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   Science & Technology Review
2010, Vol.28, No. 24
10 December 2010

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To Develop Our Own Rising Emergingindustry with High Starting Point, Theoretical Investigation Must Be Conducted First

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 3-3. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 314 )
特别栏目

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 14-15. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 16-17. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 18-19. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 99-99. ;  doi:
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复旦大学环境科学与工程系 景德镇陶瓷学院 西南交通大学 清华大学美术学院
Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 100-100. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 102-102. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 114-114. ;  doi:
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封面图片说明

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 328 )
半月科技风云

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 9-9. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 338 )
科技事件

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 11-11. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 281 )
科技评论

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 12-12. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 20-20. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 96-96. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 97-97. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 98-98. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 101-101. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 103-103. ;  doi:
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科技工作者建议

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 13-13. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 319 )
Exclusive

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 21-22. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 343 )

Preparation and Application of Graphene

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 23-28. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 499 )
Prof. Andre Geim and Dr. Konstantin Novoselov, both from School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, won Nobel Prize of Physics in 2010 in virtue of their great contributions to the discovery of graphene. In the past six years, great progress in preparation of graphene has been achieved, which has also demonstrated many excellent properties in a wide range of application areas. The present paper reviewed the progress in preparation and application of graphene. It is found that graphene can bring us a lot of possibilities and may turn our future lives better, and Prof. Geim and Dr. Novoselov really deserve this year's Noble Prize in Physics.

The "Welding" Technology in Organic Synthesis

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 29-32. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 397 )
Transition metals, especially Pd, catalyzed cross-coupling reactions from organohalides and organometallic reagents have been well developed and broadly utilized in organic synthesis. This paper summarizes the main research of the 2010 Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureates, Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi, Akira Suzuki, and their outstanding contribution to the palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

The Long and Bumpy Road to Human in vitro Fertilization: An Introduction to the Achievements of the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 33-37. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 396 )
In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer innovator Robert G. Edwards wins the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for outstanding contributions to the technology of in vitro fertilization. Working with Dr. Patrick Steptoe, Edwards developed the techniques of IVF-ET for removing mature eggs from a woman's ovaries, fertilizing them in test tubes and inducing them to begin dividing before implanting them back in the mother. After a long and bumpy efforts, in 1978, comes the birth of the first "test tube baby" of the world, both demonstrating the success and the safety of the technique and bringing hope to infertile patients, who are estimated to constitute 10% of all couples world-wide. A new medical area (Assisted Reproductive Techniques, ART) was also born, and a new world was opened.
Articles

Rapid Assessment of Earthquake Disaster: With Yushu Earthquake as an Example

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 38-43. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 437 )
The earthquake will result in severe damages in a shor time. The emergency response and rapid assessment are necessary. In view of the shortcomings of available earthquake disaster assessment methods in spatial and temporal scales, based on a review of current evaluation models for rapid assessment of seismic intensity, this paper proposes a method for generating seismic intensity map based on seismological mechanism solutions. Using available data, the chains of rapid assessment of earthquake disaster were analyzed, and different models were established for different temporal scales of data sets. By using GIS overlay, the assessment models were mathematically established and software developed, including the qualitative and quantitative assessment of damaged houses and affected population due to earthquake. Finally, taking the Yushu earthquake as an example, the affected population and damaged buildings were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. As compared to the announced data from the State Council, the error of rapid assessment results on affected population were 23.3%, which is in the range of the demands of national disaster reduction and emergency (with error less than 30%). It shows that the method and models presented in this paper are reasonable and reliable, and is of value for future applications.

Absorption Characteristics of Activated Carbon on Volatile Phenol

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 44-47. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 443 )
The absorption experiments of activated carbon on volatile phenol were carried out in different adsorbent dosages, pH values, adsorbent durations, temperatures, and initial concentrations, based on concentration measurement of volatile phenol in water. The adsorption characteristics of activated carbon on volatile phenol are analyzed, and the parameters obtained will provide a guidance for the design of sewage treatment with volatile phenol. The results show that the absorption reaches the maximum point of 96.04% when the temperature is 12℃, the adsorption time 20min, and activated carbon dosage 0.7g/50mL. The removal effect of volatile phenol under low initial concentration is better than under high initial concentration. The absorption isotherm of activated carbon on volatile phenol is consistent with the results of Freundlich.

Stability Analysis of Underground Goaf Influenced by Dynamic Disturbance with Dimensional Distinct Element

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 48-52. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 368 )
By using an dimensional distinct element program, a model for numerical calculations is established for a goaf underground with dynamic disturbance. And then the effect of disturbance intensity on the stability of goaf underground is studied by changing the peak value of the dynamic stress wave, and the static calculation and the dynamic calculation are carried out, respectively. The analytical results demonstrate that the maximum displacement of surrounding rock is 2.98mm after goaf underground is excavated, while the maximum displacement of surrounding rock increases to 5.0mm after the dynamic loading is applied, and the amplitude of the increased displacement is proportional to the magnitude of the dynamic loading, which influences the variation of displacement, maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress distribution for surrounding rock. The second redistribution of stress field of surrounding rock occurs; and the distribution area of plastic zone is expanded significantly. The results show that Shaodong mined-out area is stable, but the support of the top and bottom should be strengthened. Several suggestions to avoid instability and subside of mined-out areas induced by blasting vibration are made.

