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   Science & Technology Review
2010, Vol.28, No. 22
28 November 2010

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卷首语

Energy Conservation and Consumption Reduction of Sewage Sludge Treatment

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 3-3. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 412 )
特别栏目

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 336 )

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 367 )

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 14-15. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 16-17. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 18-19. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 20-20. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 140-140. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 345 )
封面图片说明

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 365 )
半月科技风云

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 9-9. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 380 )
科技事件

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 11-11. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 365 )
科技评论

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 12-12. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 361 )

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 122-122. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 123-123. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 124-124. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 125-125. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 126-126. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 127-127. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 128-128. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 129-129. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 365 )
科技工作者建议

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 13-13. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 390 )
Exclusive

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 21-24. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 420 )
Articles

Preparation of Magnetic Nano Particles and Its Application in Dyeing Wastewater Treatment

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 25-28. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 596 )
Polymer coated Fe3O4 magnetic nano particles are selected as a magnetic seeding for superconducting magnetic separation to expand its scope of application in the wastewater treatment. Fe3O4 nano particles are synthesized at the room temperature, and the properties of nano materials are determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy(XPS), Transmission
Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). It is shown that the diameter of nano particles ranges from 6~8nm, the surface of Fe3O4 nano particles is overlaid with the polymeric chain with carboxyl, and the nano particles show super paramagnetic properties at the room temperature. The decontamination capacity of the wastewater is tested using the dyeing wastewater. Quality indicators, such as the turbidity and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) are measured before and after the treatment with polymer coated Fe3O4 nano particles and compared. It is shown that the magnetic nano particles can effectively purify the waste in the dyeing wastewater.

Modification of Natural Cellulose Fibers for Arsenic Adsorption from Water

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 29-32. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1257 )
In this study, the natural cellulose fibers are chosen as template and the anion adsorbent cellulose-g-PDMAEMA is synthesized for arsenic removal. The cellulose fibers were surface modified by graft-polymerization of(N,N-dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate) (DMAEMA) initiated by Ce4+. The adsorbent was characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FT-IR) and elemental analyzer. And the adsorption behavior was evaluated by both batch and column experiments. The results indicate that the adsorbent has a high efficiency in the removal of arsenite and arsenate from aqueous solutions.

Greenhouse Sludge Dry Treatment

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 33-38. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1276 )
Firstly, the significance of dealing with sludge and the advantages and disadvantages of the existing approaches are briefly introduced. Then, a new technique of solar greenhouse drying sludge is recommended based on the comparison among these approaches. At last, the efficiency of this technique is got by the energy-balance equation. The heat transfer of sludge material, the heat change of sludge drying bed, the heat transfer of air flow and the heat loss through greenhouse envelope structure are set as energy destination. And the solar radiation is the energy source of this system. Then, when the destination is equal to the source, energy-balance equation comes up. From the calculation, conclusion is got as below: the annual solar energy efficiency of this greenhouse could reach a rate of 46%, and in the weather conditions of Beijing, it could be get about 0.82t/m2 of water removed. In summer, this greenhouse get more water removed rather than in winter through a same time. In addition, lower outlet temperature always results in higher ventilation, which may raise the cost. Besides, good airflow organization can achieve high outlet relative humidity, which will raise the water removed. Visibility, this approach benefits economy and is practical, which deserves deep study

Recent Developments in Wastewater Sludge Solar Drying Technology

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 39-42. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 518 )
With the increase of the practice of sewage treatment in China, the annual growth rate of the sludge production reaches 10%~15%. The production of a large amount of sewage sludge creates tremendous pressure and secondary pollution in environment. The high content of organic substance and water, normally over 80%(wet basis), makes the treatment of dewatering sewage sludge rather difficult. Thermal drying of the sludge is an important treatment and process and is an important prerequisite for the stabilization of sludge, the reduction of sludge volumes and the utilization of sludge, but a quite large amount of energy is required for drying sludge. Heatpump assistant solar drying of the sewage sludge may reduce the energy requirement. In this paper, the recent development in the wastewater sludge solar drying technology in China and other countries is reviewed, and it is suggested that the key development in the sludge solar drying technology in the future is the heat storage and heatpump assisted wastewater sludge solar drying technology.

Power Consumption of Wastewater Treatment and the Measures of Energy Saving

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 43-47. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1252 )
With the rapid increase of waste water treatment practice and the enactment of strict standards, the power consumption in wastewater treatment attracts more and more attention. In this paper, the wastewater discharge and treatment in China are reviewed. General methods and unit components of wastewater treatment are described and the power consumption is analyzed, which warrants a proper design. With an accurate analysis of wastewater volume and components, a proper process of high power efficiency is chosen to avoid the energy waste. Three ways to save power are proposed, that is, an improvement of unit components such as charging pump and aeration system, an improvement of the process flow such as removing the circumfluence, and the development of new techniques and methods of treatment such as constructed wetland wastewater treatment and superconducting high-gradient magnetic separation
wastewater treatment.

