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   Science & Technology Review
2011, Vol.29, No. 11-04
08 February 2011

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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 3-3. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 7-7. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 9-9. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 11-11. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 12-12. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 13-13. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 14-14. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 15-17. ;  doi:
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On Optimal Budget Allocation for Keyword Auctions Across Search Engines

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 18-24. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.04.001
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Abstract ( 1240 )
The budget allocation is one of the primary issues for advertisers when conducting Sponsored Search Auction (SSA) campaigns. A successful budget allocation strategy can improve the effectiveness of the SSA campaign management, thus helping the advertiser prevail in the fierce competition of online marketing. A multi-level framework is proposed in this paper for budget allocation in the context of SSA campaign management focusing on cross-market issues in the entire life-cycle of SSA campaigns. Based on this framework, a set of optimization strategies are designed from two points of views, namely across several search advertising markets and over time during the marketing campaign life cycle. Furthermore, logs are collected from real SSA campaigns to validate the proposed budget allocation framework and strategies. Experimental results show that the framework and identified strategies for budget allocation across search advertising markets can help advertisers improve advertising performance (e.g., volume of clicks) by 10% or even more.

Interaction Between K10C4H4FN2O2Sm(PW11O39)2·12.5H2O and Bovine Serum Albumin

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 25-29. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.04.002
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Abstract ( 466 )
The interaction between the polyoxometalate K10C4H4FN2O2Sm(PW11O39)2·12.5H2O (FSPW) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was investigated by using fluorescence and UV/vis. The experimental results show that the regular fluorescence quenching of BSA is caused by the compound FSPW. According to the UV-visible absorption spectra, the fluorescence quenching of BSA is caused by the formation of FSPW-BSA complex, and it is a static quenching. The ?驻G of the process of interaction between the compound FSPW and BSA is less than zero, which indicates that this process is a spontaneous process. The ?驻H and ?驻S are both less than zero, which shows that the binding process of FSPW and BSA is an exothermic molecular interaction, in which the hydrogen bond and van der Waals' force play the major role. The results of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy show that FSPW is strongly bound with BSA by inserting into the hydrophobic cavity of the protein, and the binding process causes the change of protein conformation. The binding site is close to the tryptophan residue.

Characteristics and Main Controlling Factors About Hydrocarbon Accumulation and Distribution in the Linnan Sag

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 30-33. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.04.003
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Abstract ( 577 )
Linnan Sag is the most important oil and gas sag in Huimin Depression. With the development of exploration, the difficulty of exploration is increasingly growing in Linnan Sag. Based on study of the essential characteristics of oil and gas reservoirs and summarization of the distribution features and rules, main controlling factors of reservoirs in Linnan Sag were analyzed for oil and gas exploration in the future. There are various petroleum reservoir types in Linnan Sag, and the sag is dominated by fault-block reservoir and composite reservoir about fault. Reservoirs are mainly distributed in turbidite fan facies, alluvial fan facies, and fluvial facies. According to the study, the distribution and accumulation of petroleum reservoirs is mainly controlled by source rocks, sedimentary facies belts, and faults in Linnan Sag. Petroleum reservoirs are controlled by hydrocarbon source rocks and distributed surrounding the oil-generating sag. Because the favorable of sedimentary facies belts are continuously overlapped, they are well reservoir beds. Faults not only control the hydrocarbon migration pathways, but also control the hydrocarbon accumulation by trapping with formations and structures.

Minimum Flow Pore Throat Radius for Determination of the Lower Limits of Parameters in Low Permeability Reservoir

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 34-38. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.04.004
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Abstract ( 510 )
The lower limit parameters of a reservoir play an important role in the reservoir exploration and development. Conventional methods are greatly limited in determining the lower limits of low porosity and low permeability reservoirs. In this paper, based on the mercury penetration experiment, water-blocking experiment and NMR experiment, the methods of determining the lower limit parameters within the low permeability reservoir are proposed by using the minimum flow pore throat radius. That is, considering low permeability reservoir's microscopic characteristics, the minimum flow pore throat radius of the gas-bearing section is first determined, and then the relationships between porosity, permeability and median radius are established in order to calculate the low limits of porosity and permeability. Using this method, the lower limits of porosity and permeability of the Xujiahe Formation (T3x) gas reservoir in Hebaochang area are determined: the lower limits of porosity in T3x2, T3x4 and T3x6 Formation are 5.5%, 5% and 3.8%, and the lower limits of permeability are 0.03×10-3, 0.11×10-3 and 0.12×10-3?滋m2.

