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   Science & Technology Review
2012, Vol.30, No. 26
18 September 2012

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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (26): 2-3. ;  doi:
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Architecture Analysis of Wave-controlled Coastal Reservoir

MENG Qinfen;JIANG Hanqiao;SUN Zijin;SHE Jiaofeng;SUN Haihang;ZHOU Fei
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (26): 19-23. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.26.001
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Abstract ( 261 )
The architecture analysis is one of the most important keys of the reservoir development during the middle-late stage, as a new method for the characterization of the residual oil. Using the architecture analysis method proposed by Miall, this paper studies the architecture of the wave-controlled coastal reservoir, based on the field outcrop and cores of the Tarim basin. The sevenfold hierarchy of the architectural surface is identified, according to the differences in the sedimentary structure, the lithology and the particle size. Different architecture elements are controlled by the same hierarchy architecture surface. The second order architectural elements are of thirteen types. Each architectural element type is related to a special combination pattern of lithology and sedimentary structure, and different architectural element types have different control effects on the residual oil. The third order architectural elements are composed of different types of second architectural elements, constrained by the third order architecture surface. According to the occurrence of the flow barrier, four types of third order architectural elements are identified, namely, the tabular element, the wedge-like element, the cross element and the multilayer element. The classification of the coastal reservoir architecture provides a theoretical basis for detailed reservoir research, and it also has a guiding significance for reservoir development.

A Window Iterative Kriging Algorithm for Filtering Airborne LiDAR Point Clouds

LI Feng;CUI Ximin;YUAN Debao;LIU Tiantian;TAN Xuehang
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (26): 24-29. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.26.002
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Abstract ( 193 )
The first and significant step for processing airborne LiDAR is to remove non-terrain point clouds and reserve ground point clouds. According to the irregularities of elevation on LiDAR point clouds in the spatial distribution, a window iterative Kriging algorithm is proposed for filtering off objects from terrain point clouds. First of all, an elevation histogram of point clouds is used to filter low and high outliers. Then average point spacing is taken as the size of initial window, a Kriging interpolation method is adopted to fit the elevation of central grid by using the elevations of eight neighbor grids. If the height difference between fitting value and original height is larger than a height threshold, point clouds lying in the grid cell would be classified as object points. Then surplus points are interpolated into new grids with a size of window is twice as big as previous one. With the exponential increase of the size of window, surplus point clouds continue to be classified until the biggest window size is reached. Fifteen sampled data provided by ISPRS is used to test the method and eight other algorithms are compared with this method. The results show that type I error and total error of the method are less than the corresponding errors of most other methods. Therefore, the algorithm has some reference values for filtering LiDAR point clouds.

Hopf Bifurcation of a Delayed Neural Network Model

SUN Mingjuan;LI Jing;ZHANG Dongyan
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (26): 30-34. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.26.003
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Abstract ( 325 )
The stability and the Hopf bifurcation of a delayed neural network model with an inertial term are investigated in this paper. The characteristic equation of the linearized time delay equation is first considered about the trivial solution, and the condition for the existence of a Hopf bifurcation is obtained based on the study of the root location of the characteristic equation. Then, the newly developed method, the pseudo-oscillator analysis, is applied to study the local dynamics round the trivial solution and near the bifurcation point, including the bifurcation direction, the stability of the bifurcation-induced periodic solution, and the estimation of the amplitude of the periodic solution. Finally, two case studies are given to validate the theoretical prediction of the bifurcated periodic solution, which is checked numerically by the plots of the time history, the phase portraits and the bifurcation diagrams. It is shown that the Hopf bifurcation is supercritical, and the bifurcation-induced periodic solution is stable. In addition, the results show that the pseudo-oscillator analysis has several advantages over the center manifold reduction and the normal form theory used in literature: it involves easy calculation about integration of harmonic functions only, it results in simple computational results in terms of the system parameters, and it offers an estimation of the bifurcated periodic solution with a high computational accuracy.

The Parameter Optimization of the Maximum Efficiency of Reducing Dust for Roadheader External Spray Based on Genetic Algorithm

SHA Yongdong;LI Xiaohuo;KANG Xiaomin;HOU Jing
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (26): 35-38. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.26.004
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In order to improve the efficiency of reducing dust for roadheader external spray, reduce amounts of dust in coal heading face, better mining working face environment and human health, enhance cutting head service life of the roadheader, the mathematical models of the efficiency for reducing dust are established for roadheader external spray, the main influence parameters of efficiency of reducing dust for roadheader external spray are optimized by using genetic algorithm and by taking the spray pressure, spray effective length, spray diffusion angle, and nozzle diameter as design parameters, the maximum efficiency of reducing dust for roadheader external spray is chosen as optimal objective. Corresponding constraint conditions are established, and the optimization model is processed without constraints. Optimized results indicate while the spray pressure increases 9.79%, the spray effective length reduces 8%; the spray diffusion angle reduces 11.15%, and the efficiency of reducing dust increases 15.19% for roadheader external spray. The study provides a theory basis for engineering practice, offers the basis both for the entire optimization of the structural parameters of roadheader external spray system and for the entire functions reaching at their best, and furnishes important reference for modeling and optimizing methods of roadheader internal spray system with some guidance significances.

