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   Science & Technology Review
2012, Vol.30, No. 23
18 August 2012

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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 3-3. ;  doi:
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科技风云

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 7-7. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 8-8. ;  doi:
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特别栏目

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 12-12. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 13-13. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 14-14. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 35-35. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 88-88. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 95-95. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 96-96. ;  doi:
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科技事件

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 9-9. ;  doi:
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科技工作大家谈

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 11-11. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 115 )
Exclusive

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 15-16. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 114 )
Articles

Daily Evapotranspiration Estimation by Remote Sensing Method and Its Spatial Pattern Analysis on Yellow River Delta

ZHU Mingming;LI Mingjie;HOU Xiyong
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 17-24. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.23.001
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Abstract ( 219 )
Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important part of the water cycle; therefore, the studies on ET are of great importance to the improvement of irrigation efficiency, regional wise water management, and the sustainability of ecosystem. The calculation method of daily ET using Landsat TM and Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model is described in detail. Furthermore, the quantitative characteristics, spatial patterns of ET are analyzed. And then, the spatial relationships between ET and land utilization types are studied. The result shows that ET ranges from 0.05 mm to 9.11 mm with the mean value of 5.31 mm. Spatial differences of daily ET in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) are significant for different land utilization types. High ET are mainly distributed in the National Nature Reserve located in the eastern part of Dongying City, saltern and sea water culture zones in the Hekou District, the surrounding reservoirs of the central urban area of Dongying City, and high-quality farmland in Guangrao Country. The daily ET takes on a single-peak curve in water body, grassland and forest, construction area, and unused land, but a double-peak curve in farmland. Land utilization types decide the level of ET. The mean values of daily ET in the descending order are water body, beach, reed land, grassland and forest, farmland, construction area, and unused land.

Slope Protection by Slope Vegetation

REN Zhihua;YAN Zhixin;JIANG Ping;SONG Yun
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 25-28. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.23.002
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Abstract ( 152 )
With the help of plant roots, the slope vegetation makes the slope soil mass a composite material of soil and roots, therefore, significantly enhances the shear strength of the slope soil mass and the stability of the slope. Meanwhile, the plant roots within the soil also have the functions of stabilizing the soil structure, enhancing the soil mass impact resistance and preventing the soil erosion. Moreover, the tree crown, the stem leaf and the fallen leaf over the slope vegetation are helpful in intercepting the rainfall and reducing the erosion that the high-speed rain drop may cause on the slope. However, due to the complexity of the force condition of the plant roots and the volatility of the rock and soil medium, the correlative studies remain as qualitative analysis. The interaction and the mechanical action of the slope vegetation and the soil strengthening are studied, to reveal the effects of the frictional roots and anchorage roots on the slope rock and soil. The roles of the slope vegetation in the soil environment optimization, the enhancement of the slope impact resistance, the rainfall interception, and the reduction of the raindrop erosion are analyzed.

The High Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy Pattern of Putaohua Oil Layer in the East Region of Sanzhao Depression, Songliao Basin

CONG Lin;MA Shizhong;FU Xiandi;WANG Guang;SUN Yu
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 29-35. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.23.003
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Abstract ( 216 )
The Putaohua reservoir in the east region of Sanzhao depression is connected to the oil and gas resources in Songliao Basin. Due to the inconsistency about stratigraphic correlation and classification of Putaohua oil layer in the east region of Sanzhao depression, the precise high frequency sequence identification and classification of the reservoir are needed. And a union stratigraphic framework is established. Based on eight well cores and logging and seismic data of 1700 wells, according to the theory of high-resolution sequence stratigraphy sedimentary, the Putaohua oil layer in the east region of Sanzhao depression is studied. The interface and characteristics of each grade base level cycle in the east region of Sanzhao depression, Songliao Basin is systematically analyzed. The oil layer is divided into two medium-term base level cycles and nine short-term base level cycles. On the basis of the analysis on the structural type of short term base level cycles sequence, the development pattern of the Putaohua oil layer in the above area is explored. The stratigraphic model is that the thickness of the formation becomes thin toward the south. The top of the Putaohua oil layer moves up, the bottom of that moves down, and each layer is gradually thinning. It is opposed to the new framework of sequences with the absence of central layer or the bottom. The formation development pattern is that the transition point of the medium-term base level cycle is located at the center of SSC4. There is a decreased half-cycle below the transition point, and an increased half-cycle above the transition point. In addition, a high resolution sequence stratigraphic framework is established. The framework unifies the study area with the Sanzhao depression, providing the solid geological basis for the sandstone distribution, establishment of distribution pattern of reservoir, the cause identification of mainly monosandbody, and potential oil field further tapping.

