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   Science & Technology Review
2011, Vol.29, No. 11-05
18 February 2011

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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 3-3. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 7-7. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 9-9. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 11-11. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 12-12. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 13-13. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 14-14. ;  doi:
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Careers of Doctorate Holders:Employment and Mobility Patterns

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 15-23. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1216 )

Irreducible Water Saturation Measurement of Volcanic Rocks Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 24-27. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.05.002
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Abstract ( 465 )
Irreducible water saturation is one of the fundamental parameters for characterizing reservoir formations, and the key factor for determining reserve calculation and fluid type identification. CT analysis on 125 whole cores shows that volcanic rocks have the complex porous structure and possess strong heterogeneity. As a result, accurate Swi can be only measured on whole cores. A new testing method for whole cores is proposed by combining Nuclear Magnetic Resonance(NMR) with centrifugal tests. Using T2 spectrum of whole core demarcated by a T2 cutoff, this new method measures irreducible water saturation. The T2 cutoff is measured on 25mm or 38mm diameter core samples which drilled from the whole core. Experiments on 52 volcanic rocks show that although the measured T2 cutoff values vary greatly among different volcanic rock types, but there is little difference between the values in the same group of volcanic rocks sub-classified by lithology. And NMR method can provide reliable measurements when it is applied to Sw measurement of volcanic rocks if the T2 cutoff is measured on cores from the same group sub-classified by lithology. The new method overcomes the problems involving size and shape restricts, long test cycles, and viscous fingering defects of conventional methods. Comparing with conventional method, the results of the new method well coincide with the experimental results on homogeneous rocks, and are more accurate with fractured samples.

Gas-Water Stratified Flow Identification Based on Electromagnetic Image Logging

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 28-31. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.05.003
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Abstract ( 398 )
Aiming at the most familiar gas-water stratified flow in the highly deviated or the horizontal gas wells, based on the electromagnetic image logging technology, the identification method for stratified smooth flow and stratified wavy flow is researched. Firstly, the similar characteristics in the flow section of all the gas-water flow patterns in the horizontal or inclined pipe are extracted. According to the abstraction of the characters, four material distribution models are built up. Secondly, the electromagnetic image logging measurement in response to all the four material distribution models are simulated by the finite element method and the peculiarity related with the flow patterns of each response is analyzed. Thirdly, the character related to the models is computed as a parameter from the measurements. By using the parameter, the stratified model is separated from other models and water holdup rate is computed. Finally, a pattern recognition method is used to identify the transformation rules of the material distribution models in the flow section; the gas-water stratified flow is distinguished. With this method, the gas-water stratified flow patterns can be identified and the water holdup rate can be computed, and the method is quicker and more accurate than analyzing reconstructed images.

3D Information Acquisition of Disaster Cavity Based on CMS

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 32-36. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.05.004
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Abstract ( 449 )
On the basis of research involving the principle of 3D laser scanning, the different cavity detection methods are put forward according to the different conditions, such as cavity bottom detection, closed cavity detection, and through the cavity upper channel detection. Aiming at the original data format of monitor and its characteristic, the principle of cloud data filtering and data splicing of CMS cavity detection points are studied, the multi-point scanning data splicing method is put forward and the format conversion of cavity detection initial point cloud data is successfully realized, which provides a data base for establishing a cavity 3D solid model. The Delaunay Triangulation Method of cavities 3D modeling is researched. The cavity 3D model method based on mine software of Surpac, which has higher visual degree, editable, and better adaptability, is proposed, and it has been successfully applied to the 3D information acquisition and visualization of complex disaster cavity in Gaofeng Mine of Guangxi Province. The results indicate that cavity 3D information obtained by this method provides the technical support for cavity evaluation and management, quality control, and formulation of the effective resource recycling scheme, etc.

Influence of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Austenitic Stainless Steel

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 37-40. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.05.005
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Abstract ( 1285 )
The effects of different solution temperature, cooling method, and holding time on the microstructure are introduced and performance of a new austenitic stainless steel 00Cr18Ni10N has been investigated through a series of heat treatment process tests. Increasing solution temperature can accelerate austenitic formation and uniformity process, also increase the solubility of carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides in the matrix, and improve the stability of austenite. The results show that the grain size of the material becomes larger with the solution temperature increasing, meanwhile, the mechanical properties are decreased and plastic property is improved. With holding time increasing, the tensile strength, yield strength, and hardness decrease, the percentages elongation after fracture increase, and the impact toughness and section reduction rate do not change significantly. Although the influence of cooling methods on mechanical properties and grain size is not significant, but it could obtain better comprehensive performance using water-cooling after the 1050℃ solution treatment. Consequently, the stainless steel reaches a good combination of strength and toughness after a solution treatment at the temperature of 1050℃ and water quenching after holding an hour.