Oil by Capillary Spontaneous Imbibitions

Zhi-Gang HE
Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 39-43. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.04.005
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Abstract ( 495 )
Waterflooding is relatively inexpensive and easy to control, but waterflooding recovery efficiency is low for high viscosity oil due to the adverse mobility ratio between oil and injected water in high viscosity heavy oil fields. Previous studies showed that capillary forces often neglected due to high oil viscosity are important even in the heavy oil systems. At low injection rates, water imbibitions can be used to improve oil recovery. Therefore waterflooding could become a viable technique for non-thermal enhanced oil recovery, even in the fields with very high oil viscosity. It is recently found that the methods improving the waterflooding recovery efficiency by augmenting the capillary forces to inhibiting bypass flow of injection water on macroscopic or microscopic heterogeneity are also applicable to the sandstone reservoir, heavy oil reservoir, and the polymer flooding. On the basis of the principle of oil reservoir physical chemistry and pore-doublet model proposed, the effects of the injection rate and wettability to the capillary imbibitions are studied, the some conventional viewpoint in some oil reservoir textbooks is considered probably questionable. The results indicate that the injection rate control and the wettability alteration from oil-wet to water-wet conditions are the technical key of the method.

Application of Tangible User Interfaces in Interactive Presentations

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 44-47. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.04.006
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Abstract ( 1131 )
The traditional presentation involves many disadvantages with respect to presentation performance and receptive experience. Applications of the computing and interactive technology in the presentation will make a great difference in ways of presentation. However, the greatest challenge for designers of a presentation is how to negotiate all kinds of interactive styles in the presentation, especially, how to integrate the physical form, computing and behavior together. In contrast with the conventional approaches of digitalization, the physicality and tangibility of digital information provide an alternative approach of bridging the gap between the digital world and the physical world, which will reduce the burden on perception and cognition of body-mind in understanding and dealing with the surrounding world while totally immerging in the virtual digital world. How to apply Tangible Use Interfaces (TUIs) in an interactive presentation is explored in order to unify the audiences' goal with what the presentation means to achieve, to create a meaningful and holistic receptive experience. Additionally, an experience hierarchical model based on objects is proposed to provide the design guideline for the application of TUI in the interactive presentation.

Fuzzy Extension Matter-element Model Based on Entropy Weight in Optimization of Mine Ventilation Systems

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 48-52. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.04.007
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Abstract ( 437 )
Focusing on the incompatibility with each factors of optimization and evaluation of mine ventilation systems, the fuzzy extension matter-element model based on entropy weight for optimizing the mine ventilation systems scheme was established from the three aspects including technical feasibility, economical rationality, and safety reliability; the model include 12 indexes, such as mine total wind pressure, equivalent orifice, fan efficiency, stability of fan functioning, mine anti-accident ability, etc. Indexes weights were calculated by the expert estimation combined with information entropy, the optimum scheme of comprehensive benefits was determined by a comprehensive relative membership degree. Furthermore, the model was used to evaluate and optimize the schemes of mine ventilation system reconstruction in Zhangxiaolou Mine and was compared with the result of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. The results show that a comprehensive weight is more objective and accurate, the comprehensive relative membership degree has a good dispersion, and they possess utility value for the ventilation design of new mines and the ventilation system reconstruction of production mines.

Numerical Simulation of Lateral Contaminant Ventilation Under Different Indoor Air Stabilities

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 53-58. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.04.008
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Abstract ( 448 )
The concept and clarifications of indoor air stability are validated by a mathematical method. The indoor air stability is classified into three types, that is, stable, neutral, and unstable according to the environmental temperature lapse rate after the mathematical derivation. A physical model is established under different temperature gradients. By use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software, the propagation characteristics of NH3 and other indoor pollutants are simulated under the condition of lateral ventilation. The diffusion laws of pollutants with different stabilities are obtained through a numerical simulation. The results show that in the unstable conditions, pollutants can quickly get up to the exit with the up-return and down-supply pollutant ventilation. However, pollutants are easy to accumulate indoors and difficult to exhaust in the stable conditions. Unstable conditions are conducive to the formation and development of turbulence; and stable conditions inhibit the development of turbulence. However at large Reynolds number (at the entry speed of 3m/s), the influence of the stabilities on the dispersal of pollutants is not significant. For different pollutants gases, the stability effect of CO2 is better than that of NH3, as CO2 can not be easily discharged to the outside. At the same time, the instability can be reduced with the decrease of temperature difference along the vertical direction. The stability drops down with the decrease of inversion temperature difference. But the effect degree of environmental temperature on stability is closely related to Reynolds number. This work provides a theoretical basis for the indoor pollutant control strategies.