Geological Adaptability Evaluation Technology for Managed Pressure Drilling

MAO Di
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 36-40. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.23.004
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Abstract ( 154 )
Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD) is the key drilling technology for forming with narrow safe density window and being prone to leakage and blowout. The adaptability evaluation technology of MPD is vital to the selection of well and layer and safe operation of MPD. Currently, there is no well-established MPD adaptability evaluation system at home and abroad. The application category and IADC classification about MPD technology are contrasted. The final selection is IADC MPD classification promulgated in 2005, which is a catalog with five kinds of fluid type, six risk level classification, and three kinds of application forms. The geological adaptability evaluation methods of MPD are established. It is the three-step evaluation system, including necessity evaluation, feasibility evaluation, and technical and economic evaluation. The key technologies of MPD geological adaptability evaluation are developed, namely, geological environmental factors describing technology, fine hydraulics model, device matching and optimization, and economic evaluation. Finally, the applications of the technologies in the Block D of Myanmar show that the established classification and geological adaptability evaluation technology has the highly practical value.

Application of Boundary Pillar Safety Evaluation Model Based on Unascertained Measurement Theory

ZHOU Keping;TIAN Kun;DENG Hongwei;FENG Yue
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 41-45. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.23.005
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Abstract ( 331 )
Based on the unascertained measurement theory, a safety evaluation model of the boundary pillar is built. Under the geological conditions and the engineering situation of the mine, which goes from an open -pit to the underground mine. 7 main factors that influence the stability of the boundary pillar are taken into consideration, including the thickness of the boundary pillar, the compressive strength of the ore, the tensile strength of the ore, the open-pit depth, the joint distribution, the mining method of the underground mine and the seeper of the open-pit. The unascertained measurement function is obtained based on the actual situation of the mine; the weights of all indexes are calculated by using the entropy theory, the safety evaluation results of the boundary pillar can be obtained based on the credible degree recognition criteria. Using this model, the safety of the boundary pillars of three typical mines is evaluated. It is indicated that the unascertained measurement assessment results agree well with the actual records, and the scheme of the Xinqiao Mine's boundary pillar is feasible. The results show that this model provides an effective method to evaluate the safety of the boundary pillar. The establishment of the uncertainty safety evaluation model highly depends on the grading standards and there is no uniformly accepted grading standards yet, further studies are needed to solve this problem.

Prediction Models for the Heating Values of Municipal Refuse Based on BP Neural Network

MA Xiaoqian;XIE Zeqiong
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 46-50. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.23.006
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Abstract ( 247 )
The heating values of municipal refuse entering into the incinerator are unstable, which have a great influence on the stable operation of the incineration. By using genetic algorithms to optimize initial weighs and thresholds of BP neural network, a predictive model is established to predict the heating values of municipal refuse. The online operating data are processed based on Garson method and principal component analysis, and then those data are used as input parameters of BP neural network. The measurement and prediction of the heating values of municipal refuse are able to be obtained on-line. The results show that the relative average error for the predicted values is 2.64%. The confidence interval (95%) of the relative average error for the test samples is between -1.75 and 2.59. Therefore, the model has both high accuracy and high confidence level, which is very suitable for engineering applications.

Time Resolution Particle Image Velocimetry Measurement of the Flow Field of using XCP Probe

CHEN Wenyi;;ZHANG Manman;;LIU Ning;TIAN Haiping
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 51-55. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.23.007
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Abstract ( 172 )
The Xpendable Current Profiler (XCP) probe is the latest jettison marine probe, which has an important strategic significance in the ocen exploration, sinitific research, and military. The attitude of the XCP probe in the seawater directly affects the precision of current measurement. The experimental research on the underwater attitude of the probe is important to the development of expendable current measurement technology. The two-dimensional instantaneous and time-averaged flow fields for the horizontal section of XCP probe are measured using Time Resolution Particle Image Velocimetry (TRPIV) technology, through test device built in the interior experimental channel. The influence of rotating speed rate and Reynolds number on the flow field is analyzed, and the side force is obtained according to Magnus effect. The study results show that the side force is proportional to the rotating speed rate, and increases as the Reynolds number increasing. Based on the analysis, when the probe is in the state of whereabouts, the side forces change. Therefore, the probe is actually in the declining state. The results could provide the reference and basis for estimating the declination solution of the probe.

