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   Science & Technology Review
2011, Vol.29, No. 17
18 June 2011

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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 3-3. ;  doi:
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科技风云

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 7-7. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 12-12. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 83-83. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 84-84. ;  doi:
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科技事件

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 9-9. ;  doi:
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科技工作大家谈

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 11-11. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 15-21. ;  doi:
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Articles

Improvement on the Ecological Hydraulic Radius Approach and Its Applications in the Qinghai Lake Watershed

MA Yujun;LI Xiaoyan;
Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 22-28. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.17.001
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Abstract ( 1384 )
The guarantee of Environmental Flow Requirements (EFRs) of rivers is an important foundation for the sustainable utilization of water resources. By considering the water depth requirement of aquatic organisms and distinguishing the inter-annual difference of EFRs, the traditional ecological hydraulic radius approach was improved. Then the Adapted Ecological Hydraulic Radius Approach (AEHRA) was used to study the EFRs characteristics of two main rivers (Buha River, Shaliu River) in Qinghai Lake watershed using Naked Carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii) as the biological indicator, and the results indicate that (1) EFRs calculated by AEHRA is reasonable and could satisfy the demand for keeping the basic ecological function of rivers. EFRs would be significantly overestimated, if its inter-annual difference is not considered. (2) Annual EFRs of Buha River and Shaliu River were 1.45×108m3-2.64×108m3, 1.26×108m3-1.85×108m3, respectively in the period of 1958 to 2009. (3) Average ecological water shortages of Buha River and Shaliu River were 0.29×108m3, 0.21×108m3, respectively in April and May. Consequently, AEHRA is a new and effectual method for calculating the EFRs of rivers.

Selection of ETM+ Remote Sensing Image Optimum Waveband Combination in Information Extraction of Sinking Sandy Land——The Case in Xiwu Flag, Xilin Gol League, Inner Mongolia

ZHANG Tao;ZHAO Yufei;AN Huijun;CHEN Xiulan
Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 29-33. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.17.002
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Abstract ( 407 )
This paper discusses the optimum waveband combination in information extraction of sinking sandy land. The single band dataset, the correlation coefficient, the Optimum Index Factor (OIF) and the typical object spectral image feature curve are used to analyze the ETM+ multi-spectral band combination for sinking sandy information extraction in Xiwu Flag, Xilin Gol League, Inner Mongolia. The results show that: (1) Band 4 contains the greatest amount of information with the smallest correlation with other bands, band 5 and band 3 follow in their importance. The higher OIF can be obtained with the band 3, band 4, and band 5 combination, which is the best combination for sinking sandy land information extraction. (2) To select the best band combination according to remote sensing research target, different research objects have different best band combinations. To calculate the optimum band combination for relevant index for sinking sandy, one can use ERDAS and EXCEL tools to establish the function model, so as to improve the calculation efficiency. (3) In a typical ground, the feature image characteristic curve, sinking sandy land and typical steppe spectrum may be similar, as their difference is in the underground soil horizon part, while the ground vegetation in the remote sensing image through the spectra is difficult to be distinguished. The texture characteristics through images, the position relations etc are indirectly conditional to discriminate accurately. (4) Through the visual translation process for sinking sandy land with sand and grassland, wetlands, forest multiple properties, to accurately draw the space position of the sinking sandy land, one should considersinking sandy landcauses factors. In addition, because the sinking sandy land soil composition is not complete, humus layer is relatively thin, the structure is loose, the quality of the material is coarse, susceptible to damage, the foundation for sand, once damages, will lead to desertification, and the sand recovery is very difficult. So the relevant Government departments or scholars should try to attach great importance to protection and systematic research.