Adaptive Pattern Control Algorithm Based on Transformation Matrix

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 41-45. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.05.006
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Abstract ( 399 )
To solve the problem of deviation of main lobe and high side lobe in the adaptive beam former in the situation of limited snapshots, an adaptive pattern control algorithm based on a transformation matrix in the situation of limited snapshots is presented. According to the orthogonality of the interference subspace and noise subspace of the covariance matrix for the interference scenario, the proposed algorithm removes the eigenvectors of the interference subspace from the covariance matrix of the interference scenario and homogenizes the eigenvalues of the noise subspace of the covariance matrix for the interference scenario to form a transformation matrix with the eigenvectors of the noise subspace only, then the beam is formed using the transformation matrix based on the criterion of maximum signal-to -noise ratio with the interference being well suppressed. The proposed algorithm can diminish the deviation of main lobe, restrain interference, and make the overall beam former side lobe response equal the desired quiescent response under the condition of small number of snapshots. Both performance analysis and computer simulation results demonstrate the validity and superiority of the proposed algorithm.

Adsorption Performance of Optimization Carboxymethyl Potato Pulp for Pb2+ from Aqueous Solution

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 46-50. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.05.007
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Abstract ( 1206 )
Waste water contaminated from heavy metals is very harmful to the health of human beings. In order to effectively solve the serious problem that lead ions pollute water resources, the carboxymethyl potato pulp synthesis and its adsorption property of lead ions were studied. The effects of reaction time, carboxymethyl potato pulp dose, and pH on the adsorption performance to lead ions in the aqueous solution were studied on the basis of the results of single factor tests, according to Box-Benhnken's factorial design principle and response surface methodology analysis, a regression equation of the modification parameters was established. The optimum technology conditions are confirmed as follows: the adsorbent dose is 0.219g, pH value is 6.6, adsorption time is 42.9min, the maximum value of loading capacity is up to 41.28mg/g and the maximum removal rate of Pb2+ could reach 90.4%. The adsorption ability of CCMS adsorbent is conformed to Freundlich's isotherm adsorption equation Q=2.5262C0.9085. The maximum recovery ratio of Pb2+ is up to 90.97% when 1mol/L HCl aqueous solution is used in the desorption process. The carboxymethyl potato pulp can effectively meet the industrialized demand on removal of Pb2+ form the waste water.

Pharmacokinetics Study on Geniposide as the Effective Ingredient of Ultramicro Pulverised Powder of Huanglian Jiedusan in Rabbits in virto

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 51-55. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.05.008
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Abstract ( 1353 )
To study the pharmacokinetics of geniposide as the effective ingredient of ultramicro pulverized powder of Huanglian Jiedusan (HLJDS) in rabbits in vitro, the plasma concentration of geniposide was determined by HPLC in two groups of rabbits after they were administered with ultramicro powder and ordinary powder of HLJDS at a single dose (4g/kg bw) by gastrogavage, respectively. The plasma concentration-time data of geniposide was analyzed with Pharmaceutical Kinetics Software (PKS). Pharmacokinetics characteristics in both groups were compared. The results show that the best pharmacokinetics model of geniposide in two groups is all one-compartment open models. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of geniposide are as follows: T1/2ka is 0.14h and 0.36h, T1/2ke is 1.70h and 1.41h, Tpeak is 0.672h and 0.957h, Cmax is 0.627μg/mL and 0.419μg/mL, AUC is 1.899(μg·h)/mL and 1.356(μg·h)/mL, respectively. Tpeak is elevated by 0.285h, Cmax is enlarged by 49.64%, and AUC is raised by 40.04%. It is indicated that the bioavailability of geniposide in HLJDS could be greatly improved by the technique of ultramicro pulverization.

