28 October 2011, Volume 29 Issue 30

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  • LI Jianhua;SONG Bing;PANG Xiongqi;ZHANG Zhanwen;GENG Hui
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    In order to evaluate the residual oil and gas resources and identify the favorable exploration areas, the hydrocarbon-controlling function of hydrocarbon source rocks in Damintun Depression is studied in this paper. The origin, the accumulation period, the distribution extent and resource potential of oil and gas in Damintun Depression are found to be controlled by the effective hydrocarbon source rocks. The volumes of hydrocarbon expulsion, the resources and the residual resources are calculated based on the theories of the hydrocarbon accumulation system and the hydrocarbon-controlling function of the geological threshold. The Damintun Depression is divided into two reservoir-forming combinations of the upper and the lower parts, with a total of ten hydrocarbon accumulation systems. The total volumes of hydrocarbon expulsion are 14.66×108t, the volumes of the resources are 6.34×108t and the volumes of the residual resources are 3.098×108t. There are three most favorable exploration areas, including the hydrocarbon accumulation system Ilower, the hydrocarbon accumulation system IIIupper and the hydrocarbon accumulation system IIupper. Their volumes of residual resources are, respectively, 1.163×108, 0.567×108 and 0.409×108t.
  • YANG Ruizhao;WANG Ping;LIU Wei;CHEN Shuyang
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    Tarim Basin is the largest petroleum potential resource in the west of China. In a co-prospecting project, some wells of the Devonian Kezirtag formation in Bashituo area give encouraging industrial oil flows. The statistical results show that the reservoirs of the target segments in the study area are all located along the faults, and the later tectonic movements produce a large-scale adjustment and reform of the structural form and reservoirs. So the tectonic movement and faulting in the accumulation process play important roles. In order to better understand the accumulation mechanism of the study area, the fault system of the target segments is analyzed. In this paper, the law of the main structural interpretation (the three dimension spread law of fault) and the coherence analysis are applied to the fault interpretation based on the comprehensive calibration of layers and the geological features in the study area. In the interpretation process, the compression, the enlargement, the combination of any lines, the isochronal slices, the coherent slices, the automatic tracking, the seed point tracking and the stereoscopic display of the seismic section are fully used to improve the accuracy and the efficiency of the fault interpretation. The results show that Bashituo's 1 and 2 of the main faults are developed in the study area, and the main active period is from early hercynian to later caledonian. At the same time, a series of grade derived fractures are developed near the main faults. The faults are more developed in the east of the study area, and are gradually weakened towards the west. In view of the tectonics, the Bashituo structure is located in the uplift side of the Bashituo fault, and the reservoir superface structures 1 and 2 with steep south wings are of long axis anticline. This study provides a new way for the future exploration of the study area.
  • LIU Xuejie;ZHANG Anping;JIANG Yongjun;CHEN Xiaoqiang;JIA Huiling
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    Nanoscale polycrystalline materials with unique mechanical properties become now a hot issue in the field of materials science. One of the research focuses is the grain size effect on the material mechanical properties. In this paper, the grain size effect of TiN nanocrystals is studied with the first principle method based on the density functional theory. The total energies of a series of TiN crystals with different grain sizes ranging from 0.6387nm to 2.332nm are calculated by means of the first principle method to reveal their mechanical properties in the case of simple tension. The calculation results include the strain-stress relationships and the related yield strength. The strain-stress curves show that the yield strength of TiN crystal decreases with the increase of the grain size. That means that the TiN crystal trends to softening as the result of the increase of the grain size. The stress-strain curve indicates also that TiN crystal begins to yield at the tensile strain of 5%, and the yield strength is about 21.5GPa. The TiN crystal has the highest tensile strength at approximately 15% of the tensile strain. As the grain size increases, the tensile strength of TiN decreases. The correlation between the microstructure of TiN and their hardness and elastic properties is discussed, which indicates that besides the grain size effect, the defects in the TiN film is a crucial factor that affects their hardness and strength.
  • WANG Sen;LUO Hong;LI Zhizhong;XIAO Kui;JI Hongliang;DONG Chaofang
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    The corrosion behavior of galvanized flat steel, which has been used for more than eleven years in the soil environment, is investigated by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. It is found that the corrosion type of galvanized flat steel is mainly general corrosion after buried in soil. The corrosion products are composed of FeOOH, Fe3O4 and others. The EDS results show that there are some sulfur elements in the corrosion product, and the elements might be caused by the sulfate-reducing bacteria. Also there are some Al-Si composite granular inclusions existing in the substrate of galvanized steel, and the inclusions could promote the corrosion occurrence and development, therefore provide the channel for the corrosive ion to permeate into matrix in the local region. In order to extend the lifespan of grounding electrode in the soil, the galvanized steel is often considered in the design. The zinc in the soil is priority eroded to protect ordinary carbon steel's lifespan. In the absence of current role, the service lifespan of galvanized steel is indeed better. However, due to the role of the ground current, as the ground material, galvanized steel surface electrolytic zinc coating will soon come off; then the corrosion rate of grounding electrode accelerates rapidly. The conclusions also indicate that in the corrosive soil environment, the corrosion and failure of galvanized flat steel could affect the function and lifespan of grid.
  • MAO Liang;JIANG Chunlan;YAN Hanxin;WANG Chao
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    Based on the principle of the guidance integrated fuzing technology(GIF), an initiation delay time control model for missile and target encounter in three-dimensional space is studied. According to the GIF technology, an estimation algorithm is established for the residual flying time and the initiation delay time based on different data of missile and target encounter. It is shown that the initiation delay time can be expressed as a function of the distance between missile and target R, the angles θ, ø, the anglar accelerations θ, ø when the initiation velocity and the attenuation coefficient of warhead fragments are given.