Development Mechanism of Lacustrine Source Rocks in Yellow River

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 48-54. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 495 )
The YRM (Yellow River Mouth) sag is a typical Paleogene rich oil and gas rift basin. There are three sets of source rocks, which lie in Shahejie 3 Member (E2s3), Shahejie 1 Member (E3s1) and the lower Dongying Formation (E3dL), respectively. The E2s3 and E3s1 source rocks are characterized by high abundance of organic matter mainly of type IIA (exceptionally, III) and with Pristane/Phytane ratios all less than 2.0; the E3dL source rocks are characterized by medium abundance of organic matter mainly of type II (mostly, IIB) and with Pristane/Phytane ratios more than 2.0. To find out the difference of source rocks in different layers, the structural-sedimentation evolution and the paleoclinmate are analyzed, and the paleosalinity of this sag is calculated to obtain the filling pattern and the relationships with source rock building. In E2s3 phase, the lacustrine is characterized with balanced filled source rocks of high abundance. It is the most favorable one to develop high quality source rocks. In E2s3 phase, the lacustrine is characterized with underfilled source rocks of good abundance (less than E2s3). And in E2s3 phase, the lacustrine is characterized with overfilled source rock of heterogeneous abundance. Obviously, its hydrocarbon generation potential is less than the other two.

Sequence Stratigraphy Correlation of Chengzihe-Muleng Formation in Sanjiang Basins

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 55-59. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 428 )
Based on the outcrop, core, logging data, seismic profile, palaeontologica and geochemistry materials, sequence stratigraphic framework of Chengzihe (Qihulin and Yunshan Formation) and Muleng Formation (Zhushan Formation) in Sanjiang, Boli, Jixi and Hulin Basin are established. Contrasting and analyzing among basins according to the marine events, coal bed, palaeontologic fossils and tectonic movements, this paper further indicates that Sanjiang Basins is a "uniform basin". Regional unconformity and marine interbeds caused by tectonic movements and marine events are the key marks of basin comparison, and coal bed and palaeontologic biocoenosis influenced by climate are the additional marks. The "uniform basin" can be divided into 8 sequences. Sequence I to VIII developes gradually from east to west and from south to north. Different basin has different quantity of sequence. Boli basin has all the 8 sequences and the sedimentary centre is in Boli Basin. The sequence distribution characteristics are controlled by tectonic, sea level changes and climate. The sea level changes control the sequence deposition, while tectonic controls sequence relict, and the climate controls the lithologic and palaeontologic cycles. It is the first time to study the sequence stratigraphy taking Sanjiang basins as a unit and it has an important significance to further exploration for petroleum.

Situation of the Mid-Yangtze Flood after the Commencement of the Three Gorges Project and the Countermeasures (I)

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 60-68. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 442 )
One of the aims of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) is to protect the inherent dangerous reach of Jingjiang in the mid-Yangtze. With TGP, the Flood Control Planning for Yangtze River recently approved by the central government in 2008 is to ensure the safety of the mid-Yangtze under the flood like 1954. To meet this goal, a scale of 100×108m3 Flood Diversion Area(FDA) was initiated and further up to 218×108m3 FDA was planned after the commencement of TGP. However, as the mid-Yangtze capacity in discharging and regulating floods has been seriously lowered in the past decades owing to sedimentation and other reasons, the flood stage at Chenglingji at the confluence of the Yangtze and Dongting Lake was evidently run up, which will not only seriously impact the floods in Dongting Lake but also endanger the safety of the Lower Jingjiang. In the present paper, hydrodynamic models for the cascade reservoirs including TGP and for the complicated river-net of the mid-Yangtze were applied to simulate the floods like 1998 and 1954 under the present mid-Yangtze river conditions with the control of TGP. Computational result indicates that the planned FDA is too small and flood stages along most parts of the mid-Yangtze and Dongting Lake are far above the designed levels. Moreover, backwater of the high stage at Chenglingji will also run up the stage of the Lower Jingjiang far above its designed levels. This is an unexpected situation after TGP and close attentions for it are called for.

Analysis and Design of a Multi-band Microstrip Antenna

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 69-73. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1071 )
Microstrip antenna with a C-shaped slot is analyzed, and a multi-band microstrip antenna with C-shaped slot is designed. Numerical simulation is performed for the characteristics of the antenna with the software HFSS 10.0, which is a kind of simulation software based on Finite Element Mehod (FEM). The simulation results show that the C-shaped antenna's radiation character in the high frequency was separated. By changing the current path in the patch to improved the performance, the operation frequency channels of the improved antenna are 2.26~2.51, 3.38~3.60 and 4.19~4.48GHz, when return loss is less than -10dB, and the size of the microstrip antenna is reduced availably. Moreover, the antenna has a very well unitary radiation character and simple configuration. Therefore, this kind of antenna can be used in RF communication as a multi-band and compact microstrip antenna.

