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   Science & Technology Review
2010, Vol.28, No. 1002
28 January 2010

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Being Bold in Making Innovations, Challenging New Heights

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 1-1. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 529 )
特别栏目

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 12-13. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 14-15. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 16-17. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 125-125. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 138-138. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 139-139. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 421 )
封面图片说明

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 433 )
半月科技风云

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 9-9. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 529 )
科技事件

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 11-11. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 481 )
科技工作者建议

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 18-18. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 467 )
Articles

Liver Hydatid CT Image Segmentation Using Smoothed Bayesian Classification Method and Modified Parametric Active Contour Model

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 19-24. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 508 )
Liver hydatid is a common parasitic disease in Xinjiang and a big concern for people's health. At present, CT imaging analysis is always a method for diagnosising liver hydatid. The CT image of liver hydatid owns their characteristics, such as inconsistent gray distribution and fuzzy regional boundary. Meanwhile, the representations of CT images are also dissimilar among different types of liver hydatid cyst. Based on CT imaging features of this disease, an iterative approach for liver segmentation and hydatid lesion extraction is proposed in this paper. Each iteration consists of two main steps. Firstly, according to the user-defined pixel seeds in the liver and lesion which are defined by user, Gaussian probability model fitting is adopted to fit gray distribution in different regions and smoothed Bayesian classification is applied to obtain the initial segmentation results of liver and lesion. Secondly, the parametric active contour model using the priori shape force field is adopted to refine the initial segmentation and to get accurate boundaries of liver and lesion. The algorithm from subjective and objective aspects are evaluated on different patients' CT slices. By comparing the algorithm of segmentation to the ground-truth manual segmentation. The proposed algorithm is shown to be effective in liver segmentation and hydatid lesion extraction.

Effect of Exogenous Nucleotides on Development in Two-generation Rats

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 25-29. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 551 )
To investigate the effect of exogenous nucleotides on the development of parental and filial rats, weanling SD rats (F0) were randomly divided into the control group and 5 dose groups according to different doses of exogenous nucleotides (0.01%, 0.04%, 0.16%, 0.64% and 1.28%) with 30 rats in each. F0 rats were fed with exogenous nucleotides for 90 days and then male and female rats were mated in 1:1 pattern. The offspring of F0 is called F1. After weaned, F1 rats were randomly divided into two groups (F1A and F1B) with ten broods in each group. F1A rats were fed the same as the control group and F1B rats were fed with exogenous nucleotides as the parental generations for 90 days. The doses of nucleotides in milk of F0 were measured and after F0 and F1 rats were weaned, the body weight of each rat was measured once a week, and then food utilization was calculated. In the end, the blood parameters were measured. The results show that exogenous nucleotides could promote the physique development and improve the anti-weaned stress ability in parental and filial rats.

Correlation between serum uric acid and related indexes of glucose metabolism in Han ethnic population of Xinjiang.

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 30-33. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1456 )
To investigate the correlation between serum uric acid and related indexes of glucose metabolism, 301 blood samples were collected from a hospital, among which 149 are from hyperuricemia patients as the hyperuricemia group and 152 are from healthy subjects as the control group. The height, weight, DBP, SBP and waist circumference of both groups were recorded and SUA, TG, TC, HDL, LDL, FPG and FINS were determined. The FINS was measured with radioimmunoassy (RIA). The HOMA-IR was calculated based on FPG and FINS with the minimal model. The statistical data were analyzed by SPSS 16.0 software. Results show that for the hyperuricemia group, as compared with the control group, the FINS levels are increased significantly ((27.85±19.56)μIU/mL vs (18.38±10.33)μIU/mL, P<0.01), the HOMA-IR is significantly higher ((8.38±7.96) vs (4.08±2.44), P<0.01), the HbA1c levels and FPG levels are also significantly increased ((6.29%±1.81%) vs (4.94%±0.43%), P<0.01), ((6.38±2.68)mmol/L vs (4.96±0.56)mmol/L , P<0.01). The multiple stepwise regression analysis shows that the SUA levels are related to BMI, HbA1c, TG and HDL, a positive correlation between SUA levels and TG (r=0.321, P<0.01), FPG (r=0.207, P<0.01), HbA1c(r=0.353, P<0.01), INS(r=0.337, P<0.01), HOMA-IR (r=0.315, P<0.01), but a negative correlation with HDL in two groups. It is concluded that hyperuricemia is correlated with abnormal blood glucose levels and the insulin resistance.

