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   Science & Technology Review
2010, Vol.28, No. 09
13 May 2010

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Talents Are the Hopes of the National Future

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 3-3. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 12-13. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 14-15. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 16-17. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 125-125. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 138-138. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 139-139. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 401 )

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 9-9. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 11-11. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 18-18. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 459 )

A Proposal on How to Select Newly Developed Strategic Industries in National Support Program

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 19-21. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 584 )
According to the characteristics of the environment of China's science and technology development in the period of the twelfth five year plan, the following five fields of newly developed strategic industries should be selected in the national support program: the new energy industry with solar energy and nuclear energy as the principal parts and high energy-efficient coal power industry, the biological industry with biological medicine and biological breeding as the principal parts, the network information industry with the convergence of computer network, telephone network and cable TV network, and the 3G technology as the principal parts, the energy saving and environment protection industry with low carbon discharge and water saving, pollution-free technologies as the principal parts, the aerospace industry with trunk-line aircraft and near earth space technology as the principal parts. The following relations should be rightly dealt with: the relation between newly developed strategic industries in China and newly developed industries in developed countries, the relation between newly developed strategic industries and traditional industries, the relation between science and technology man power and newly developed strategic industries, the relation between public science awareness and newly developed strategic industries, and the relation between innovation culture and newly developed strategic industries.

Statistics and Analysis of Abstract Information Included in Chinese Science Abstracts in 2009

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 22-27. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 527 )
Based on the statistics for 46161 abstracts in 413 scientific and technical journals indexed by Chinese Science Abstracts (Chinese Edition) in 24 issues in 2009, the ranking of the source journals, the geographical distribution of the author's working places, the distribution of author′s affiliations and research fields are analyzed, which would reflect the capability in scientific research and the academic level of scientific research institutions to some extent. The results are compared with the those obtained in 2008.

Reducing Deposition in TGP Reservoir by Dredging Coarse Sediment

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 28-36. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 576 )
A scheme of deposition control for the reservoir of Three Gorges Project (TGP) by dredging the coarse sediment at fixed reaches in the fluctuating backwater reaches is studied this paper. With the increasing capacity of dredging promoted by fast development and commercial needs of dredgers and large scale dredging projects, and the market of river-sand along the Yangtze, in particular, in recent decades, it is shown that reservoir dredging is not as expensive and low efficient as it was previously believed and large scale dredging for reservoir de-siltation seems to be worthy of consideration. Applying a well-applied model of unsteady flow and sediment transport, the authors studied many cases with respect to different flow and sediment conditions. Computation results reveal that 100 years accumulated deposition after dredging is to be decreased by 20%, and dredging and intercepting coarse sands are proved to be highly effective. This scheme may become a sustainable way for TGP to keep a low level of deposition and to protect its flood control capacity. This scheme may also serve as a reference for de-siltation of other river shaped reservoirs.

Data Communication Research of Subway Tunnel Deformation Monitoring System

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 37-41. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 544 )
The deformation of operating subway tunnel includes the displacement of the tunnel longitudinal axis line along the cross-section and the changes of tunnel cross-sectional shape. However, the security of subway operation should be affected if the deformation of tunnel is too large. A deformation detection system has been given in this article, which is made based on the image sensors and tunnel deformation detecting devices. And the deformation detection could be perfectly accomplished owing to its high degree of automation and good repeatability. But actually the amounts of data collected are so large that some mistakes can not be avoided in the process of transmission. Here data collected could be transmitted in security by making reasonable concise communication protocols and compiling effective communication programs, which provides reliable basic data to right monitoring results. The data communication between the host computer and the slave computer is basically achieved. The functions of accounting and saving and collecting and receiving of data also carry out. The program is compact and the received data is credible. The stability of the program meet the requirement of the system. The basic data can be provided for the host computer. According to the data, it can be trust to the intuitionistic data for the information issuance. The data can be provided for forecasting correctly the condition of the subway tunnel.