  • SUN Chengliang;LIU Jing
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    By analyzing surface mine road components, the surface mine road is reasonably divided into different sections; the road surface quality, slope, bearing capacity, and other factors are used to describe the surface mine road. The calculation method involving selection principle of surface mine road network nodes and the network edge weights is proposed, a surface mine road network model is established. The database of surface mine road network is designed for the background data support of surface mine road network model. In the database, there is a table for the network nodes and also a table for the relationship between the nodes; each node corresponds to a section node, each relation corresponds to a network edge. The extraction procedure to automatically pick up the network diagram node is designed and the information of node data is automatically stored into the surface mine road network database. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is selected for the road network path optimization; the PSO involving the shortest path between the specified two points is achieved. The optimal path is automatically displayed on the network diagram with the relative high search precision.
  • EKIM Mahsum;ROZI Nurjan;YUSUP Abdiryim
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    The effect of Uighur medicine Hyssopus officinalis L. ethly aectate on pathological changes in lung tissues of asthmatic rats was observed, and the level of ET-1, the total number of cells and the percentage of lymphocytes (Ly), eosinophils (Eos), and neutrophils (Neu) in BALF, the levels of ET-1, IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α in serum were determined for the study of the mechanism of its treatment of asthma. The rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, the asthma model group, the aminophylline treatment group, and the Hyssopus ethyl acetate of high, medium and low dose treatment groups. They were sensitized with OVA, Al(OH)3 and DPT vaccine and were then challenged with inhalation of aerosolized OVA solution for preparation of the asthma model. The levels of serum and BALF ET-1 were determined with ELISA, and the total number of cells and the percentages of Ly, Eos, and Neu in BALF and the levels of serum IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α were determined with radioimmunoassay. The results show that as compared with the asthma model group, the level of ET-1, the total number of cells and the percentage of Ly, Eos, and Neu in BALF, and the levels of serum ET-1, IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α are significantly lower in those of treated groups(P<0.05). In the comparisons among different dose treatment groups, the level of ET-1, the total number of cells and the percentage of Ly, Eos, and Neu in BALF and the levels of serum ET-1, IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α are significantly different(P<0.05) and it is shown that the dose-dependent trend to aggravate the inflammatory response of asthma, Hyssopus officinalis L. may inhibit the secretion of ET-1, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, Ly, Eos, and Neu, reducing the inflammatory response of asthma.
  • Reviews
  • YANG Huaqiang;LAI Liangxue
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    The animal models of human disease could facilitate the studies of disease pathogenesis and the development of new drugs and treatments. It is an essential step in the preclinical research and the translational medicine studies of Bench to Bedside(B2B). The animal models established by the genetic modification are paid particular attentions due to their genetic stability and repeatable availability. Due to the many similarities between pig and human in physiological characteristics, pig can be a good animal model of human diseases with many advantages over the conventional rodent model. The human disease model using genetically modified pigs sees great progress along with the development of embryo manipulation technologies and genetic modification technologies in large mammals. In this paper, the research advances on genetically modified pigs for human disease models in recent years are reviewed.
  • GUO Xiaoyi;ZHOU Jin;LI Shunxiang;CAO Liang;HUANG Dan;
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    Oxyresveratrol and its glycosides are important natural plant substances. In recent years, they were widely found in plants, and many important biological activities were identified. They were shown more and more to be of high value in promotion and utilization. This paper studies the medicinal use of oxyresveratrol and its glycosides, such as skin whitening effect, liver protection, anti-aging, antitumor and antivirus.
  • MA Jing;WENG Duan;WU Xiaodong;SI Zhichun
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    Transitional metal based zeolites are widely used to remove nitrogen oxides by NH3-SCR, which will eventually become de-activated in practical application proceses, including hydrothermal aging, P and S poisoning, HCs poisoning and urea poisoning. The deactivation mechanisms and the related methods to improve the resistance to deactivation are reviewed. The development trends of the transitional metal based zeolite are outlined.
  • YIN Zhiheng;DI Bangrang;LI Xiangyang;ZHANG Zheng;WEI Jianxin;DENG Yuanjun
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    The knowledge that the propagation of elastic waves can be anisotropic is about 180 years old. At the turn of the 20th century, Rudzki suggested the significance of seismic anisotropy. He studied many of its aspects, but without a real application of his ideas. Research in seismic anisotropy became stagnant after his death in 1916. Beginning at about 1950, the significance of seismic anisotropy for exploration seismics began to be studied, mainly in connection with thinly layered media and the resulting transverse isotropy. But it became clear that the effect of the layer induced anisotropy on the data acquired with the techniques of that time was negligible. In the last two decades of the 20th century, Crampin pointed out that the cracks in a rock mass lead to observable effects from which, in principle, the orientation and the density of the cracks could be determined. Since this information has a direct relevance to the reservoir properties of the rock, the interest in seismic anisotropy was increased considerably. The seismic anisotropy study came into a new era, with more scholars and oil companies focusing their attention on this field. Recent advances in the acquisition technology, the computer technology and the seismic processing technology have allowed the incorporation of anisotropic models into a wide range of seismic methods. In particular, the vertical and tilted transverse isotropies are currently treated as an integral part of the velocity fields employed in pre-stack depth migration algorithms, especially those based on the wave equation. Continued progress in the data-acquisition technology is likely to spur a transition from the transverse isotropy to lower anisotropic symmetries, e.g. orthorhombic ones. With the role of the anisotropy in the seismic exploration in mind, we discuss the origin of anisotropy, P-wave velocity analysis and imaging, processing ,moveout inversion of wide-azimuth data, amplitude-variation-with-offset and AVO analysis and fracture characterization. Today, the anisotropy, as an important part in exploration and reservoir geophysics, has been included in every exploration geophysicist's toolkit.