Effect of Orbit Parameters on Manned Spacecraft Impact Risk Against Orbital Debris

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 34-38. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 732 )
The Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Risk Assessment and Shielding System (MODRASS) is used to simulate and assess the impact risk of manned spacecraft against orbital debris. The influencing factors of the impact risk of manned spacecraft include orbit inclination angle, orbital altitude and spacecraft attitude. It is shown that different inclination angles affect the impact risk of manned spacecraft against orbital debris in the orbit in the manner that in the orbit with 170° inclination angle, the manned spacecraft may encounter the most frequent collisions; in the orbit with inclination angle between 20° and 60° and also near 110°, the impact risk would decrease greatly. The collision risk at different orbital altitudes could have a difference of above 10 times. At the orbital altitude of 1400km, the manned spacecraft would encounter most frequent collisions; however, at the orbital altitude of 200km, the number of collisions is reduced to 410881, a difference of two orders of magnitude.. In addition, the operating attitude of the manned spacecraft also affects the impact risk against the orbital debris and the collision area. So adjusting the operating attitude of the manned spacecraft can reduce the threat of orbital debris.

Dynamic Simulation of Gantry Crane Based on Virtual Prototype Technology

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 39-45. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 556 )
The design of shipbuilding gantry crane is mostly based on static methods, using statistics of similar products and empirical formula, which often means a long cycle, high-cost and low-quality. In this paper, based on the technique of virtual prototype, a virtual prototype model of 300t shipbuilding gantry crane is established by integrating Pro/Engineer with ADAMS, that is, using the three-dimensional solid modeling software Pro/Engineer to establish three-dimensional model of the system, then importing the model to ADAMS and adding corresponding constraints and loads on the components. With the virtual prototype, dynamic simulation of the multi-body system is carried out, including the running states of the mechanism under various working conditions. The simulation validates the design, shows the performance of production, reproduces typical accidents in true conditions and analyzes the causes of these accidents. Simulation results can be used to estimate parameters related with the gantry crane in actual running conditions, provide a reference for the dynamic analysis of gantry crane's structural strength and dynamic design for economic, credible, stable and high-performance shipbuilding gantry crane.

Balance of Single Axis Air Bearing Table Based on Its Swing Characteristics

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 46-49. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 520 )
The unbalance of the single axis air bearing table may affect the accuracy of experiment results. Common manual adjusting is time-consuming. This paper proposes a simple and effective model. Based on the mechanical analysis of the model, one may obtain the relationship between the obliquity of the turntable and the swing characteristics of the air bearing table. With a limited range of the air bearing table's swing, the air bearing table's swing periods and the static equilibrium position are measured before adjusting. Keeping the form of the air bearing table unchanged, the table's legs are adjusted in length. With a limited range of the air bearing table's swing, the air bearing table's swing periods and the change of the air bearing table's angle are measured to determine the length of each leg to be adjusted. The length of each leg is adjusted accordingly. This method is validated by experiment.

Operating Characteristics and Magnetic Field in Starting Process of Squirrel-cage Asynchronous Motor

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 50-54. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 576 )

Tramsmission Characteristics of Electromagnetic Wave from 1D Band-limited Weierstrass Fractal Rough Surface of Layered Medium

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 55-62. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 591 )
The transmission of the electromagnetic wave with plane wave incidence on a rough surface of a layered medium is studied and the transmission coefficient for different polarizations is obtained by using the small perturbation method combined with the power spectral density of 1D band-limited Weierstrass fractal rough surface. A 1D band-limited Weierstrass fractal rough surface is proposed for describing the natural rough surface of the layered medium. The curves of the transmission coefficient of the HH polarization with various scattering angles of the transmission wave, the fractal characteristics, the basic characteristics, the zonal characteristics and the characteristics with various frequencies of the transmission coefficient from 1D band-limited Weierstrass fractal rough surface for different polarizations are obtained by numerical calculation. The numerical results show that the fractal dimension, special fundamental frequency, scale interval, the permittivity of the substrate medium, the permittivity and the mean layer thickness of the intermediate medium, the rms and the correlation length of the rough surface, and the incident frequency have a very complicated influence on the transmission coefficient.