Subcritical Crack Growth of Rocks and Its Applications

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 42-46. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 552 )
Subcritical crack growth is one of the main causes of time-induced failure in rock engineering. It can be explained by the stress corrosion mechanism and Charles theory is a stress corrosion theory suitable for rocks. Double torsion tests are often used for the subcritical crack growth in rocks and the parameters in Charles theory can be obtained. The crack propagation models under the tensile stress and compression-shear stress in the traditional fracture mechanics are combined with Charles theory, which would lead to the time-dependent crack propagation models. The subcritical crack growth parameters of ore-rock in ZTS Non-ferrous Metals Group were obtained by double torsion tests and applied to the time-dependent crack propagation model under the effect of tensile stress to predict ore-rock block caving. It is found that the ore block caving can be predicted accurately. Additionally, the excavation construction of rock projects can be guided by the model. The application of the time-dependent crack propagation model under compression-shear stress and the time-dependent crack propagation model of multiple cracks interaction under complex conditions remain to be further studied.

Reservoir Characterization and Comprehensive Prediction of Non-marine Deep Water Deposits for Sha-3 Member in Xingma Area

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 47-51. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 532 )
The Xingma area is located in the mid-east of the western sag, Liaohe depression. The stratums above Sha-2 Formation have been confirmed and put into production after 40 years' exploration. With the exploration and research in depth, the gravity flow of deposited sand bodies of Sha-3 member becomes a focus in lithologic reservoirs exploration. Due to low dominant frequency, low signal-to-noise ratio, rapid lateral change, and high frequency of layering inter-bedding, the studies are few with respect to reservoir characteristic and spatial distributions. The sequence stratigrapic classification and seismic reservoir prediction skills are two effective methods in the lithologic reservoir exploration for deeper strata. The Sha-3 member is divided into three sequences after the high resolution sequence stratigraphic framework is built up. The sandstone bodies are mainly distributed at the bottom of each sequence and mostly developed in sequence SQ3. On the basis of an isochronous stratigraphic framework, the seismic attribute identification, seismic waveform classification, frequency division technique, post-stack seismic inversion, and the forecasting reservoir technique are used to choose four good lithologic traps. The prediction results are verified by the new well drilling data. The research provides a reference for lithologic reservoir exploration in western sag, Liaohe depression and other areas.

Reservoir Parameter Interpretation Model Study of Mature Oilfield with Multi-target Stratum

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 52-58. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 492 )
The V field is a mature oilfield with multi-target stratum and sandstone-mudstone interbedding. The lack of porosity logging data in most wells is its typical feature. Because sedimentary environment, lithology and petrophysical property are different in different formation, the method of establishing reservoir parameter interpretation models for different logging suit and different formation is viable. According to core analysis data, the relationship of core porosity with density, spontaneous potential amplitude difference and gamma are studied respectively on the basis of logging data preprocess, and the relationship of core porosity with core permeability for each zone are also studied. Based on porosity and permeability interpretation model of each zone, the reservoir parameters of each zone are calculated accurately for every well in the V field. It lays the foundation for quantitative researches on reservoir geology and reservoir adjustment plan.

Ignition Range of Natural Gas Well Blowout and Its Heat Radiation Effect on Circumjacent Facilities

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 59-62. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 528 )
In the process of natural gas exploration and development, the well blowout will lead to serious consequences. Among the damage forms, the heat radiation from the natural gas fire flame can threat the onsite and surrounding workers as well as the facilities dramatically. With a practical natural gas well exploration project as an example, using a Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) software, the flux field is simulated with well pressures of 10, 20 and 30MPa. In this study, 3 different air velocities and 2 well diameters (63.5 and 88.5mm) are considered in the well blowout and eighteen groups of simulation results are obtained. The simulation results, as well as the heat radiation effects on the circumjacent facilities, are analyzed. It is indicated that both the well pressure and diameter have little influence on the blowout gas velocity with other parameters fixed. With the same well pressure and diameter, the greater the air velocity is, the lower and smaller the effective ignition area will be. Under the simulation conditions, the gas ejection velocity is about 400m/s and the surface temperature of the natural gas flame exceeds 1500K. For the facilities, the damage diameter of the project fire is about 40m; meanwhile the injury diameter of the project fire for human beings is about 104m.