The First Principles of the Electronic Structures of Sphalerite ZnSe

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 53-56. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 373 )
The electronic structure of sphalerite ZnSe was calculated by the method of the Plane Wave Pseudopotential (PWP) of the first priciples with Density Functional Theory (DFT), including crystal lattice constant, energy band structure, density of states and Mulliken population. The calculation results show that ZnSe is a direct-band-gap semiconductor material, with the lower valence band composed of Zn 3d, the top valance band composed of Se 4p, the conduction band mainly from the Zn 4s and the outermost electrons of Se. A weak ionic bond covalent bond exists between Zn and Se atoms with net charges of 0.14e and -0.14e.

Analysis of the Causes of a Strong Convective Storm in the Lower Yellow River in Early Summer

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 57-62. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 446 )
The causes of a strong convective storm in the lower Yellow River in early summer on June 25, 2008 are diagnosed by using routine observation data, Doppler weather radar data and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. It is shown that the joint effect of the high-level cold air and low-level warm air leads to the convective unstable atmosphere in knots. The shear line at 850hPa plays an important role in trigger and enhancement of convective systems over Anyang. It is also revealed that the vapor come from the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea. The vapor convergence comes into existence in Anyang. They play a crucial role in the maintenance of strong convective storm. In the period of convective storm development, the strong convergence below 850hPa and divergence over 800hPa and below 600hPa are characteristics of divergence distribution. There exists convective ascending movement. The stronger updraft is below 600hPa. These provide favorable dynamic condition. There is high sufficient energy of Qse in the convective storm region. The energy frontal zone exists in the west of convective storm area. Doppler radar data show that the convection echo generates in Hebei Province and develops during moving to Henan. The reflectivity at 3.4° elevation of the strongest convection echo of Puyang is more than 50dBz. In the velocity field. The meso-scale convergence in Anyang is studied by analyzing the Doppler radar data also.

Simulation of Temperature Field of HgCdTe Detector with Laser Radiation

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 63-66. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 403 )
Photoelectrical detectors are widely used in many fields such as satellites, missiles, remote sensing and so on, both in civil and military applications and play a major role in social security and economic development. When the detector is irradiated by high power laser, the thermal effect is the major cause of damage. The laser energy absorbed by the detector raises temperature on the surface of the detector. When the temperature goes beyond the normal temperature range, the detector will not work normally and gives wrong output signals. The temperature distribution is related with the detector structure and the material's physical properties. In order to obtain the temperature distribution in the detector, a heat conduction model is established. Using the Matlab software, the simulation is carried out for the temperature distribution in HgCdTe detector with laser radiation and the relationship between the heat conductive coefficient, the thickness of glue and the laser damage threshold under specific external environment conditions is obtained. The results can provide some guidance for the data analysis of detectors and the detector's laser proof design.

Self-adapting Security Auditing Management Controller Platform Based on Decision Tree

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 67-70. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 415 )
Currently, quite a few domestic information security enterprises have customized the 4A solution (integrated Accounting, Authentication, Authorization, Auditing management) for the Telecom Operators in China. Auditing management for integrated auditing is one of the most powerful function model which reflects a global effect of the 4A solution. Moreover, the auditing strategy customization is the core of the auditing management. The existing auditing strategy customization scheme is mainly the customization mode, which lacks generality, transportability and other important features. During the process of working out an auditing strategy, many human factors would be involved in security threats, which are not acceptable by the enterprises or corporation. The Self-adapting Security Auditing Management controller platform based on decision tree is a general auditing strategy platform which implements automatically the generation of the audit policy by the system and a self-adapting optimizing auditing strategy periodically. The implementation includes a data mining technology to deal with huge amount of data. The business requirements and performance optimization are dealt with in the integrated auditing subsystem of the integrated security controller platform. The decision tree optimization method enables the auditing strategy being optimized continuously during its operation, to satisfy the auditing requirements of different business systems.

Development of Weapon Equipment Virtual Maintenance Training System

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 71-74. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1373 )
With the rapid development of the virtual reality technology, the shortcomings of the conventional real weapon equipments maintenance training can be remedied by adopting virtual maintenance training technology. This paper reviews the significance and development status of virtual maintenance based on virtual reality technology, including the basic functions and module design of weapon equipments virtual maintenance training system, such as construction and principle learning module, real component level dismantlement and assemble module, decomposability and combining, fault check and removing module, control and examining module, etc. The basic data necessary to realize the virtual maintenance training system are identified and how to obtain these data is discussed, including maintenance items, maintenance training contents, fault database and maintenance training behavior simulation. On the basis of above results, the system framework is designed, which can be used for the development and integration of all kinds of weapon equipment virtual maintenance training systems.

