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   Science & Technology Review
2012, Vol.30, No. 31
28 October 2012

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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 3-3. ;  doi:
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科技风云

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 7-7. ;  doi:
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封面图片说明

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 8-8. ;  doi:
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特别栏目

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 12-12. ;  doi:
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科技事件

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 9-9. ;  doi:
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科技工作大家谈

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 11-11. ;  doi:
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China's Early "East Asian Buddhism Architecture": Studies on Damago Buddhist Temple Ruins and Related Cultural History

WU Xinhua
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 15-22. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.31.001
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Abstract ( 181 )
Ancient Khotan, once China's most famous Buddhist center, has long been called "Buddhist Kingdom in the West". The character "佛" in Chinese language is translated from ancient Khotanese. In the early records of Buddhism in China, Buddhists who pilgrimaged to the West to bring back scriptures only reached as far as Khotan. The Buddhist Doctrine and art in Khotan has influenced East Asian Buddhism greatly, and the effects remain until the present day despite the fact that Buddhism there was taken over by Islamism about one thousand years ago. In Taklimakan Desert that borders contemporary Hotan Oasis, there remain the greatest number of Buddhist architecture settlements in Tarim Basin. The settlements discovered in Damago area are second to none in terms of quantity, scale, distribution, and importance. From the beginning of the 20th century to this day, dozens of famous Buddhist temple settlements were discovered along Damago waters from south to north. This article focuses on the latest archaeological findings of Buddhist temple ruins discovered in the past ten years in the Damago area.
Articles

Comparative Analysis of the Efficiency and the Methanogens Composition in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket and Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor

ZHANG Liguo;LI Jianzheng;BAN Qiaoying;XU Yiping
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 23-27. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.31.002
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Abstract ( 364 )
The efficiency and the methanogens composition in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) are investigated after achieving steady states at the same organic loading rate (OLR) of 6.0 kg·m-3·d-1. The results show that the average removal rate of COD reaches 95% in the UASB, significantly higher than 84% of the CSTR. However, the specific methane production rate and the specific COD removal rate of the activated sludge are 315 L·kg-1·d-1 and 0.85 kg·kg-1·d-1, respectively, in the CSTR, notably higher than those of the UASB of 260 L·kg-1·d-1 and 0.67 kg·kg-1·d-1, respectively. The analysis of the methanogens composition of the activated sludge by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) indicates that Methanosaeta concilii and Methanospirillum hungatei are the dominant methanogens in the UASB, while Methanosarcina mazeii and Methanobacterium formicicum are dominant in the CSTR. The diversity of the microbial community composition and the metabolic characteristics are the underlying reasons for the difference in the performance of the anaerobic treatment system. The UASB and the CSTR have their respective advantages in the COD removal or specific activities of the activated sludge. It is reasonable to choose a perfect bioreactor (UASB or CSTR) for a practical engineering based on the quality of the wastewater and the required extent of the treatment.

Interaction Analysis for Multiple FACTS Based on Improved Interaction Index

CHENG Zixia;WU Xibo;JIN Yang
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 28-32. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.31.003
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Abstract ( 274 )
According to the theory and the applications of the Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) technology, the FACTS devices can improve the level of the power transmission and the power system stability. With the growing applications of FACTS devices, the interaction between the FACTS devices becomes increasingly an important issue. The normal form method provides a solution of the dynamic analysis of the power system embedded with the multiple FACTS devices. How to determine the critical operation mode of the power system, and the degree of the interaction of multiple FACTS devices in the critical operation mode become a key problem. The operating state of a power system has many modes. The interaction of the FACTS devices in different operating states is a key factor in increasing the computation speed and the computation efficiency. This paper, based on the high order normal form method, proposes an improved interaction index to analyze the degree of interaction between the FACTS devices. The improved interaction index also considers the determination of the critical operation mode of the power system. The electromagnetic transient simulation is used for the verification of the proposed method. Finally, taking the Static Var Compensator (SVC) and the Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC) on the IEEE 9-bus power system as examples, the feasibility of the proposed improved interaction index is shown.

Numerical Simulation for the Effect of Material Parameters on Penetration Depth

WANG Xiangdong;XIAO Yanwen;HAN Yong;WANG Haifu
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 33-38. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.31.004
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Abstract ( 196 )
The physical action of simulated bullet penetrating target board is a research on the material physical property under High Temperature and High Pressure (HTHP) environment caused by strong shock wave. Its mechanical action is very complicated. The nonlinearity dynamics software of AUTODYN-2D/3D is adopted as a simulation platform. The each variable is analyzed one after another. The influences of variables on kinetic bullets penetrating ability are studied by changing only one variable. Numerical simulation researches have been conducted on the physical action of simulated bullet penetrating target plate. The impact rules of shear modulus, yield strength, regular pattern of hardening constants, and hardening exponent on penetration depth are obtained. Numerical simulation results indicate that the impact of shear modulus on penetration depth is not obvious. However, the impact of yield strength on penetration depth is most notable. When the yield strength of projectile body materials less than or equal to the yield strength of target board materials, projectile bodies would seriously deform instead of penetrating the target board. Both rigidification constant and rigidification index have a quite big affect on penetration depth. The penetration depth is proportional to rigidification constant. However, when rigidification index has reached at a certain value, the changes of penetration depth tend towards stability. At this time, penetration depth and rigidification index are inversely proportional to each other.