A System Framework Design of the Digital Library with the Combination of Cloud Computing and PKI Technology

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 63-68. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1147 )
This paper presents a design of a digital library system framework, which can take advantage of both cloud computing and PKI technology. According to the concepts and technical characteristics of the cloud computing and PKI technology, and based on the AppEngine development platform of the cloud computing provided by the Google company, a digital library system framework is designed and developed and its detailed and specific implementation is presented. The operative tests of the digital library system framework demonstrate that this system significantly expands the functions of information-gathering, analysis, and retrieval capabilities of the digital library. This system framework enjoys basic library functions, as are achieved in some modules, where the users can login the digital library by their security certificates, and the administrators of the digital library can input and save the information of the books, and the readers of the digital library may query and retrieve the data of the books. Furthermore, this system can provide comprehensive security and reliable network services for the readers. In the future, this system will adequately explore the technological potential of the Google's AppEngine development platform of the cloud computing on this basis, and gradually implement more comprehensive services of the digital library.

Analysis and Calculation of Manufacturing Errors for Reflecting Prisms

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 68-72. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 547 )
The result of unfolding a real reflecting prism with angle and "pyramid" errors can no longer be a plane-parallel glass block, and the substitute will be a wedge-shaped plate. How to find the wedge parameter or optical parallelism of this glass block is a matter of primary importance. For this purpose, a novel generalized formula to determine the total image rotation △μ' in the image space of the reflecting part of the real prism has been established for the first time. First of all, the total image rotation itself is equally a crucial characteristic of a real reflecting prism with the above-mentioned errors, and furthermore by using △μ' the wedge parameter, namely, a vector of two degrees of freedom △N (or PΔN ) can easily be solved through only a few steps of simple calculation. This approach shows that the problem regarding the manufacturing errors of a reflecting prism can be settled in the same way as we have done in solving the issue relevant to the adjustment of reflecting prisms relying on the theory of kinematics of a rigid body. In the meanwhile the close relation between the two main parameters PΔN and △μ′ has been thoroughly exposed that would be advantageous to the further study of this topic. The paper also clearly states that the wedge effect will lead to a curved image for a linear object, instead of to produce an image lean. Besides, some new ideas and viewpoints have been presented.

Aerothermodynamics Environments of Orbital Return Vehicle

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 73-75. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 555 )
The thermochemical nonequilibrium, aerodynamic heating and aerodynamic characteristics of the hypersonic vehicle flow field are important issues in computational fluid dynamics. In typical space shuttles, during return capsule re-entrying the Earth's atmosphere, or in the process of a variety of probes entering the atmosphere of other planets, the effects of gas molecules in high-temperature flow field behind the shock wave, such as vibration excitation, dissociation, ionization and thermal radiation, are significant, because of the very high speed of vehicle, which would affect the flow field in the state of flow and thermodynamic properties. Analytical study of aerothermodynamics is an important part in the flight control and the vehicle Thermal Protection System (TPS) design. The flow fields of the Orbital Return Vehicle (ORV) aviating in the earth atmosphere with the Mach number varying from 9.7 to 27.8 were simulated in 10 cases by using the conservation integral form of Navier-Stokes equations with multi-species, nonequilibrium molecular thermal excitation and chemical reactions, based on the high-resolution Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) scheme. Aerodynamics and heat transfer of the high-temperature and high-velocity flow field behind bow shock were studied, and the aerodynamics coefficient and the wall heat flux are in good agreement with fight data. This study provides some useful data for designing vehicles' TPS.

Numerical Simulation of Armored Material Equivalent Under the Action of Shaped Charge

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 76-79. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 545 )
It is difficult to implement the material equivalent using the method of experiment in the field of the target damage research. This paper uses a simulation method based on non-linear dynamical software to study the material equivalent under the action of shaped charge warhead. With Euler-Lagrange method, a large number of numerical calculations were carried out using AUTODYN, a non-linear dynamics software. According to calculation results, comparing parameters such as jet tip velocity, penetration depth and consuming time, etc., the optimum stand-off of the shaped charge corresponding with some conic angle is identified. On the basis of above results, the equivalent coefficient between some armored steel and 45 steel is obtained by using the method of anti-armor residual velocity. According to the method, at the same optimum stand-off, the relative velocity is the same after the same jet penetrates different material targets with different thickness, which means that the different thickness is equivalent. The equivalent coefficient is about 1.75 for some newest armor steel and 45 steel. Research results provide an equivalent target setting for warhead damage efficiency checkup tests.