Health Assessment of Civil Aircraft Hydraulic System Based on Dissimilarity Representation

HOU Xiaoyun;ZHANG Tiangang
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 56-60. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.23.008
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Abstract ( 357 )
This paper carries out the health assessment of the civil aircraft hydraulic system. Based on the dissimilarity representation, one-class LP classifier is taken for the health assessment, to determine the parameters affecting the accuracy of the model assessment, to define the health index, to make the assessment of the overall test samples and non-normal samples, and to compare the results with the support vector machine hyper-sphere model. The evaluation results show that in the case of the selected appropriate parameters, one-class LP classifier based on the dissimilarity classifier model can assess the health of the civil aircraft hydraulic system, and performs better than the support vector machine hyper-sphere model.

Metabonomic Investigation on Abnormal Savda Patients with Type Two Diabetes Mellitus Using NMR Spectroscopy

MA Xinmin;LANG Jun;MA Xiaoli;LI Linlin;HAN Xue;UPUR Halmurat;TURSUN Turgun;ELI Kurban;MAMTIMIN Batur;YUNUXI Kuresi;WANG Lifeng;JIAO Yi;WANG Ye;YI Jinyang
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 61-66. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.23.009
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Abstract ( 250 )
Based on the theory of Traditional Uighur Medicine, the metabolites changes in the urine of patients of type two diabetes mellitus with abnormal savda are investigated. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) based metabonomic analysis is performed on the urine samples obtained from both abnormal savda patients of type two diabetes mellitus and savda volunteers with normal plasma glucose. The Orthogonal Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) is conducted to distinguish the metabolic phenotypes. The results show that the metabolites in the urine of the patients of type two diabetes mellitus with abnormal savda are significantly changed. The concentrations of glucose, taurine, and betaine are increased (P<0.05); Meanwhile, the concentrations of some amino acids, creatinine, hippurate, citric acid, and dimethylamine are decreased (P<0.05) comparing with savda volunteers with normal plasma glucose. The fact indicates that there are great differences in the urine metabolites between the patients of type two diabetes mellitus with abnormal savda and savda volunteers with normal plasma glucose by using NMR. And it also reveals that endogenous compounds might be the ingredients for the patients of type two diabetes mellitus with abnormal savda.
Reviews

Depressurization Mechanism of the Vortex Methods and Its Current Development status

YANG Baogang;CHEN Daqi;ZHANG Wei;ZHU Haiyan;ZHAO Jingying
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 67-73. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.23.010
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Abstract ( 249 )
The drilling practices of oil and gas wells have proved that reducing the Bottom-Hole Differential Pressure (BHDP) is able to significantly improve the Rate of Penetration (ROP), reducing the drilling cost. The structure features, depressurization capacities, and the current researches and developments of Equivalent Circulation Density (ECD) reduction tool, vortex joint, and vortex bit are summarized based on the analysis of the depressurization theory of the vortex tools. The numerical simulation analysis is carried out to study the bottom hole flow field of the vortex Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) bit using the CFD software, the results show that the critical factor affecting the vortex bit depressurization capacity is the reliable sealing of the annulus between the vortex bit and the borehole walls. 150°-180° is recommended for the angle of the reverse nozzle, and more than 32% of the total circulation drilling fluid is also recommended as the upflow, providing the theoretical guide for the development of the vortex bit.

Microbial Control of Sulfate-reducing Bacteria

ZHAO Bo;HE Chengzu;LI Dongju
Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 74-79. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2012.23.011
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Abstract ( 547 )
Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB) is a group of prokaryotes which are capable of reducing the sulfate to sulfide under anaerobic condition with organic substance as electron donors. Sulfide production by SRB is a major concern for the petroleum industry, since it is toxic and corrosive, and causes plugging due to the formation of insoluble iron sulfides. Biocides are widely used to control SRB growth. Experience has shown that biocides are expensive and toxic to humans and environment, but more importantly, biocidal treatments are not always effective, since the biological film will reduce biocidal effect and SRB will eventually develop the resistance to biocides. Various microbial methods for inhibiting SRB have been proposed for different treatment purposes as follows : (1) application of nitrate to activate Nitrate Reducing Bacteria (NRB) for inhibiting the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria through biological competition; (2) application of Sulfide Oxidizing Bacteria (SOB) for removing hydrogen sulfide through biological oxidation; (3) application of Brevibacillus brevis for inhibiting SRB through the produced antagonistic substance; (4) application of phage for killing SRB. At present, application of method one in oil field and application of method two in sewage treatment have entered the industrial tests, both method three and method four are still in the basic research stage. These methods have great application prospect, however there are many problems to be solved. The analysis on these problems is carried on.
科技评论

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 80-80. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 82-82. ;  doi:
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主编心语

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 83-83. ;  doi:
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科技职场

Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 84-84. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 85-87. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2012, 30 (23): 89-92. ;  doi:
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