Monitoring System of the Wireless Model Car's Motion State

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 63-66. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1413 )
This paper introduces a wireless data transmission system which is composed of a kind of wireless data transmission chip and MCU. The system, whose core is the wireless transmission chip nRF24L01, employs the MC9S12DG128B to control the data transmission using USB24L01 as the wireless receive module and sending the data to the host computer through the USB interface. And the data is analyzed and optimized by the computer to get the related parameters and motion trajectory of the model car, through which to improve its speed and handling stability. This system is characterized by its simplicity, high reliability, high transmission rate, small volume, low cost and low power dissipation.

Testability Model of Fuze Based on Multi-signal Model

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 67-70. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 567 )
The modern weapon systems become more and more complex with the performance improvement. High integration and miniaturization have increased the risk of the potential fault, while the number of possible test points is reduced, which reduces the capability of test and diagnosis and affects the system security. Therefore, testability modeling and analysis technology are more and more emphasized by product designers. A system with adequate testability can diagnose and isolate faults promptly, rapidly, and accurately, with improved reliability and safety for specific tasks. In order to apply the testability technology to the development of weapons, an approach is proposed in this paper to analyze and evaluate the system testability based on the multi-signal model, as a hierarchical model. On the basis of the system structure, a hierarchical directed graph is used to indicate the direction of signals, the component of individual unit and the mutual relationship. The characteristics of the system can be represented by defining its function, the pattern of fault, and by testing the relationship between signals. Muti-signal modeling does not need detailed information about the failure mode, so it can be used to diagnose and isolate unexpected failure mode. It does not need detailed information about the design of the system, so it can be used to model even a conceptional product. In this paper, a multi-signal flow graph model of fuze is set up and the system testability is evaluated quantitatively and some effective strategies for diagnosis are proposed, by use of the fault detection rate, fault isolation rate, fault isolation of ambiguity group, unidentified fault and unused test. Meanwhile, testability suggestions such as the location of the test point, the location of isolation point to eliminate the feedback loop can be tagged directly in the functional module. It also provides accurate graph or text format testability reports. Simulation results indicate that a fast and accurate fault detection and isolation can be achieved by using this method, with the following features: easy modeling, low distortion and high generality. Its application can improve reliability and save maintenance cost of products.

Denudation Recovery and Its Geologic Significance of Main Unconformity Surfaces in Middle Section of West Sichuan Depression

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 71-75. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 558 )
Tectonic movements have occurred frequently in the middle section of west Sichuan depression since the late Triassic, including the Indosinian movement, the Anxian movement, the Yanshan movement and the Himalaya movement. They are mainly caused by compressive stresses, leading to many unconformity surfaces. In this paper, considering these movements and the unconformity surfaces, the main unconformity surfaces are identified in the region, their denuded amounts are calculated, and the geological significance of the distribution of the denuded amounts is analyzed. Based on Vitrinite reflectance distribution characteristics and seismic reflection profile , it is shown that three of the tectonic movements are closely related with hydrocarbon accumulation of the mesozoic era in the region, that is, the late Indosinian movement, the Anxian movement and the Himalaya movement. According to the data availabe and due to the restrictions of the denudation recovery methods, the Vitrinite reflectance-depth method, the combined Vitrinite reflectance-depth and reference layer thickness method, and the sonic velocity analysis method are chosen to recover the denuded amount caused by the three movements, respectively. The calculation results of the denuded amounts show that the regional structural strength center has migrated from north to south since the late Triassic era; the Himalaya movement is the strongest of the movements and is mainly responsible to the current tectonic pattern; the main structural traps have been formed before hydrocarbon migration and accumulation; and the hydrocarbon accumulation action has ceased after the Himalayan movement.