Biochemical Mechanism of Killing Nitzschia closterium minutissima by Hydroxyl Radicals

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 80-83. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 523 )
It has always been an important issue to remove suspended algae in ship's ballast water. The ballast water discharge process is the main cause of pest spreads in a body of water of geographic isolation. The treatment of micro-organisms in ballast water by hydroxyl radicals is based on the advanced oxidation technology, a new method, that will not adversely affect the water environment. Hydroxyl radical is similar to fluorine in oxidation capability, and is one of the most offensive chemicals, and can react with different types of organic and inorganic matters. With Nitzschia closterium minutissima as biological representatives in ballast water, this paper mainly study the biochemical reaction mechanism of killing Nitzschia closterium minutissima by the hydroxyl radicals. Tests for dead Nitzschia closterium minutissima concentrations were carried out with increase of hydroxyl radical concentration, to observe the changes of biological macromolecules of protein, glucose and chlorophyll. Results show that when the concentration of Nitzschia closterium minutissima reaches 1.2×106/mL, the concentration range of dead Nitzschia closterium minutissima hydroxyl is 0.81~0.91mg/L. When the hydroxyl radical solution reaches progressively the concentration of 0.7mg/L, 99% of Nitzschia closterium minutissima can be killed, with no regeneration after 24 hours. The lower rate of protein and glucose shows a further decrease after an initial increase and chlorophyll is in the trend of reducing. Hydroxyl radicals are effective in oxidation, decomposition of protein and sugar, and reduction of the chlorophyll content. The reaction of the hydroxyl radical solution is to kill Nitzschia closterium minutissima, at the same time, to undermine vivo biological molecules so that it can not be regenerated, which can meet the requirements of the ballast water discharge of biomass.

Effect of Uygur Foeniculum Vulgare Mill on Transfer Growth Factor-β1 of Experimental Hepatic Fibrosis Rats

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 84-88. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 525 )
To study the effect of Uygur Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Transfer Growth Factor -β1 (TGF-β1) of experimental hepatic fibrosis rats, 48 Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups randomly, i.e., the normal control group, the model group, the colchicines group, and the Uygur Foeniculum vulgare Mill group. All rats except for those in the normal control group were induced with 2mL/kg carbon tetrachloride. Uygur Foeniculum vulgare Mill group and colchicines group were treated with 100mg/kg Uygur Foeniculum vulgare Mill and 0.2mg/kg colchicines, respectively, for 6 weeks. Live tissue of hepatic fibrosis was extirpated for pathologic examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) stains and expression of TGF-β1 with immunohistochemistry stain. The results show that the degree of hepatic fibrosis in the Foeniculum vulgare Mill preventive group was improved significantly as seen from staining of HE. The expression of TGF-β1 in the model group was in a higher level than that in the normal group (P<0.01). But the expression level of TGF-β1 in the Foeniculum vulgare Mill group was lower than that in the model group. It is inferred that Foeniculum vulgare Mill can be used to prevent rat hepatic fibrosis by reducing expression of TGF-β1 and to improve hepatic functions.

Construction of Survivin Promoter CpG Island of Hazak's Esophageal Cancer in Eukaryotic Expression Vector

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 93-95. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 505 )
There are many kinds of genes' abnormal expressions participating in the form of esophageal cancer. Hazak's esophageal cancer has a special mechanism. Cloning and studying the early related genes' promoter CpG island would provide a basis for revealing the mechanism. The Survivin promoter CpG island in Hazak's esophageal cancer in Eukaryotic Expression Vector is constructed in this study for identifying the methylation function of the CpG island on Hazak's esophageal cancer. By Primer 5.0 software, the primer is designed, and the Survivin promoter CpG island is cloned with PCR from Hazak's esophageal cancer in genome DNA, after cutting by restrictive endonuclease enzyme HindIII, linking the fragment to eukaryotic expression vector pCAT3 promoter and transferring into E. coli ER1793. After the DNA sequence, the fragment is successfully linked with pCAT3 promoter eukaryotic expression vector. As a result, the eukaryotic expression vector is constructed, which may help studies of the effects of Survivin promoter methylation on Hazak's esophageal cancer.

