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   Science & Technology Review
2010, Vol.28, No. 12
28 June 2010

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Talking About the “Talents Failure” and Becoming Talents Conciously with Young Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 3-3. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 453 )
论文

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 4-6. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 225 )
特别栏目

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 430 )

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 12-13. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 14-15. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 16-17. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 125-125. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 139-139. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 472 )
封面图片说明

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 453 )
半月科技风云

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 9-9. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 468 )
科技事件

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 11-11. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 411 )
科技工作者建议

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 18-18. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1287 )
Exclusive

Situation and Evolution of Open Access Publishing for Journals Sponsored by China Association for Science and Technology

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 19-25. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 663 )
We searched and analyzed the open access (OA) publishing situation of journals sponsored by China Association for Science and Technology (CAST) in 2009, such as the numbers of OA journals, the first-level online domain names, the distributions of journal’s discipline and class, the years from which archival content is freely available, the numbers of issues and articles freely available, and the timing of OA journals having a free online version. Compared with the analying results in 2007, we found that the numbers of OA journals increased from 140 to 206 in the last two years; 117 of these were the OA journals in 2007. The numbers of issues and articles freely available also had a large increment. The 5 year’s increasing rates of total citations, IFs and immediacy indexes for OA journals were higher than those of non-OA journals about 11.6, 5.6 and 2.1 percent, respectively. We conclude that the OA publishing model may be helpful in enhancing the journal’s visibility and accessibility, and thus increasing citations. The questionnaire survey showed that OA publishing model didn’t significantly affect the journal’s circulation income and the cost of management.
Articles

Restoration Technology for Bronze Yong Zhong

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 26-31. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1571 )
The restoration of Chinese bronzes has a long history and tradition, and is characterized by its own system. Recently, the modern western restoration technologies for culture relics from Europe become to be introduced into China, which are different from the traditional Chinese restoration method. There is much to be studied. Make a foundry part and solder it on the bronze for the missed part is the traditional way of restoration for an incomplete ancient bronze. This method would cause a new damage in the culture relics, and the soldering acid contains Cl-, which is harmful to the conservation of ancient bronze These two aspects do not conform with the conservation principle of culture relics. On the other hand, make a resin fitting and stick it on the bronze is a modern western way of restoration for an incomplete ancient bronze. This method conforms with the conservation principle of culture relics, but the resin fitting is easily destroyed and it is not durable. In this paper, based on the essential principle of conservation of cultural relics, a new type of restoration method for incomplete bronze Yong Zhong is developed by improving the available restoration technology, which takes advantage of the lost-wax method to implement the making and installing of the fitting at the same time. The results of this new restoration technology show that this method can replace the traditional one, to have a satisfactory effect.

An Orthotopic Ovarian Carcinoma Model with Metastasis in Nude Mice

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 32-35. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1522 )
Ovarian cancers are the leading cause of death among gynecologic tumors. Animal models are necessary for experimental cancer research and play an important role in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. The improvement of animal models to better simulate the conditions in patients is important for its role in the treatment for ovarian cancers. Orthotopic implantation is an attractive technique. Unlike heterotopic implantation, it allows a more accurate expression of the biologic nature of a human tumor, including growth, morphology and metastasis. The aim of the present study was to establish an orthotopic ovarian cancer model with high metastasis in nude mice. Human ovarian carcinoma cells HO-8910PM, a subline with highly metastatic potential, were inoculated subcutaneously in female nude mice to form solid tumors. The exuberantly growing tumor were removed, sliced and introduced into ovaries of other nude mice by microsurgical techniques. The growth and metastasis of the orthotopic lesion were followed, and pathological examinations were performed. Ovarian cancers formed in animals with an incidence of 57.14%. Metastatic lesions were detected in the lung, diaphragm, liver, stomach, intestine, pancreas, peritoneum, contralateral ovary and lymph nodes located in the iliac fossa, with an occurrence rate of 83.33% in animals. Transplanting tissues into the ovary of a nude mouse can form an orthotopic cancer model, and the manner how cancer spreads was similar to that of human lesions, which offers a remarkable model to explore ovarian cancers.