Geochemical Characteristics of Fluorene Series in Crude Oils from Upper Cretaceous Taizhou Formation in Subei Basin and Their Significance

XU Wenbin;SONG Ning;
Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 34-38. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.17.003
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Abstract ( 1184 )
Subei Basin is an only basin in the eastern region of China in which hydrocarbon of the Upper Cretaceous is discovered up to new. The aromatic compounds are determined by Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) in 20 oil sands and one oil sample from the Upper Cretaceous Taizhou formation. The series of triaromatic steroid are main aromatic fractions, and indicate the salt water deposition environment of parent materials and low-mature crude oils. The low abundance of biomarkers from higher plant reflects that the crude oils are mainly from the sapropel parent materials. The relative content of aromatic fraction, the relative content and ratios of three fluorene series, and the ratio to dibenzothiophene/phenanthrene suggest that the parent materials of crude oil are formed in the strong reduction environment of salt water. The geochemical characteristics above mentioned are common; however the differences of parameters show that crude oils were from the different source formations. The crude oils of the Taizhou formation could be divided into two groups by the components of aromatic hydrocarbon and the relation of fluorene, dibenzofuran, and dibenzothiophene. The crude of the Taizhou formation at Hai'an Sag and those at the north slope of Gaoyou Sag belong to the one group and come from the Cretaceous Taizhou source formation; however crude oils at Wubao Uplift belonging to another group are from the Paleogene Funing source formation. By using the ratio of vitrinite reflectance (Ro) calculated by methyl dibenzothiophene, it is estimated that the crude oils at Hai'an Sag source come from low-mature hydrocarbon kitchen of the Taizhou formation, and the crude oils at the north slope of Gaoyou Sag source come from the nearest low-mature hydrocarbon kitchen of the Taizhou formation, but the crude oils at the Wubao Uplift source come from the mature hydrocarbon kitchen of the Funing formation at the adjacent deep depressed zone of Gaoyou Sag. The results are of significance for the petroleum exploration at Subei Basin.

Analysis of Reservoir Space Characteristics of Dolomite Reservoirs in Sha 1 Lower Sub-interval in Qikou Depression

ZHANG Jiangjiang;HUANG Peng;FENG Xueqian;YANG Dongming;ZHANG Zhihong
Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 39-44. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.17.004
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Abstract ( 1255 )
The depression of sand about Qikou is widely distributed in the sub-section of dolomite, which can develop good reservoir properties. With core drilling, geochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe data and physical properties, the major rock and pore types of dolomite strata are determined. They can be divided into microcrystalline dolomite, clay dolomite, sandy dolomite, gray dolomite and dolomitic limestone; reservoir intergranular pore space, intergranular pores, solution holes, construction joints, corrosion and other joints, mainly in the secondary pores and cracks. Dolomicrite has good reservoir properties, mainly with intergranular pore, intergranular pores and cracks in the reservoir. The dolomite diagenesis and the stages of reservoirs in the main target zone are analyzed, including the main cementation, compaction, pressure solution, dolomitization, dissolution and so on, to make clear which reservoir types improve or damage the performance of dolomite, in which the dissolution has a positive impact on dolomitization, and the compaction, pressure solution, cementation have negative effects. Sha Qikou depression is established as a sub-section of dolomitization of reservoir property model, and the rare earth elements Eu are found in anomaly zone dolomitization, which reveals two causes of the environment: the return of penecontemporaneous penetration of dolomitization and burial diagenetic dolomitization, usually on the back penecontemporaneous dolomite infiltration of hydrothermal fluid through the transformation of deep burial dolomitization occurs, as is more common in the fracture zone, with more obvious improvement of dolomite.