Numerical Simulation of Influencing Factors of CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifer

ZHAO Lichang;WANG Tao
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 39-42. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.31.005
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Abstract ( 184 )
Huge amount of greenhouse gas emission of carbon dioxide leads to global warming, which poses challenging problems for both the survival of human beings and the social economic development. In an appropriately confined place, there may have a saline aquifer of huge storage volume, which is not very useful in itself, but the volume can be used to store CO2. Based on the mechanism of storing CO2 in a saline aquifer, the influencing factors of a reservoir and the fluid in storing CO2 in a saline aquifer are studied in this paper by adopting the Eclipse software. The simulation results show that the permeability, the ratio of the vertical and the horizontal permeability and the rhythm are the main influencing factors of the CO2 storage volume in the saline aquifer. The salinity and the temperature are the main influencing factors of CO2 dissolved volume in the saline aquifer. We can draw some guidance for the CO2 storage in the field.

Assessment Parameters for the Thermal Alteration of Crude Oil: A Case Study in the Southern Margin of the Junggar Basin

CAO Hongming;GONG Weifang;ZHANG Yunxian;MA Lianjun
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 43-46. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.31.006
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Abstract ( 309 )
The effects of secondary alterations on the characteristics of the crude oil are sometimes greater than those of the organic matter sources and the heat maturity. In the geological history, the thermal alteration is one type of common secondary alterations that occur in the subsurface. In this paper, by simulating in the laboratory the thermal alteration of the oil from the southern Junggar Basin and analyzing the obtained data, two indexes, P/MP and (3-MP+2-MP)/(9-MP+1-MP) are shown to have a good correlation with the thermal alteration. Moreover, a chart which can be used to identify the thermal alteration degree is proposed. With this chart, the relative thermal alterations of oils from Huoerguos and Hiutubu oil fields were identified based on the methyl phenanthrene composition. The crude oil from Well Huo 10 in the Huoerguos oil field with a slight thermal alteration indicates that the oil field is most likely a native reservoir. However, the crude oil from Well Huoqian 1 and Well Huo 002 with a severe thermal alteration shows that they are most likely secondary reservoirs migrated from deep buried reservoirs. The crude oil from Wells An 5, Shinan 31, and Hu 2 with a normal maturity shows that they are native reservoirs.

Fracture Mechanics Analysis of Fracture Zone in Deep Hard Rock Under the State of Secondary Stresses

ZHAO Guoyan;MA Chi;GUO Qi
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 47-52. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.31.007
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Abstract ( 212 )
In order to explore the impact of the excavation disturbance on the microcrack extension, by using the combining method of elasticity and fracture mechanics, the analytic solution of the secondary stress for the lateral pressure coefficient λ is obtained based on the decomposition and superposition principles. The formulas for the extending depth of the fissure cracking are derived according to the maximum circumferential stress criterion. By building series of models of rock mechanics parameters, it is shown that the lateral pressure coefficient λ has a significant effect on the failure depth of the roadway and the stress distribution. The roadway's sides are the main regions of the surrounding rock failure under the condition of λ>1, the roof and the floor are the main regions of the nsurrounding rock failure under the condition of λ<1. In addition, the failure depth of the roadway has no correlation with the magnitude of the stress under a constant compression-shear stress, but dependent on the crack initial length.

Geo-hazard Susceptibility Evaluation of Mianyang City Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation

WANG Zhe;YI Facheng;CHEN Tingfang
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 53-60. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.31.008
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Abstract ( 227 )
On the basis of the relation distribution of geological hazards with prenatal environment and induced factors of geological hazards, the system of evaluation index and the standard and method for index quantification are established. At the same time, the weights of assessment indicators for geo-hazard susceptibility evaluation are ascertained by using analytic hierarchy process. And then, the fuzzy distinguish matrix upon the strength of membership function is established by combining analytical hierarchy process with fuzzy synthesize evaluation. The fuzzy synthesize assessment method selects the two-level model, and the evaluation set has four-stage standard, that is, the degree of geological hazard occurrence probability is divided into four stages. The not easy occurrence zone of geological hazards includes 810 grid units, its area is 12960 km2, the low probability occurrence zone of geological hazards includes 157 grid units, its area is 2512km2, the middle probability occurrence zone of geological hazards includes 66 grid units, its area is 1056 km2, and the high probability occurrence zone of geological hazards includes 253 grid units, its area is 4048km2. At the same time, zoned maps are drawn in the light of the evaluation result.