Lateral Dynamic Stability of Aerial Refueling Aircraft and Tanker Aircraft

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 59-63. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.04.009
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Abstract ( 431 )
During the air refueling, the aerodynamic force and the vortex field of the refueling tanker aircraft would greatly affect the manipulation of the refueling aircraft, and it is important to study this impact. This paper studies the cross-lateral dynamic stability and controllability of the air refueling tanker aircraft. The aerodynamic force and the vortex field of the refueling tanker aircraft on the wing of the refueling aircraft are determined through a simplified aerodynamic model. These forces and moments are expressed in a derivative form to be applied in the linear equations of motion. It is shown that the aerial refueling tanker aircraft would experience a divergent oscillation, mainly composed of tilt and lateral movement. By the manipulation of ailerons to control the divergence continuous mode, the aircraft may keep stable. The results of the present paper may serve as a theoretical basis for action that can be taken for other types of manipulation and other types of refueling aircraft.

An Evaluation of China's Infrastructure Development for Popularization of Science and Technology

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 64-68. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.04.010
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Abstract ( 452 )
The Popularization of Science and Technology Infrastructure (PSTI) is an important public service platform for science and technology popularization, and a key component in the public service system and the science education for general public in China. Chinese government has made much effort to develop PSTI for promoting the scientific awareness of general public. Recent twenty years saw a new wave of construction boom of China's PSTI. But the effect of PSTI is not well understood. So an evaluation is desirable for the development of China's PSTI. The evaluation of the PSTI development not only should involve the amount of all kinds of PSTI, but also should reflect the whole management and the social effect of the PSTI in China. So the PSTI development evaluation includes the scale, the structure and the effect. This evaluation traces the amount and human resources of all diverse PSTI, and assesses the sustainable development capacity and the general public benefit of the whole PSTI. It is shown that the visitor capacity, the social benefit and the sustainable development capacity of the whole PSTI are still in a low level. The macro level of the PSTI development is low, and lags behind the economic development in China.

Key Shield Construction Technologies in Middle Route Yellow River-Crossing Project of South-to-North Water Transfer Project

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 69-73. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.04.011
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Abstract ( 601 )
There are many difficult technical problems in the construction of the Yellow River-Crossing Shield Project in the middle route project of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project, due to complicated geological conditions, large buried depth, high groundwater pressure, long tunnel line and large tunnel diameter. In the construction practice, some technologies are developed, to ensure the successful project construction. They include mud configuration technology, excavation surface stabilizing technology, wall-back grouting technology (beyond the current standard practice), shield construction seepage control technology under high groundwater pressure, shield access section ground consolidation technology, hyperbaric operation technology under large buried depth and high groundwater pressure, shield construction attitude control technology, precise long distance shaft connection survey technology, long distance mud transportation technology, high gradient driving technology. Various technical indexes in the Yellow river-crossing shield project are satisfactory, and these technologies would provide some guidance for similar projects in the future.

Research Methods and Control Technologies for Microbial Film

Science & Technology Review. 2011, 29 (11-04): 74-79. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2011.04.012
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Abstract ( 514 )
In nature, the biofilm mode of life is of great importance in the cell cycle for many microorganisms and is one of hotspots in microbiology. However, the progress of studies of biofilm due to the complexity and variability of associated physiological activities requires advanced methods with high throughput. In this paper, principles, applications, advantages and disadvantages of several biofilm growing devices and appropriate methods for biofilm analysis are discussed, together with several potential methods for the control and removal of biofilms. Among the biofilm growing devices, the microtiter-plate is the first that has been used in high-throughput testing of biofilms. But it is not possible to assess the biofilm structure only by microscopy. The Calgary Biofilm Device was applied for that purpose. Another high-throughput biofilm forming device is the BioFilm Ring. For the analysis of the structure of the biofilms, the microscopy plays a key role. Coupled with microscopes, some fluorescent dyes such as DAPI, CTC and SYTO 9/PI are used for the assessment of total cells, physiologically-active cells and membrane compromised cells, respectively. For the analysis of the chemical substances of the biofilms, microprobes are usually used for the detection of DO and pH. EPS and Quorum sensing signal molecules are usually measured by extraction methods. Some new methods have been suggested that may be developed to release bacteria from the surfaces, for instance, antifoulants, hydrolases and NO. These would be alternatives to biocides in the future. Recent advances in high-throughput methods to generate and study biofilms have opened the possibility of starting an omics-''biofomics'' approach to study these complex structures. The ''biofomics'' will reach the application stage in areas such as clinical, industrial and environmental microbiology in the next decades.

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