1H-NMR-based Metabonomics Analysis of Plasma Samples with Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 36-40. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 567 )
To investigate the metabolites in plasma samples from patients with Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) and analyze their metabonome variation, then explore the potential applications of 1H-NMR-based metabonomics in diagnosing precancerous diseases, 36 plasma samples of CIN patients and 36 healthy volunteers were studied with the method of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and the Orthogonal Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) was employed to perform the pattern recognition analysis of NMR spectra. Patients of CIN were characterized by increased levels of lipids,such as very low-density lipoprotein, unsaturated lipid and acetone with statistical significance (r<-0.349, P<0.05), and by decreased levels of lactate, alanine, valine, creatine, isoleucine and 1-methylhistidine with statistical significance (r>+0.349, P<0.05). The results of OPLS-DA show that CIN patients could be discriminated from healthy volunteers with diagnostic sensitivity of 91.7%, false positive rate of 8.3%. These were better than the results of Thinprep Cytological Test (TCT). These findings indicate that combining NMR measurements with OPLS-DA analysis, 1H-NMR based metabonomics through plasma metabolites can discriminate patients with CIN from healthy volunteers effectively, and provide a novel method for early diagnosis of cervical cancer.

Screening of Quantitative Diagnosis Indices of Typing Abnormal Hilit Syndrome in Uighur Medicine Using Delphi Method: 180 Cases of Coronary Heart Disease

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 41-47. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1415 )
To establish abnormal Hilit typing quantization diagnostic criteria of Uighur medicine for the Coronary heart disease patients, in accordance with free disease clinical diagnostic information, 180 coronary heart disease patients were selected in the study of quantitative diagnosis specialist counseling. The selected factors were analyzed by modified multiple category logistic regression analysis to determine the contributions of the symptom-complex factors and the OR value to identify abnormal Hilit of coronary heart disease. It is shown that the chief symptoms of abnormal savda type coronary heart disease are heart-mind dysfunction, grey lips, grey and black fur of the tongue, cool skin, and pale colour of the urine. Among the second important symptoms are dark purple tongue, less urine, too many dreams, and nightmares. The chief symptoms of abnormal kan type coronary heart disease are red complexion, redish conjunctiva, no dried mouth, mildly bitter flavor in mouth, thick and wavelike pulse, dry and hard stool. Among the next important symptoms are sleepless, less sweating, yellow-red colour of the urine. The chief symptoms of abnormal balgham type coronary heart disease are lower spirit and speechless, pale labia, sticking mouth, insipidity of the mouth, too much sweating, numbness of the limbs. Among the next important symptoms are pale face, white and sticky tongue coating with indentation boundary, weak and heavy pulse, hyper-somnia, too much urine. The chief symptoms of abnormal saprah type coronary heart disease are dim complexion, lack of spirit of the oculus, yellowish conjunctive, the hotter skin, thin and hard pulse. Among the next important symptoms are acute mind and tantrum, yellowish complexion, sweet-bitter flavor mouth, rough skin and yellowish urine. As a result, the meaningful symptoms were found in all the abnormal Hilit syndromes according to the OR value. The features of excess syndromes of the four abnormal Hilit syndromes are complicated with deficiency. The symptom quantitative diagnosis of the abnormal Hilit excess syndromes provides an objective evidence for clinical practice.

Theoretical Analysis of the Experimental Results of Interaction of the Atomic Force Microscopy with the Lipid Bilayers

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 48-51. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 560 )
To determine the mechanical properties of lipid bilayers at nanoscale by atomic force microscopy has become an important technique for investigating the stability of lipid bilayers. Generally, the force spectroscopy involves the interaction between the atomic force microscopy and lipid bilayers, which consists of a linear part and a nonlinear part. So far, the mechanism about the linear part is not totally clear. Taking the lipid bilayers as a half elastic space, the interaction of the atomic force microscopy with the lipid bilayers is analyzed systematically based on the reciprocal theorem. The theoretical results contain Young's module and Poisson's ratios, as important parameters for lipid bilayers, which are related to the ion concentration of solution. Young's module and Poisson's ratios increase and decrease, respectively, with the increase of the ion concentration of the solution. So the theoretical results not only give a reasonable explanation of the linear part of the experimental results obtained by H. J. Bütt, but also indicate how the ion concentration affects the stability of lipid bilayers. The radius of atomic force microscopy tip enters also the theoretical consideration with its square root as a parameter, which reasonably explains the increase of the force between the atomic force microscopy and lipid bilayers with the increase of the radius of atomic force microscopy tip in H. J. Bütt's experimental results.