Simulation of Flow Around Multi-Circular-Cylinders Based on Fluent

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 75-78. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 391 )
The flow around circular cylinders always is a problem of focus in ocean engineering, as related with platforms and oil pipelines. In this paper, the Fluent software is used to simulate the flow around multi-circular-cylinders, for several typical arrangements of multi-circular- cylinders. The simulation is based on the RANS equation and RNG turbulence model. It is shown that the flow around serial arrangements of two circular cylinders is related to the distance between the two cylinders. There is a symmetric and inverted vortex in the flow around two circular cylinders of the parallel arrangement. The flow around two circular cylinders of the staggered arrangement is similar to the flow around three cylinders of triangle-shaped arrangement or inverted triangle-shaped arrangement, and the fore circular cylinders restrain the vortex separation by the back circular cylinders. The vortex in the flow around four circular cylinders of square arrangement is unsymmetrical. The simulation results indicate that the simulation of multi-circular-cylinders viscous flow field using Fluent is effective, and the details of the flow around multi-circular-cylinders can be qualitatively simulated.

Ureteral Obstruction Caused Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 79-81. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1083 )
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the ureter is rare in primary clinical observations. There were only 2 cases in the reported literature, thereby, it is often ignored, which would make its diagnosis and treatment difficult., An 83-years-old male patient with known chronic lymphatic leukemia accompanied with prolymphocytic increase (CLL/PL) is reported in this paper. Repeated urinary tract infection was the clinical presentation. Ultrasound and urinary system magnetic nuclear Resonance Water Imaging (MRU) indicate the obstruction of low right ureter and dilation of ureter and renal pelvis. After 10 months of dynamic observations, the symptoms such as dysuria, frequent urination, among others,l were aggravated. Then, the patient accepted the chemotherapy of RF (Fludarabine and Rituximab). After the therapy, CLL evaluation of the curative effect shows to be complete remission. Review MRU and ultrasonic sound show that the obstruction was alleviated, and the prostate sizes before and after treatment had no significant change. The patient condition saw no recurrence in 17-month follow-up visit after the therapy. This case reminds us that the possibility of malignant lymphoma of the lymphocytic system should be considered in cases of ureter obstruction when the cause is uncertain. And the condition of original disease involvement should be paid attention if ureteral obstruction appears in patients suffering from diseases of the lymphatic system.

Morphological Study on Hepatic Tissue in Hepatocirrhosis Phase of Hepatocarcinoma Carrying Abnormal Savda Model

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 82-88. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 564 )
The effect of abnormal savda on the inducing and developing process of hepatocirrhosis phase in hepatocarcinoma carrying abnormal savda model is studied under the direction of Uighur medicine, establishing the abnormal savda disease rat model serving as a base, using DEN further to establish hepatocarcinoma carrying abnormal savda disease rat model till hepatocirrhosis occurs. The surface of the liver and its pathological and ultrastructural changes in 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th weeks were dynamically observed, respectively. The results show that both in the model control group and the abnormal savda syndrome model group there is the pathological changing process of hepatoxic lesion, hepatic proliferation, hepatocirrhosis, but the pathological changes of the liver surface in the abnormal savda syndrome model group is faster than those in the model control group. At the same time point, the dropsical level of liver cell, typeless hyperplasia, the fake foliole level in liver, the ultrastructural changes of decreasing hepatin and chondriosome in liver cells in abnormal savda syndrome model group exceed those in the model control group. These findings indicate that in the process of establishing abnormal savda disease rat model serving as a base, using DEN further to establish hepatocarcinoma carrying abnormal savda disease rat model, the abnormal savda hilit accelerates the inducing and developing process of hepatocyte to hepatic cellular proliferation andU to hepatocellular carcinoma and this process is similar to the process of human hepatocarcinoma. It is also stable and reliable.

Effects of Simvastatin on Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats and Its Mechanism

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 89-92. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1218 )
To observe the effects of simvastatin on hepatic fibrosis in rats and to study its possible mechanism, 60 male and female SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, and trial group. Rats of the model group were injected with tetrachloride (CCl4), rats of the trial group were injected with CCl4 and was gavaged with simvastatin 5mg·kg-1·d-1, and rats of the control group were injected with the equal volume of olive oil. Rats were all executed after 8 weeks, the contents of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured by full automatic biochemical analyzer. The pathological change of liver was observed under light microscope (hematoxylin-eosin staining). The expression of collagen I (Col I), collagen III (Col III), and Transfer Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The results show that comparing the trial group with the model group, the inflammation and fibrosis are decreased in pathological sections, the expressions of Col I, Col III and TGF-β1 in the liver tissues are remarkably decreased (P<0.05), the contents of ALT and AST are decreased (P<0.05). Simvastatin can inhibit liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. The mechanism may be attributed to its effect of downregulating TGF-β1, Col I and Col III.
Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 93-93. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 94-95. ;  doi:
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主编心语

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 101-101. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 325 )
走向职场

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 104-108. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 324 )

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 109-113. ;  doi:
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论文

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (24): 115-139. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 231 )

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