Design of Computer Automatic Color Matching System for Wood Dyeing

GUAN Xuemei;WANG Tiebin;GUO Minghui;CAO Jun
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (26): 39-42. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.26.005
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Abstract ( 197 )
The coniferous tree (Pinus sylvestris) and broadleaf tree (Populus ussuriensis) are taken as the research objects, and a kind of design scheme for Computer Color Matching (CCM) system is put forward based on four layer fuzzy neural network and its software design is implemented by C language programming. The system takes the color differences between known colors and objective colors as its input and formula concentration as its output, and establishes the wood dyeing formula forecast platform. The platform plays an important role in the industrial popularity and applications of wood dyeing.

Differences Between Kanji and Kana During Encoding and Retrieval

MI Liping;REN Fuji
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (26): 43-47. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.26.006
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Abstract ( 273 )
In the modern Japanese logographic writing system, both Kanji and Kana are used. Since they have quite different characteristics, quite different speech processes in the two hemispheres of the brain are involved. Some previous studies show that there are different neural mechanisms linked to the memorization of Kanji and Kana when Japanese native speakers are concerned. In order to illustrate the neural mechanisms related to the process in which the Chinese Japanese learners memorize Kanji and Kana, this paper investigates the differences between encoding and retrieval of Kanji and Kana during the memory process, by comparing the Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) components which are elicited by Kanji and Kana during the process of memorizing and recollecting them by Chinese Japanese learners. In the study phase, significant differences are found in considering the amplitude and the latency of the ERPs components elicited by Kanji and Kana condition, and the scalp distributions are different, too, which indicates the different aspects of the memory storage after Kanji and Kana are encoded. The encoding of Kanji is faster and deeper than that of Kana. In the test phase, the old items of Kanji elicit lower amplitude and shorter duration of FN400 and higher amplitude and shorter duration of the Late Positive Component (LPC) than the old items of Kana. The old items of Kanji are easier and quicker to be recalled than the old items of Kana. In addition to this, there are obvious hemisphere advantages for encoding and retrieval of old items of Kanji, which demonstrates that the neural mechanism related to Kanji is different from that related to Kana. It is believed that because the Kana's memory processing is more complicated than Kanji, which increases the memory load, leading to inferior effects than Kanji. In this way, the illustration of the memory feature of Kanji and Kana is instructive to Japanese learning.

The Selection Method for Tobacco Company Best Production Plan Based on Fuzzy Predictability Linear Programming Model and Improved Gray Cluster Analysis Theory

GUO Hong bin;CHEN Jianhong;YANG Shan;ZHENG Haili
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (26): 48-56. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.26.007
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Abstract ( 406 )
Tobacco company needs to consider production, profit, selling cycle, and product popularity in order to choice production program; it is a complicated systematic project. The fact when tobacco companies allocate their capacity, the constraints mostly are fuzzy and in the mean times the constraint coefficients mostly are gray numbers are taken into account, the lessons from fuzzy theory and gray theory are drawn, a fuzzy predictability linear programming model is constructed for tobacco companies' production capacity allocation. Grey prediction theory is used to whiten grey coefficients; fuzzy predictability linear programming model is turned into fuzzy linear programming model, fuzzy optimal decision is used to turn fuzzy linear programming model into a linear programming model that goal is maximum membership degree, achieving the capacity allocation according to the maximum economic benefit. Based on that, selling cycle, product popularity, and product hazards to human health are integrally considered, according to the improved gray cluster analysis theory; each production program is qualitatively evaluated and analyzed, and gray decision-making degree of each production program is calculated and compared, therefore the best production program for the tobacco company is obtained. Using this method, a tobacco company is able to select the optimal production program, receive both good economic and comprehensive benefits.

