability stress-sensitivity based on permeability stress-sensitivity experiments. The new model fully considers the complex connectivity among pore throats, pore structure tortuosity, different types and sizes of pore throats, and their different contribution ratios to the rock permeability. When effective stress is loaded on the low permeability rock samples, the larger pore throats, as the main flow channel, are firstly compressed smaller. Therefore, both fluid flow resistance and pore tortuosity simultaneously increase; it is the main reason that the rock permeability dramatically declines in the initial period for increasing effective stress. Since there are less large pore throats in the rock with lower permeability, those larger pore throats compressed smaller could have a greater impact on the rock permeability. Therefore, the smaller the rock initial permeability is, the stronger its stress-sensitivity is. Comparing with the experimental results for pore structure deformation, the new model is very reasonable for explaining the permeability stress-sensitivity of low permeability rock.

Parameter Optimization for the Horizontal Wells in Bottom Water Reservoirs of Yan'an Formation

SHI Bin;CHEN Fangping;DUAN Jingjie;XI Tiande;MI Naizhe
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 48-52. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.35.007
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Abstract ( 171 )
The applications of horizontal well technology in the bottom water reservoirs of Yanchang Oil Field are still at the stage of field test. Presently, the development effects of several horizontal wells in such reservoirs vary greatly. Various technical parameters of horizontal well are the key factors affecting the development effect. For improving the development result of the horizontal well, the range and the size of main technical parameters could be determined by quantitative analysis, many parameters for horizontal well development are optimized in terms of well pattern mode, length of horizontal section, vertical location of horizontal section, timing of water injection, rate prorafion between production and injection, and indicators comparison, etc. The effect is able to be expressed by the quantitative analysis of daily oil production, cumulative production, water cut, etc., and a scheme of optimal parameters is obtained by employing the numerical simulation method based on the reservoir geology study for block D4927, therefore providing a reference and basis for the high efficiency development of horizontal wells in bottom water reservoirs.
Articles

Breeding and Selection of Mixed Bacterial Cultures for Volatile Fatty Acid Production by Rice Straw Fermentation

LI Jianzheng;SONG Junling;AI Binling
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 53-57. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.35.008
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Abstract ( 257 )
To develop genetic resources for microorganisms and to study the volatile fatty acid production by rice straw fermentation, mixed bacterial cultures FMc, FMd, FMs, FMw and FM(d+w) were obtained by subculture with cow muck, pig compost soil, rotten wood, and mixture of pig compost soil and rotten wood as inoculums. Among the five mixed cultures, FMw shows the highest straw degradation rate of 46.4%. The highest specific production rates of the total volatile fatty acid and the total butyric acid from rice straw are reached by the mixed culture FM(d+w) with a value of 0.64 and 0.48g/g, respectively. The mixed culture FMd produces more acetic acid from rice straw than others with a specific yield of 0.35g/g. It is found that the five mixed bacterial cultures all lack the acidity glucanase, resulting in a great restriction in the degradation of rice straw and the fatty acid yield. In order to improve the mixed cultures with respect to their fatty acid yield, a domestication to fatty acids and an optimization of cultivation conditions are desirable.

Applications of GMS in the Prevention and Control of Water Disasters During the Transfer from Open Pit Mining to Underground Mining

DENG Hongwei;ZHU Zhe;ZHOU Keping;TIAN Kun
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 58-63. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.35.009
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Abstract ( 229 )
In order to evaluate the adaptation of reconstructed water-resisting wall for the prevention and control of water disasters during the mining transferring period from open-air to underground, by taking water control project of Xinqiao Mining Corporation in Anhui Province as example, a numerical analysis was conducted. Considering the large supply of open pit water, surface water seepage, and northern lateral flow in the condition of strong rainfall, a stratigraphic model is established by using 3DMINE, and through syncopating profile into the Map module of software GMS8.0, a complex concept model with many layers is created and then based on the Modflow module of GMS8.0, a seepage numerical model of ground water region during open pit mining transferring to underground mining under the condition of many plagues source is established. Results show that GMS8.0 software is able to finely and real-time simulate and rebuilt a water-resisting dynamic process for the prevention and control of water under complex hydrogeological conditions. For the part of reconstructed water-resisting inside and outside wall that the elevation is above -180m, the hydraulic gradient change is large. And water block effect is obvious and has strong adaptability.

Design and Implementation of Web-based Decision Support System for Brain Tumor

WAN Suiren;CHENG Fei;SUN Yu
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 64-68. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.35.010
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Abstract ( 202 )
With the increasing application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in brain tumor diagnosis, a data sharing platform becomes an issue for the storage and management of a large amount of data. In this paper, by using the B/S/S structure of MYSQL +Apache+PHP, a Web-based brain tumor decision support system is designed and developed, with the Zend framework which supports the MVC pattern, the user information management, the patient medical record management, and the quick and effective searching, downloading and uploading of the data of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy data. The system also provides functions for doctors to find out the location and size of the tumor in brain. The system can be used by doctors, spectrum researchers and three-dimensional reconstruction staff. The importance of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy on future research of brain tumor, and the practical value of this web system with respect to the remote medical information sharing and diagnosing are also discussed.

Digitali Collection for Scientific Celebrity Archives

LU Ruihua;HAN Lu;WANG Xiaoshan
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 69-73. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.35.011
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Abstract ( 320 )
Scientific celebrities archives is a living archive of the history of the development of the Science and Technology in China, the digital collection for Scientific celebrity archives, not only to ensure the comprehensiveness and completeness of collection, and also to lay the good basis for the long-term preservation and use of archives. In this paper, based on discussing the digital collection scope and data type for the Scientific celebrities, respectively, the digital collection methods, technical indicators, data storage formats for the following four kinds of information were studied, which is the text data, graphics/image data, audio data and video data. Combining the characteristics and use of various types of information, the collection standard for all kinds of data was developed, in order to ensure that the digital collection of normative data, and it also can provide the basis and help for other files digital collection.
Reviews

Synthesis of S-(+)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane Carboxamide as the Key Intermediate of Cilastatin

CUI Tianfang;JIANG Junqiang;AO Zhihua
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 74-79. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.35.012
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Abstract ( 273 )
S-(+)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxamide is an important intermediate for the synthetic of medicine and pesticides, there are many synthetic methods. Up-to-date information on various synthesis methods is collected and summarized from all over the world, and the advantages and disadvantages of various synthesis methods and split methods are briefly illustrated. Based on the most recently research progresses, the asymmetric synthesis of chiral catalyst is expensive, the yield is low, optical purity and cost is hard to achieve satisfactory results. However, biocatalysis synthesis technology possesses the advantages of high selectivity, high catalytic efficiency, and without pollution. Comparing with the various synthesis methods, biological catalytic synthesis method overcomes the defects caused by the chemical synthesis process, conforms to the atom economy and sustainable development. Therefore, the method is receiving more and more attention. In the further, biocatalysis is a leading research direction.
科技评论

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 80-80. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 81-81. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 82-82. ;  doi:
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主编心语

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 83-83. ;  doi:
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科技职场

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (35): 84-84. ;  doi:
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