Fault Tree Analysis on Liquid Natural Gas Leakage

YANG Fan;CHEN Baodong;JIANG Wenquan
Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 45-47. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.17.005
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Abstract ( 1626 )
Liquid Natural Gas (LNS) is the clean energy which is the fastest growing energy in the world and is increasingly used in China. LNG leakage would induce to a nasty accident during its storage. To assure the production and application of the clean energy, the studies on the LNG leakage are of great importance. The leakage model and the damage after LNG disperses have been widely researched. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is a method with causal and logical relation indicating all kinds of factors causing danger. It has advantages of intuition, comprehension, and efficiency, etc. Systematical studies on LNG leakage using FTA are short up to now. Based on FTA, the factors causing LNG leakage were systematically analyzed. The order of factors influencing LNG leakage accidents was quantitatively determined. It indicates that the tank, the pipeline and man-made factors are the mainly reasons for the leakage. In order to prevent the above mentioned phenomena, the reliable theory evidence involving accuracy of safety countermeasures is provided for improving the level of safety operation, ensuring the safety of LNG storage and the reliability of operation.

Applications of Quantitative Area Risk Assessment to the Manufactory of Civil Explosives

HOU Haizhou;HU Yiting;YANG Jiafu;WANG Dahuan
Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 48-51. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.17.006
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Abstract ( 1173 )
Dangerous sources in the manufactory of the civil explosives are the important factors affecting the level of area safety. A Quantitative Area Risk Assessment (QARA) method and its applications to the planning for dangerous sources were briefly introduced. A model of the method on area risk assessment is developed. The individual and social risk indexes, the acceptable risk levels of individual risk and social risk as well as the calculating procedures are briefly proposed based on the existing criteria of individual risk and social risk from other countries. The detailed steps, main work contents, and general methods concerned and noticed in the quantitative risk assessment procedure are given. These are very helpful to the applications of QARA. The QARA is utilized to assess the manufactory of the civil explosives. The individual risk contour and the social risk chart are obtained after the analysis. The method could not only reflect the distribution of regional risks, but also provide a decision support for the planning and layout of the risk sources in the manufactory of civil explosives.

Treatment for Decoloring Reactive Brilliant Red K-2BP Dye Wastewater By Near UV-AgCl

SUN Qijuan
Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 52-57. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.17.007
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Abstract ( 467 )
The dye wasterwater has some unique features: high CODCr, high intensity of color, high salinity, hard to degradation, great changes in water quality and quantity and so on. It becomes oxidation resistant and anti-bio-degradable, which makes it difficult to be treated. The general aim of treatment is to remove COD and to decolor, which is more difficult. Color is the most important indicator to check whether the printing and dyeing wastewater treatment can meet the emission standards. With the traditional method of wastewater treatment to hydrophilic or water-soluble dye wastewater, the decoloring effect is not satisfactory. The biological decoloring is less effective, while the physical and chemical decoloring does cost much. This paper is to find a simple, economical as well as effective way of decoloring printing and dyeing wastewater. Photocatalytic oxidation can be done in an ordinary condition (normal temperature, atmospheric pressure), but with strong oxidizing ability, with a great speed and without secondary pollution. In the water treatment domain, the AOP technology is widely used in environmental protection. Currently TiO2 is used as the photocatalytic oxidation catalyst, with the ultraviolet ray as the light source, mostly in a man-made form. Its use is limited because of its large energy consumption and poor efficiency in the utilization of solar energy. This study uses the near ultraviolet ray as the light source, AgCl as the catalyst, to reveal the effects of the dye concentration, the amount of catalyst, pH, the different light sources on the decoloring rate of reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye wastewater. The results show that with the dye initial concentration of 50mg/L, the concentration of catalyst 1000mg/L, and pH=4.0, the decoloring rate of the reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye waste water reaches 72.1%. Under the best technological conditions as indicated by the theory, the application of this system to the actual dye waste water may result in more ideal results. On the basis of the discussion of the various factors that influence the decoloring of the reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye wastewater with near ultraviolet ray-AgCl system, a dynamic equation for the degradation of the reactive brilliant red K-2BP is established, to analyze the degradation mechanism, and the structural composition of some replaced aromatic compounds during the K-2BP degradation process, as well as the reaction intermediate products and final products, and thus to trace its degradation routes. AgCl as a catalyst is similar in the catalytic oxidation mechanism to TiO2, and the sunlight can be used as the light source, not just UV. This not only reduces the energy consumption, but also repeatedly uses AgCl. It opens a new way for the photocatalytic oxidation of degradation wastewater.