Multi-factorial Comprehensive Estimation for Jinchuan's Deep Typical Rockburst Tendency

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 76-80. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 564 )
The rocks in a deep mining area in Jinchuan 2nd mine are studied in this paper. Several mechanical experiments were conducted, including pre-peak loading and unloading, for six kinds of typical rocks, such as granite, marble and peridotite. Combined with the prospected data, different rockburst criteria, like the coefficient R method, Barton method, elastic strain energy index WET method and rock mass rating system method, are employed, respectively, according to different lithology and stress conditions to theoretically forecast the rockburst tendency of the rock mass. Fuzzy mathematics comprehensive prediction method is also used, with its index being based on each single criterion results, together with the expert-system evaluation method to determine the weight of every impact factor, to evaluate systematically the rockburst tendency of rock in Jinchuan No. 2 Mine. Results show that the single traditional rockburst forecast method is not suitable for the special geological environment in Jinchuan, while fuzzy mathematics comprehensive prediction method can provide better results. Six types of rock specimens, such as granite, marble, are of weak rockburst tendency, which are in accordance with the situ results. The forecast method proposed in this paper provides some guidance for preventing rockburst in mining excavation.

Generation Potential of Source Rocks in Volcanic Series of the Early Cretaceous Period in Mohe Basin, Heilongjiang Province

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 81-85. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 544 )
The Yiliekede Formation source rock in Mohe Basin belongs to limnetic facies and is the development in basaltic seriesin. Based on various organic geochemical analyses, the abundant sources of the organic materials, the type of organic materials, the organic maturity and the influence of volcanic rocks on source rocks are discussed. The results show that the organic materials in the source rock are more abundant than in Jurassic Formation source rocks. Based on the elemental analysis, the organic materials are shown to be dominant in the type of IIB kerogen. Due to the weathering effect, the organic materials may be better than in IIB. The degree of thermal evolution of organic matter is still in a low mature stage, and has just entered the oil generation threshold. The source rocks are not heated seriously by the basalt, which indicates that the environment of the spilling of magma belongs to lake basin.

Fine Geologic Modeling of Triassic Lower Oil Formation in the 1st Block of Tahe Oilfield

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 86-90. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 640 )
The reservoir of the 1st block of Tahe Oilfield is one with a complicated fault system and edge-bottom water in the lower section of the lower oil formation. At present, the main problem is the breakthrough water in production wells. Water volume is increased too fast with over-declined oil volume. Production fluid lateral section of the horizontal wells sees abnormal features. The overall production level of reservoirs declines. The treatment is difficult to find in the high water stage, and it is not very effective to block water. All above factors pose a serious threat to reservoirs. Therefore, it is necessary to study geologic characteristics of edge-bottom water reservoirs with a 3D geologic model. Petrel software is used for the 3D geologic modeling of this block, with a full use of data related to drilling, seismic conditions, well log and stratigraphic correlation as well as interbed's explanation and poroperm curve. Among various stochastic models, a 3D geologic model is chosen, which is close to the actual geological conditions. The type, thickness and distribution of interbed are identified in 3D. It is concluded that the reservoir of the 1st block of Tahe Oilfield is controlled by fault and interbed, which may serve as a geological basis for further studies of water invasion patterns.

Detection of Spontaneous Combustion of Sulfide Ores by Infrared Thermal Imaging Method

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 91-95. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 555 )
Infrared thermal imaging technique is a new method for detecting the fire source. But a number of problems have to be solved before it can be applied to the detection of a spontaneous fire source of sulfide ores in mine. In order to determine the surface temperature of spontaneous combustion ores more accurately, preliminary studies were carried out on the effects of emission rate, the range of the detector, background noise, subsurface environment and stability of infrared thermal imagers. It is shown that the emission rate of materials and the range of the detector have greater influence on the precision of the measured temperature than other factors. Some measures are taken to control factors, such as background noise, subsurface environment and stability of infrared thermal imagers in order to avoid external disturbance and keep the imager stable. The emission rate of sulfide ores and the reasonable range of IRI-1101 infrared thermal imagers were determined based on experimental results and a theoretical analysis. The emission rate of sulfide ores is ε=0.88. Within 10m, the temperature error will increase greatly with the measuring distance. When the temperature of the heat source is kept in a certain range, the temperature error is almost linearly related with the distance at 3m and 4m. Temperature error is stable at 2m when the temperature of the heat source T>50℃. The quantitative relationship between the temperature obtained by IRI-1101 infrared thermal imager and the real surface temperature of spontaneous combustion ores was established when distance is equal to 2m, 3m and 4m, respectively. After the adjustment, the relative error of four measuring points are -3.1%, 3.9%, 5.5% and -5.8%, respectively. The results of study were confirmed by field tests in the sulfide mine.