A Novel Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 74-81. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 473 )
The basic Particle Swarm Optimization (bPSO) algorithm suffers from some defects, such as the tendency to converge into a
local extremum, the slow convergence rate and the low convergence accuracy in the late stage of evolution. A new algorithm HPSO based on hybrid PSO-GA(Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithm) is proposed in this paper. The normal mutation operator is introduced into the basic particle swarm optimization algorithm. By taking advantage of the searching abilities of these two methods, the population diversity is enhanced; the global search ability and search efficiency are improved. The new HPSO is used in several typical function optimizations, and it is shown that the proposed method, while retaining the advantages of bPSO, such as the ease to realize and operate and high speed in calculation, with the introduction of the normal mutation operator, greatly improves the search ability and search efficiency in the late stage of evolution. The new Hybrid algorithm enjoys higher optimization capability with less particles and less generations than bPSO, GA and CPSO.

Capability Evaluation of Maintenance and Supportability for Maintenance Units of Engineer Mend Troops in the Field Based of AHP

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 77-81. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 444 )
In field operations, the capability of the engineer's maintenance team in maintenance and supportability plays an essential role in resuming fighting ability of engineer troops in case of emergency. This paper first considers various factors which influence the capability of maintenance and supportability, which may be divided into static factors and dynamic factors, with the static factors as the main research concern of this paper, by using the method of Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP). Secondly, the AHP is discussed in detail, including its definition, principle and steps. An analysis is made on factors which influence the capability of maintenance and supportability, and a set of indices is established. The Matlab software is used to calculate the index weight in different levels, and the test of consistency is carried out. Finally, through the weight multiplication, the influencing factors are sorted out in levels in an order, and the important intensity is shown among all influencing factors in a quantitative form, which provides standards and a foundation for the engineer's maintenance team to enhance its capability of maintenance and supportability. At the same time, it provides a simple method for comparing the ability of maintenance and supportability between different troops.

Path Planning of Mobile Robot in Unstructured Environment

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 82-85. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 416 )
Path planning in unstructured environment is one of the most active problems on research field of autonomous mobile robot. some planning methods has been empoldered and applied successfully in this field, for example, artificial potential field, fuzzy logic algorithm, genetic algorithm, and so on .thereinto, artificial potential field is the most effective method,, but the traditional artificial potential field has several problems, such as oscillation, tracing speed falls while robot approaching. For solving these problems, some improvement has been done to traditional artificial potential field, velocity potential field has been brought into traditional potential field, a new potential field function have been designed, and a strategy of path planning has been planned. Many simulations on path planning with new potential field and path planning strategy have been done in Matlab. Simulation results about dynamic target tracing, multi static obstacles and dynamic obstacle avoiding have been given in this paper. The results of simulation have verified that robot can adjust its velocity to escape from obstacle, and move to immobile target quickly, or track dynamic target synchronously.

A Method for Uncertain Multi-attribute Decision Making and Its Application

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 86-90. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1206 )
This paper studies a kind of decision making problems of uncertain multiple attributes with attribute weights completely unknown and the attribute values being interval numbers. A decision making method based on similarity degree of ideal interval number is proposed. Firstly, the distance of interval number is defined. An axiomatic definition of the interval number similarity degree is given and its properties are discussed. Then, some formulas are derived for normalizing the decision matrix with interval numbers for multiple attribute decision making with intervals. Three methods used to determine the weights are presented, namely, the fuzzy scale center of gravity weighting approach, which is a subjective weight determination; the comprehensive weighting method of entropy and relative entropy, which is an objective weighting approach based on the principle of the minimum relative information entropy; and that by using optimization theory for maximizing similarity degree with similarity degree of project being evaluated to establish the ideal optimization scheme, which is an objective and subjective combined approach to determine weights with better accuracy of the index weight. The comprehensive similarity degree to the ideal solution is calculated to compare all alternatives. Finally, an illustrative example is given to demonstrate the feasibility and practicability of the method.

Control System of Embedded Inkjet Printer

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 91-94. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (0 KB)  PDF  (729 KB)  ( 303 )
Abstract ( 1250 )
As a device for outdoor advertising, the printer requires a sophisticated control system. The control system concerns with data transfer, printing control and the perfect orientation of motor, and is the most important part of the entire printer system. The performance of the control system directly influences the speed, precision and quality of the printer. An inkjet printer control system is proposed in this paper based on embedded technology. This system uses the embedded Huaheng HHARM2410-Integration-R2 development board as the core of the control system and adopts the network to transmit the printing data, which can achieve high speed, high DPI and the stabilization of motor moving and other good performance for the system. At the same time, the powerful network of uClinux is used with functions of control and accessing from long-distance through the Web server in the embedded digital printer. By this server, users can set up and receive data of the embedded system and carry out maintenance and management of the device. The control system is put to practical use and shows advantages such as better stability, lower fault rate, higher printing speed and larger printing area as compared to those of previous generations. Moreover the system has higher resolution and accuracy because of the use of inkjet with higher oscillation frequency.