Cloning of Hordein Gene in Barley and Construction of RNAi Plant Expression Vector

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 52-55. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 516 )
In order to reduce the protein content and improve the quality of beer barley, this paper takes Gansu Beer Barley No. 4, as the material for study, which has a wide promotion area in Gansu Province. Hordein gene was cloned in the conserved sequence, with RNAi expression vector constructed with further improvements on the theoretical basis of barley quality. A pair of primers was designed according to the released DNA sequence of Hordein gene. B2PF5′-CAACCATTTCCACAGCAACCACCAT-3′, B2PR5′-GAAAGATAGAGTAGACGATTGCACG-3′, with PCR employed to clone a 349bp fragment(GP4) from Gansu Beer Barley No.4. Based on the structure of vector pHANNIBAL and pART27, GP4 was inserted forward and reversely according to the enzyme position. The sequence analysis shows that the cloned DNA shares 92% of identity with the data. An RNAi expression vector of the Hordein gene, named pART27-pHAN-GP4 was constructed with the RNAi expression vector pART27-pHAN-GP4 containing the object gene.

Diversity of Rotifers in Hongshan Reservoir in Jimunai County in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 56-60. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1295 )
Hongshan Reservoir, located in Jimunai County, is an open water supplier, as one of many reservoirs in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It is an important water resource for fishery. In order to understand the dynamic characteristics of the rotifer community, investigations were carried out in July 2008, October 2008 and May 2009. A total of 24 species belonging to 7 bagridaes and 16 genuses were identified, including 7 dominant species, that is, Keratella ticinensis, Keratella cochlearis, Keratella quadiata, Polyarthra trigla, Filinia longiseta, Anuraeopsis fissa as well as Trichocera pusilla. The Brachionidae is accounted for 21% of the collectivity, and the Lecanidae is accounted for 21%. The rotifer density was the greatest in the wet season (4.87±1.04)×102/L, and was the smallest in the dry season (1.23±0.57)×102/L. The rotifer composition, biomass density, diversity were found to be closely related to the different phytoplankton composition, temperature and the water volume of Hongshan Reservoir.

Effect of Wall Conditions on Counter-Rotating Conical Twin Screw Extrusion of Rigid Polyvinylchloride

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 61-65. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 566 )
The effect of wall conditions on the counter-rotating conical twin screw extrusion of Rigid Polyvinylchloride (RPVC) is studied. The relationship between the screw wall shear stress and the slip velocity of the flowing melt follows the Navier linear law. The volumetric flow rate and 3D isothermal flow fields of RPVC are calculated under different wall slip conditions in the metering section of a counter-rotating conical twin screw extruder by the use of the evolution technique in Polyflow. The results show that the melt velocity and the velocity gradient are high when there is no slip. The shape of the shear rate isolines is irregular with the distribution in disarray. When the slip coefficient is smaller than 104Pa·s/m, the volumetric flow rate of melt is constant and it is in the full slip condition. When the slip coefficient is greater than 104Pa·s/m, with the decrease of the slip coefficient, the volumetric flow rate increases, the gradients of velocity, pressure and shear rate decrease, and the fluctuation of the pressure along the reference line decreases. The residual stress of the product is thus decreased. As a result, the improvement of the wall condition is beneficial to the stability of polymer extrusion process and the improvement of the product quality.

Risk Appraisal of the Non-point Source Phosphorus Pollution of Agriculture Land in Yellow River Basin

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 66-71. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1242 )
The application of chemical fertilizers plays a significant role in increasing the output of grain in China. However, it may also have an adverse impact on the environment, particularly, the agricultural non-point source pollution caused by agricultural nutrient loss. This paper aims to gain a systematic and full understanding of phosphorus loss risks involved in the distribution and principal factors of agricultural land in Yellow River basin, and to provide some guidance for the agricultural non-point source pollution control and the modernization management of agriculture. Based on the GIS technical and nutrient balance calculation method, with the help of the widespread applied phosphorus index method, we establish each target system and compute the phosphorus pollution risk index, and then use them to carry out the non-point source phosphorus pollution risk appraisal of the main agricultural land in the Yellow River basin. The results show that the regions which have the middle and high non-point source phosphorus pollution risk indices take, respectively, 41.85% and 34.85% of the main agricultural land, and are mainly located in the lower reaches of the Yellow River and coastal areas of agricultural development; the low and high risk regions take, respectively, 11.62% and 11.69%, and are located centrally in the middle of the river basin district and the eastern part of the vast plain area. The Yellow River basin is the middle phosphorus pollute risk basin for the agricultural land.