The Polymorphism and Its Longevity Correlation Analysis of 5-HTTLPR Gene Insertion/Deletion for the Hotan Uyghur Elderly

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (26): 57-61. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.26.008
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Abstract ( 205 )
In this paper, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology is used to study 30 cases of the Uyghur elderly of over 90 years old in Hotan Prefecture and 70 cases of local health Uyghur people, genetically unrelated, with similar-habits, and random-sampled, as controls to compare the frequencies of the 5-HTTLPR genotypes and the corresponding alleles and to explore the relatiionship between the 44bp insertion/deletion polymorphism of the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene linked polymorphism region (5-HTTLPR) with longevity. The results show that with respect to the 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism among the Uyghur elderly, the frequencies of the LL (the 528bp/528bp) genotype and L (528bp) allele are 70% and 81.7%, respectively; while among the controls, they are, respectively, 40% and 57.2%, and the difference between the two groups is significant (P<0.05). It is shown that the 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism and the longevity of Xinjiang Hotan Uyghur elderly are correlated, and, Xinjiang Hotan longevity-correlated gene consists of the LL genotype and the L allele.

A Combination of Rainwater Harvesting System and Landscape Design

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (26): 62-66. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.26.009
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Abstract ( 235 )
With the growth of the population and the development of economy, we are now entering an era of water shortage. People begin to recognize the value of harvested rainwater in solving the water problem, especially in cities. But the rainwater harvesting system is often considered as a separated part in the urban design,and only its functionality is addressed, which brings about the problem that it will take up the precious urban field. This paper proposes to combine the rainwater harvesting system with the landscape design, and discusses the relationship between the rainwater harvesting system and the landscape design, to find out a proper way of their combination in both functionality and aesthetic. It is hoped that this proposal may provide some food of thought in the future design.

Bonding Technology of Larch Glulam Reinforced by Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (26): 67-70. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.26.010
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Abstract ( 187 )
Wood structure is the main form of the traditional Chinese architecture. As is known, many magnificent palaces, such as temples, and kiosks, are all wood constructions, which represent the essence of ancient Chinese architecture and the wisdom of Chinese civilization. However, in modern times, the recovery of Chinese wood-frame construction industry is under a lot of pressure. A critical problem is lack of large-diameter high-grade natural wood resources, therefore, how to use existing low-quality material resources and how to find a certain technical means to enhance them are the most important tasks. The study on continuous basalt fiber reinforced structural timber has been conducted for the last several years. A large number of experiments shows that the bonding performance of wood and BFRP is poor. Because both sides of bamboo plate material is different, the bamboo plates could be used to the transition layer between wood and BFRP. The bonding technology of Chinese larch glulam/BFRP with Polyurethane adhesive is focused on. Based on the glue process of the previous studies, the treatment process that bamboo or BFRP had been treated by Silane coupling agent KH550 is added in the experiments. The results show that because of the treatment of silane coupling agent KH550, the bonding performance of bamboo-BFRP has made a great progress regardless of the delamination rate or the shear strength.

Micro-environment of Neurons: A Neglected Issue

HAN Hongbin
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (26): 71-74. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.26.011
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Abstract ( 491 )
In the neuroscience, the neuron doctrine has been considered as the gold standard for more than 100 years. In the meantime, unfortunately, the achievements during past several decades have been proved to be far away from what would have been expected: the mystery of human's memory and emotion is still an open question, and the Alzheimer's disease and the stroke etc. still cause the disability and crush the dignity of human beings. Although Claude Bernard had stressed the importance of the internal environment 150 years before, not much attention has been paid to the micro-environment around neurons (brain extracellular space), although this space occupies about 20% of the brain volume in vivo. The significance of the micro-environment of neurons is emphasized in this paper based on a review and analysis of the unsuccessful investigations on neuro-protective agents against cerebral ischemic stroke. The defects of neuron's doctrine are discussed. The nature of the micro-enviorment around neurons is a neglected issue in the neuroscience for a long time and it will be an indispensable complement of the neuron's doctrine.

Progress in the Studies of Activated Sludge Model

YANG Shuangchun;WANG Xiaozhen;PAN Yi;DENG Dan;LIU Guobin;ZHANG Gui'an
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (26): 75-79. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.26.012
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An activated sludge model is a mathematical model to describe the complex biochemical reaction of micron germs and pollutants. This paper reviews the biomathematical models of activated sludge in our country and abroad, including the Activated Sludge Model No.1(ASM1), the Benchmark Simulation Model No.1 (BSM1), the Activated Sludge Model-Secondary Sedimentation Tank (ASM-SST), the Activated Sludge Model-Aeration System Simplified (ASM-ASS), the Activated Sludge Model No.2 (ASM2), the Activated Sludge Model No.2d (ASM2d), the Activated Sludge Model No.3 (ASM3) and the Fully Coupled Activated Sludge Model No.3 (FCASM3). The existing problems of these activated sludge models are discussed. Some suggestions about activated sludge models are made. It is pointed out that the reaction mechanism of the activated sludge model should be studied in order to simplify the model; experiments should be conducted to determine parameters in the activated sludge model; and the activated sludge model software development should be encouraged, with applications in the industrial waste water engineer design and the water quality monitoring.

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (26): 80-80. ;  doi:
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