Expressions of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Non-Metastasis 23 in Eesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Their Clinical Significance

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 95-99. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1127 )
This paper investigates the expressions of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and non-metastasis 23 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and their clinical significance. The expressions of VEGF and nm23 proteins were detected by Elivision immunohistochemical method. The positive rate of VEGF protein in 90 cases of ESCC was 83.33%, with 56 cases of high expression, 19 cases of low expression and 15 cases of no expression. The positive rate of VEGF protein in 28 cases of normal esophageal epithelium was 21.42% (6/28) (P<0.05). The positive rate of nm23 protein in 90 cases of ESCC was 52.22 %, with 24 cases of high expression, 23 cases of low expression, and 43 cases of no expression. The positive rate of nm23 protein in 28 cases of normal esophageal epithelium was 82.14% (23/28) (P<0.05). The positive rate of nm23 protein in ESCC was 64% (32/50) with lymph node metastasis. The rate of nm23 protein positive expression was 37.5%(15/40) in the carcinomas without lymph node metastasis(P<0.05). Their expressions were not correlative with differentiation degree and depth of invasion(P>0.05). The results indicate that the positive expression of VEGF protein with nm23 negative expression means a higher possibility of LNM. The expressions of VEGF and nm23 proteins are correlated with the depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis and clinical staging in ESCC(P<0.05), but not with differentiation. They both have a close correlation with carcinogenesis, development, infiltration, metastasis and prognosis and might have predictive value for prognosis of human ESCC.

Relationship between Leaf Age and Quality Characteristic of Flue-cured Tobacco during Maturing Period

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 100-105. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 486 )
In 2007—2008, taking Jiyan 9 which widely planted in Yanbian as testing material, dynastic variations of chemical components, physical characters and aroma quality of flue-cured tobacco were studied. The result indicated that: the chemical components of 65 days of tobacco leaves were more harmonious; The physical characters perform well; The total aroma constituents the other aroma constituents and neophytadiene were high; The browning reaction products and carotenoids contents improved; The smoking scores were the highest, the aroma quality and quantity were the best. In conclusion, tobacco leaves were harvested at 65d with the best cured leaf quaulity.
Reviews

Analysis Methods and Progresses of Dating of Hydrocarbon Accumulation

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 106-111. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 436 )
The dating of hydrocarbon accumulation is a key issue in the research of hydrocarbon reservoirs, or even of petroleum systems and it is very important for the hydrocarbon reservoir formation and distribution in petroliferous basins. Based on the structural history, trap evolution, and hydrocarbon generation and expulsion, the traditional analysis methods including the analysis of hydrocarbon generation dating of source rocks, trap formation dating and reservoir saturation pressure are applied to determine the dating of hydrocarbon accumulation. They all are indirect methods. Recently, with the development of petroleum geology and geochemistry and the progresses of technology, new methods were proposed and applied for the dating of hydrocarbon accumulation, including the analysis of fluid inclusion, reservoir geochemistry and hydrocarbon accumulation threshold. They can qualitatively or quantitatively date hydrocarbon accumulation with results more reliable than those obtained by using the traditional methods. This paper reviews the basic principles of various new and traditional methods for hydrocarbon accumulation dating. The development trend of the studies of hydrocarbon accumulation dating is also briefly discussed.

Progress in Preparation and Applications of Silver Nano-materials

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 112-117. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 463 )
Because of their excellent performance and broad application prospects, the researches of silver nano-composite materials have attracted intensive attention in recent years. The methods used for chemical preparation of silver nano-materials and silver nanocomposites are summarized, including chemical reduction method, light reduction method, microemulsion, and electrochemical method, in which the chemical reduction method is the most widely studied and used due to easily controlling size and morphology of nano-silverparticles and having relatively low preparation costs. The trend and potential applications of silver nano-materials are analyzed, including catalysis, antibacterial materials, electronic circuit, SERS and other areas in which silver nano-composites were used commercially in the oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide as catalyst and in antibacterial plastics as fungicide. Controlling the size and the morphology of silver nanoparticles and developing its new performances will be the direction of future researches.

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 118-118. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 351 )
Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 120-121. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 706 )
主编心语

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 127-127. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 344 )
走向职场

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 130-134. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 382 )

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (22): 135-139. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 346 )

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