Holographic Mapping of Dynamic Environment for Service Robot in Home Intelligent Space

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 72-78. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1302 )
To deal with the complex and dynamic home environment where the service robot works, a novel concept of holographic environment map is proposed in this paper, which describes the distribution of environment and other objects or resources. The advantages of both intelligent space and service robot are combined to construct the holographic environment map. On the basis of Rao-Blackwellized particle filtering theory, both the localizations of the robot and the feature points located by the robot are utilized to calibrate the pose parameters of each camera node of the intelligent space camera network. At the same time, both the observations of the calibrated intelligent space camera network and the controls of the robot are utilized to estimate the robot localization, and both the observations and localization of the robot are utilized to build the holographic environment map. In order to deal with the movement of objects within or after mapping, the dynamic updating strategies of the holographic environment map under the monitoring of the intelligent space camera network are designed. The experimental results show that the intelligent space camera network could resolve in an efficient manner the data association of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) in the dynamic environment, and with the assistance of the intelligent space, the precision of both the robot localization and holographic environment mapping are improved significantly.

Coke Quality Prediction Model Based on Multivariate Regression

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 79-84. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 563 )
The prediction of coke quality in a coke quality controlling process is important for coke production facilities. With many production conditions such as equipments, parameters, fixed, the coke quality mainly depends on the quality of coal. Using the quality index of coal to forecast the quality of coke is an important method of coke quality prediction. Because the relations between quality indexes of the blended coal and the coke take a multiple nature and are mutually related, so all quality indexes of the coke are taken as a whole and then the multivariate regression is used to establish the coke quality prediction model. In order to assure the model a good performance in predicting, firstly, the fitting accuracy of the regression model is tested, then, the Prediction Error Square Summation (PRESS) and Prediction Variance are used to test the model based on the partial least-squares algorithm. According to a practical coke production, a coke quality prediction model based on multivariate regression is built. The significant test shows that the model is correct and the predicting test shows that this model is accurate in prediction. The practical application of the method shows that the coke quality prediction model based on multivariate regression is reliable for coke production in blending coal optimally and in coke quality control.

Communication Technology of Low Voltage Power Line Carrier Based on OFDM

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 85-88. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 528 )
The complexity of power line channel makes the task of improving communication quality difficult. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) could make a full use of frequency bandwidth and improve the capability of anti-multi-path fading and it can be implemented by Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) by using DSP in practice. So the quality of power line communication could be improved. Characteristics of power line channel such as impedance, fading and disturbance are analyzed. These characteristics are related with considerable time-variant and frequency attenuation of signals. A simple model of low voltage power line channel is established in this paper to reflect the characteristics of power line channel approximately. An improved method is proposed in order to apply OFDM to power line carrier communication, with N subcarriers in each OFDM symbol to transfer N same codes. Theoretically, in the receiver, N codes demodulated from each OFDM symbol are the same but the error code could be induced by various disturbances. So a special operation is used in the receiver for finding the right code. The reliability of the communication is increased by sacrificing the speed, as has been simulated by establishing a Matlab model. It is indicated by the simulation result that reliable data transfers can be achieved for a bad power line channel with high error code rate. The problem of this method while being implemented on a project will be discussed in future.

Sequence Stratigraphy Framework Analyses of the Neogene Shawan Formation in Chepaizi Area, Junggar Basin

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 89-94. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 690 )
Based on the identification features of continental stratigraphic sequences on seismic profiles and wire-line logs, synthetic seismograms and the characteristics of lithologic combination, the Neogene Shawan formation is divided into one second-order sequence and two third-order sequences. The third-order sequence I is braided as a delta front sequence, while the sequence II is a lacustrine sequence. Each third-order sequence according to its characteristics can be divided into three system tracts: low stand, transgressive and high stand system tracts. Based on the identification and correlation of sequence stratigraphic unit, and according to the characteristics of the stratigraphic sequences, the tectonic evolution history and the variation of strata thickness, the sequence stratigraphy framework is shown to have a great, complete and stable thickness in the study area of south-east, and a thinner, incomplete one in the north-west. A preliminary analysis is made on the relationship between sequences and oil-gas exploration potentials, and exploration priorities and goals in each sequences are predicted. The favorable lithological reservoirs are found to be located mainly in the low stand system tracts of sequence I and in the transgressive system tracts of sequence II.