A Parallel Algorithm of Automatic Time Gain Compensation for Ultrasound Imaging Based on Fermi Architecture

HE Xingwu;ZHANG Xia
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 61-65. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.31.009
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Abstract ( 191 )
Due to the acoustic attenuation in the human body, an efficient gain compensation on the ultrasound image is necessary for a better imaging quality in a medical ultrasound imaging system. The traditional manual adjustment method suffers some drawbacks, such as the difficulties in adjusting a special region, so it is very important to implement the automatic time gain compensation (ATGC) algorithm in the clinical ultrasound imaging system. Because of the massive computation involved in this ATGC technique, this problem becomes the bottleneck for a clinical real-time imaging system. In this paper, a new parallel algorithm of ATGC based on Fermi GPU (graphics processing unit) is presented. The main procedures of this algorithm include the pre-processing, the speckle detection, the tissue intensity computation, the 2-D surface fitting and the adaptive gain compensation. The key parallel algorithm includes a parallel box filter with coarse-grained, parallel local variance coefficient computation, the optimized parallel matrix transposition, the parallel matrix inversion based on the LU factorization in a coarse-grained parallel way. Test results not only show that the output of the graphics processing unit (GPU) is definitely the same as that of the CPU, but also demonstrate an obvious speedup by using the GPU, that is, with 427 frames per seconol for the image size (512×261) , 267 times faster than the CPU implementation.

Effect of Gansuibanxia Decoction with Different Proportions of Gansui to Gancao on Hepatic Functions in Malignant Ascites Rats

WANG Xi;ZHONG Gansheng;WANG Honglei;LIU Haiyan;LI Jian;XU Hong;WU Haixia;LI Yiwen;LIU Jia;OU Lina;CHEN Shaohong
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 66-72. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.31.010
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Abstract ( 219 )
The effect of gansuibanxia decoction with different proportion of Gansui to Gancao on malignant ascites rats is investigated. Seven matched groups are set up according to the principle of uniform design (two factors and seven levels) for comparing normal group with model and positive groups. At the end of experiment, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), and globulin (GLB) are determined by the automatic analyzer. The data statistic analysis is processed by using ANOVA (analysis of variance) in combination with optimized formula software. The experimental data show that matched group one and group six are able to decrease AST compared with model group; matched group four could increase ALT and ALB;matched group five, group seven and group with Frusemide sodium could decrease ALT; but there is no significant difference among every groups;matched group two, group five, group seven, and group with Frusemide sodium have a significant impact on the tissue of liver compared with model group. Through the results analysis of animal experiments, following conclusions are obtained that the matched groups including the dose of gansui greater than 1.5g could have a certain degree liver injury. It is suggested that gansui might play a role in the liver injury.
Reviews

Summarization on the Research Progress in Protein Phosphorylation

LIANG Qianjin;WANG Pengcheng;BAI Yanrong
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 73-79. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.31.011
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Abstract ( 641 )
Phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational protein modifications, which is related to the regulation of many activities of life. As a sort of reaction catalyzed by protein kinases, it functions significantly in cell signaling. To keep up with the situation that protein phosphorylation analysis and phosphorylated site identification have been a focus of the current proteomic study, and benefit the functional dissection on various protein phosphorylation reactions, this article introduces the progress in the studies of main types and functions of protein phosphorylation, the identification of the phosphopeptides, the determination and prediction of specific phosphorylation sites. As a focal point, protocols based on isotope labeling, chemilum inescence, etc, are elucidated. Western blotting has been proven sensitive and specific in the identification of phosphoproteins, based on which, there have appeared some improved approaches, such as NanoPro100/1000 ultramicro-protein analysis system. Phosphorylation analytic tools and softwares are being swiftly developing. According to numerous researches, protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation modifications are important with many aspects of meaning. Controlling the cellular endogenous enzymic 'activities', protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation are more able to rapidly react to external stimulus than enzymic re-synthesis/decomposition. A series of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation reactions in different tissues and with different temporal and spatial characteristics ensure the sustained responses of cells to external signals, and play a role in the cascade amplifying for the external signals. Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation study will continue to be a hotspot in the exporation of life activity regulatory mechanism.
科技评论

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 80-80. ;  doi:
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主编心语

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 83-83. ;  doi:
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科技职场

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 84-84. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 85-87. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (31): 89-92. ;  doi:
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