China's Hydrogen Supply Potential for Automotive Transportation

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 96-101. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1676 )
This paper analyzes the present state of industrial hydrogen production and application in China. Based on the industrial data and the basic theory of hydrogen production and conversion, a detailed evaluation of production capacity and by-product hydrogen resource is made, taken into account of the production of related chemicals including ammonia, methanol and petroleum products. Besides, the future hydrogen demands for the fuel cell vehicles by the year 2050 are analyzed with the scenario method, compared with the present hydrogen production capacity in China. Analysis results show that the present hydrogen consumption in China has reached to 12 million ton in 2007, with average annual growth rate of about 9%, most of which is used in three chemical industries, including ammonia, methanol and oil refinery. In the ammonia synthesis plants, to produce one ton of ammonia would consume, on average, 178.18~182.44kg hydrogen, and in the methanol plants the mean hydrogen consumption is 126.45~142.26kg. So the corresponding hydrogen consumption is 9.2 million ton and 1.3 million ton in ammonia and methanol synthesis processing, respectively. Besides, the 1.8 million ton hydrogen consumption could be deduced from Chinese hydro-cracking/hydro-treating ability for oil-refinery and the industrial data of hydrogen-consumption in each corresponding processing. Moreover there is also 6 million ton by-product hydrogen gas, which could be obtained during the carbonization process or the sodium hydroxide producing. While the by-product hydrogen is utilized in vehicles by means of fuel cell or internal combustion engine technologies, it could replace about 16 million ton of gasoline, or feed at least 6.86 million FCB (Fuel Cell Buses) or 27.03 million FCPV (Fuel Cell Passenger Vehicles) in the future. Finally, three scenarios of high-, mid- and slow-growth are defined to analyze the hydrogen supply and demand for vehicle. Under the slow-growth scenario, the by-product hydrogen gas will satisfy the FCV fleet energy demand till 2050; under the mid-growth or high-growth scenarios, the by-product hydrogen gas will satisfy the FCV fleet energy demand till 2045 or 2040, respectively.

Paleoclimatic Evolution Since the Last Deglaciation: A Review and Prospect View

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 102-107. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 612 )
During the last deglaciation, enormous changes occurred on the global surface. A series of abrupt climate changes occurred during this period in different ways and different parts of the world. The warming process and mechanism has been the focus of studies of paleoclimate changes, however, controversy still exists. This paper briefly reviews the development of paleoclimate and monsoon evolution since the last deglaciation, and it is pointed out that the continental shelf area is very sensitive to the global environmental changes. The shelf sediment also contains a wealth of climate/monsoon evolution information. Extraction and study of the proxies derived from the shelf sediments should be valuable. East Asian monsoon evolution history and its driving mechanism, the monsoon differences and interaction, monsoon-driven mechanism analysis in various time scales revealed by the sediments on the continental shelf are of great significance for regional and global change studies. It is suggested that the future work is to study the paleoclimate and the corresponding events in view of regional and even global changes, and more attention should be paid to the study of the continental shelf sediments.

Progress of Studies of Giant Electro-rheological Fluids

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 108-111. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 545 )
Giant Electro-Rheological(GER) fluids enjoy perfect rheological properties, which can not be fully explained by models of conventional electro-rheological fluids. In order to improve performance of GER fluids, it is necessary to establish new models for GER fluids based on their physical mechanism. In this paper, the progress of studies of different types of GER fluids is reviewed, including GER fluids developed by nanoparticles coated with urea, polar molecule type ER fluids and the model of saturated orientational polarization of polar molecule. Although great advancement is made in understanding the mechanisms of GER fluids by the current theoretical models, they are all based on respective simplified assumptions and can not explain all phenomena satisfactorily, which has limited their general applications. Besides the complexity induced by viscosity of liquids, dielectric properties of particles, characteristics of coating layer, polar molecules, surface modification, temperature, concentration and other unknown factors are likely to play some roles.

Research Development of Corrosion Resistance of Ultra-high Strength Steel

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (09): 112-115. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1188 )
The ultra-high strength steels, a kind of alloy steels with ultra-high strength and high toughness, were developed based upon common alloy steels. They are widely used in sophisticated weapons and in the field of aeronautics and astronautics. The ultrahigh-strength stainless steel is a median and low carbon content steel with Co, Cr, Ni, Mo and V elements. It enjoys quite high strength and high toughness, therefore, can be widely used in the fields for ultrahigh load capacity, such as landing gear and component crust to replace the existing cadmium plating process, thus to reduce the pollution. The research developments of corrosion resistance of low and high alloy ultra-high strength steels are reviewed in this paper. 300M, a low alloy ultra-high strength steel, is usually susceptible to corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. High alloy ultra-high strength steels, such as Aermet 100, show excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking. A new type of ultra-high stainless steels is recently developed, with its superior corrosion resistance.

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