Evolution Analysis of Flood Period Rainfall in Zhejiang Central Region and the Forecasting Model

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 96-100. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 534 )
The spatial distribution of the flood period rainfall over the years in Zhejiang central region is analyzed and it is shown that the rainfall amount in northern and southern part is more than that in central part, and the precipitation in western part is more than that in eastern part. June precipitation is the greatest during the annual flood season. There is a nine-year cycle throughout the precipitation sequence. Four-year cycle exists from 1967 to 1982, and five-year cycle appears since 1978 until now. Zhejiang central region flood season precipitation is mainly affected by the disturbances of the high-middle latitude atmospheric circulation system in both of northern and southern hemispheres, and the number of circulation sensitive areas in northern hemisphere is greater than that in southern hemisphere. Forecasting model is established by using multiple linear regression method. And the results of the forecasting model simulation are close to historical observations. The prediction equation passes 95% reliability test. The applicability of the prediction equation is tested by using 2009 data and the results show that the qualitative prediction is successful.

Treatment of High Turbidity Steel Wastewater

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 101-104. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 572 )
Compound coagulant polyaluminium chloride(PAC) and bentonite is used to dispose the high turbidity steel wastewater, and with the removal rate of turbidity, CODCr as the index, the related factors are determined, such as the dosing sequence, the pH value, the dosage, the temperature, the stirring rate, the stirring time, the raw water turbidity, and appropriate process conditions. Through a large number of trials, the results show that in the appropriate condition, the pH value is 12, the stirring intensity is 200r/min, for 20min, the dosing sequence is first bentonite and then PAC, bentonite and PAC dosages are 150 and 5mg/L, respectively, raw water CODCr between 180 and 220mg/L, turbidity range is 9250~9480NTU, the removal rate of turbidity, CODCr, can reach 80% and 99.9%, respectively. The treatment effect with the compounded coagulant is better than bentonite and PAC being used alone, and compared with other treatment methods, this treatment has a good economical efficiency and provides a new treatment for the steel wastewater.
Reviews

Progress and Prospect of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 105-108. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1392 )
In the recent development, through transferring special genes, somatic cells can be induced into pluripotent stem cells (Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, iPSCs), which has brought a new revolutionary change in life science. Fully differentiated cells can reverse their gene expression profile to that of pluripotent cells, with combined uses of defined factors and small molecules. This method is more convenient to manipulate or operate and is relatively more stable, which has potential values in both the fundamental study of biology and the clinical applications. iPS cells, with characteristics identical to those of Embryonic Stem cells(ESC), could be very useful in regenerative medicine drug discovery, and in other related fields. The generation of iPSCs may solve some problems in stem cells researches, such as ethical dilemma, immunological rejection. In combination with gene therapy and cellular transplantation therapy, the achievements of iPS have been applied to animal disease model treatments. However, there remain many problems to be solved for iPSCs technology itself, such as carcinogenicity, low efficiency of generation, safety of virus as vectors, low survival rate of tissue derived from iPSCs after transplantation. This paper discusses four aspects of iPSCs: generation, development, existing problems and application prospects.

Progress of Networked Control Systems

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 109-115. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 564 )
The paper reviews the major contributions and the possible future challenges in the emerging area of Networked Control Systems (NCSs). Activities in this field can be categorized as the control of networks, the control over networks, and the multi-agent system. The control of networks is mainly concerned with providing a certain level of performance to a network data flow, to efficiently use network resources. The control over networks deals with the design of feedback strategies for control systems in which control data are exchanged through unreliable communication links. The multi-agent system deals with the study of how the network architecture and the interactions between network components influence the global control goal. More precisely, the problem here is to understand how the local laws describing the behavior of the individual agents influence the global behavior of the networked system. Focusing on network delays, network packet dropout, and multiple-packet transmission in the area of control over networks, this paper reviews the research achievements and advances of analysis and synthesis in NCS. The problems in NCS and the future directions in NCS are pointed out.

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 116-116. ;  doi:
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科技评论

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Focus

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主编心语

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (1002): 125-125. ;  doi:
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走向职场

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