Application of Paired Comparison Test to Sensory Evaluation of Lotion Cosmetics

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 56-61. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.05.009
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Abstract ( 1202 )
The differentiation of sensory evaluation for five kinds of formula of emulsion-type skincare cosmetics in consumers' usage is explored and the principle and application of the paired comparison method are studied. A sensory qualitative evaluation of five kinds of formula of emulsion-type skincare cosmetics is analyzed by using the paired comparison method; 10 sensual evaluation indexes ,such as spreading, wetness, thickness, gloss, slipperiness, type of residue, softness, and stickiness, etc., are used to conduct resultant inspection through variance test in mathematical statistics. Results reveal that the sample of formula of 4% PTID and 10% IPP is better than other four samples in spreading, wetness, gloss, slipperiness, and softness; the sample of formula of 4% DISD and 10% IPP is better than other four samples in term of residue and stickiness. This experiment fundamentally builds a sensory evaluation system for the emulsion-type skincare cosmetics and gains the best formulation of sample for different index results of sensory evaluation by testing five different formulations of samples.

Design and Implementation of Micro-irrigation for the Remote Control System in the Green Space

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 62-64. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.05.010
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Abstract ( 436 )
A monitoring system based on the technology of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) was designed for the real-time remote control and monitor of green space irrigation. The system includes the wireless module of data acquisition and control, the wireless coordinator module, the control terminal, and remote control center, etc. The system is controlled by both industrial PC terminal and expert decision-making system, which provides the effective tools for the information and automation study on the realization of large scale urban greenbelt irrigation.

Sustainable Development of Low Carbon Economy and High Technology Service Industry

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 65-68. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.05.011
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Abstract ( 1188 )
The global financial crisis has deeply affected the development trend of the world economy. At present, China is facing a new round of economic growth and structural adjustment. For the industrial structure optimization and transformation of economic development modes, low carbon economy is the right choice for sustainable development. As a worldwide integration of interests in economy and politics, low carbon economy has become an important strategy in many countries and regions in the world. To achieve the goal for acting as a responsible country, China is now striving for a low carbon development and sustainable development. The importance of service industry in the economic development for various nations is mounting up, especially the modern service industry as the essential part of service industry plays an increasingly significant role in the development of economy. Service industry has become an important component of the economic and social development of nations. The high-tech service industry is the integration of high-tech industries and modern service industry which is characterized by intensiveness in technology, knowledge, and talent. The high-tech service industry is a new strategic emerging industry. The development of the high-tech service industry plays an important role in promotion of product added value, enhancement of the industrial competitiveness, improvement of economic growth quality, and cultivation of professional talents.

Chinese Tritium Technology of the Liquid Lithium-lead Alloy Experimental Loop for ITER

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 69-73. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.05.012
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Abstract ( 470 )
The multinational cooperation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plan aims to show that fusion reactors are a new and viable way to address global energy concerns. The Chinese Dual Function Lithium Lead Testing Blanket Module (DFLL-TBM) is one of the major research programs and uses liquid lithium-lead as both breeder and cooler, and a helium-hydrogen gas bubbling method is used to extract tritium. So, tritium technology is a key issue in the liquid metal blanket. Based on the development strategy for Chinese liquid lithium-lead experimental blanket technology, development of Chinese tritium technology for liquid lithium-lead loops between 2004 and 2010 was elaborated in three fields, namely, theoretical analysis and calculation, experimental research, and engineering design. Some important information were introduced, such as the simulation-design-develop of liquid lithium-lead bubbler, tritium analysis and permeation barriers in the loops, tritium release from lithium-lead after irradiation, design of tritium extraction system for the blanket, etc. These works indicate that it is possible to completely overcome the difficulties involving very small solubility of tritium in the lithium-lead, accumulation of Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD) after a long period of continuous operation, materials corrosion together with the pressure drop caused by wall stress, and many technical problems, such as tritium retention, penetration, recovery and environment pollution, can be thoroughly solved.

Review on the Quantification Methods of Human Error Probability

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 74-79. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.05.013
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Abstract ( 572 )
The Human Error Probability (HEP) quantification methods are reviewed. Firstly, the basic concept of HEP is introduced and the necessity for quantify HEP is emphasized. It is pointed that the HEP quantification is not only an important ingredient of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for human-machine system, but also can provide a significant guidance for human error reduction. Secondly, considering that there are differences in the theoretical basis of each HEP quantification method, the current HEP quantification methods are categorized into three types; they are time-based, task-based, and context-based. The typical methods of each type are analyzed in details in term of their basic ideas, quantification processes, their developments, and applications. Lastly, the HEP quantification methods are reviewed from aspects of the usage of human error data, the representation and application of scenario, the models used in quantification process, the goal and result of quantification. Some propositions are provided.

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 80-80. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 88-91. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-05): 92-92. ;  doi:
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