Numerical Simulation of the Blowout Accident in a Sour Gas Well

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 95-98. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1250 )
The blowout accident of a natural gas well, especially, one involving poison gases such as H2S, could lead to serious consequences including casualty and property loss, and the diffusion of the sour gas from the well blowout is of great importance in the process. In this paper, a blowout accident model of sour gas well is built to simulate the blowing process. The velocity and the concentration distribution of the sour gas in the blowout accident are obtained from the numerical simulation. The velocity distribution of the blowout gas is symmetric when the gas flow is stable in air. The max velocity of the sour gas in the blowout is 875m/s in the simulation space. The safety threshold of the mass fraction of CH4 is 0.0277, and that of H2S is 7.722×10-6. The results of the simulation show that the gas blowing from well follows the law of gas jet. The safety area is the zone 100m away from the outlet of blowout well, and the danger zone is around the well because of the higher density of H2S, furthermore, the dangerous zone could be identified after blowout accident based on the simulation results.
Reviews

Progress in the Rapid Screening of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 99-103. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 565 )
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that act like hormones in the endocrine system and disrupt the physiologic functions of endogenous hormones. They are sometimes also referred to as endocrine disruptors, or hormonally active agents. EDCs encompass a variety of chemical classes, including hormones, plant constituents, pesticides, compounds used in the plastics industry and in consumer products, and other industrial by-products and pollutants. With the industrial development, more and more EDCs are pervaded and widely dispersed in the environment, and the exposure to EDCs poses ever greater threat. Therefore, it becomes a top priority to reduce or avoid the increasing exposure of organisms or even human beings to EDCs. In the research field of environmental sciences, the establishment of a most convenient, efficient and effective screening method to detect chemicals with the potential to interfere with the endocrine hormone levels from pollutants is a hot project. This paper reviews the recent progress on rapid methods for detecting EDCs in the environment, and these mature rapid screening methods are grouped into four categories. Advantages and disadvantages in theory and practice of these methods are analyzed. The development prospects and strategy are also discussed.

Molecular Markers Technologies SRAP and SCAR Used in Research of Chinese Herbal Medicines

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 104-109. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 624 )
Molecular marker technology is a genetic analysis method based on organism genome, and is widely used in identification, genetic variability analysis, genetic diversity and population structure research, and genetic Linkage Group (LG) and marker-assisted selection. SRAP is a newly developed and widely used molecular marker technology, with a great potential in studies of genetic resources of medicinal plants due to its simplicity, numerous makers, and high reproducibility. Recently, it is popular to use the molecular marker technology to construct Dendrograms, clarify the relationship between germplasm and herb quality, assist the selection of herb and analyze the herb's quality. In this paper, the principle and protocol of SRAP and SCAR are discussed; some optimized SRAP reaction systems are compared with a summative list of common primes of SRAP; the applications of SRAP in germplasm genetic diversity analysis, genuineness analysis, genetic map construction are reviewed. In addition, the applications of SCAR and its role in the identification of Chinese herbal medicines are also discussed. The current status and prospect of applying the combination of SRAP and SCAR in the study of herbal medicines are commented.

Pharmacological Functions of Chemicals in Rhizoma Anemarrhenae

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 110-115. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 553 )
Anemarrhena asphodeloides are commonly used in clinical practice and many Chinese formulas and their study is of important clinical significance. In recent years, more and more chemical constituents and pharmacologicals were well studied to encourage their further use in the clinical treatment. However, different researchers use different names for the same compound, especially in the early studies of chemical compositions of Anemarrhena asphodeloides, which would cause confusion. This paper summarizes the names and structures of main active compounds from Anearrhena asphodeloide Bung. The research progress of pharmacological functions of the chemicals are reviewed. It is pointed that the roles played by saponins in fighting against tumors and improving Alzheimer symptoms deserve more attention.
Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (12): 116-116. ;  doi:
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科技评论

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主编心语

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走向职场

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