A Skin Pixel Detection Algorithm Based on Fuzzy-Neural Network

LI Huaiying
Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 58-64. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.17.008
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Abstract ( 415 )
Skin pixel detection technique is a basic and important part of image recognition system related to human being, such as adult image recognition, face recognition, etc. In order to improve the precision of skin pixel detection technique, a skin pixel detection algorithm that combines fuzzy theory with Forward Propagation(FP) Neural Network is proposed. The algorithm composes a feature vector based on extracted color features of the pixel through fuzzy theory and intuitionistic fuzzy theory. The feature vector includes membership and hesitancy degree of the pixel to common skin pixels. Roughness is a supplementary feature in the feature vector in order to completely express the feature of skin pixel. Then the algorithm is used to train a FP neural network and the feature vectors are classified into skin pixels and non-skin pixels. Experiment shows that the algorithm could improve the precision of skin detection and be effectively used in recognition systems related to human being.

Orlicz-Pettis Theorem in Absolutely Convergent Series

GU Juan;ZHANG Xianghua
Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 65-67. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.17.009
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Abstract ( 475 )

Series convergent is a research fields which has the great significance in functional analysis. In order to study the problem of absolutely convergent series, an abstract duality pair (E, F) which has the universal meaning on the basis of literature [4] was introduced, in the pair, F ⊆ GE, where G is locally convex space. And then the definition of absolutely convergent series on it was given, the relationship between subseries convergent and absolute convergent was discussed, also a Orlicz-Pettis theorem of absolutely convergent series was obtained, that is, the topology of uniform convergence in every MBop(E, F) has the same absolutely convergent series. Such a conclusion expands the serviceable range of absolute convergence Orlicz-Pettis Theorem, which is very important to the study of absolute convergence theory, and is an effective way to depict the space to a certain extent.

Technical and Economical Analysis on Forest Biomass Pyrolysis Liquefaction for the Preparation of Adhesive

REN Xueyong;ZHANG Jizong;CHANG Jianmin;GOU Jinsheng
Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 68-71. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.17.010
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Abstract ( 1115 )
An important and efficient way for forest biomass utilization is to prepare the phenol-formaldehyde resin adhesive by taking bio-oil from its' pyrolysis-liquefied as a clean chemical raw-materials. The technical progress in pyrolysis liquefaction of forest biomass and preparation of environmental adhesive with bio-oil was introduced. The approaches of bio-oil usage were comparatively analyzed. By taking the process capacity of 4000t in Hebei Province as example, equipment composition and investment scale of biomass pyrolysis liquefaction production line, the cost of bio-oil, and economic benefits of phenol-formaldehyde resin with bio-oil instead of phenol were analyzed and discussed. Analysis shows that the investment of forest biomass pyrolysis liquefaction project with the capacity of 4000t in Hebei Province is about 2.5 million RMB Yuan, and the actual production cost of bio-oil is about 1200 RMB Yuan per ton, the direct economic benefit when all bio-oil are used to prepare the phenol-formaldehyde resin adhesive is up to 3.3 million RMB Yuan per year. The project of forest biomass pyrolysis liquefaction for the preparation of adhesive is a kind of advanced and mature technology that has significant economic benefits and with good prospects for the development and applications.
Reviews

Control Science: Inspired by Applications

HUANG Lin;PENG Zhongxing;WANG Jinzhi
Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 72-79. ;  doi: 10.3984/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.17.011
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Abstract ( 378 )
Based on a review about the historical development of control science, it is explained that control science ought to be a technical science, and is inspired by engineering applications. Then, several new theoretical topics including decoupled control, input redundancy, and multi-system control are presented to illustrate the demands generated from engineering.
科技评论

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 80-80. ;  doi:
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主编心语

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 83-83. ;  doi:
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走向职场

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (17): 86-86. ;  doi:
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