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   Science & Technology Review
2010, Vol.28, No. 05
13 March 2010

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Facing the Future, Deploying Prospectively Leading and Supporting Sustainable Development of China

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 2-3. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 427 )
特别栏目

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 12-13. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 14-15. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 16-17. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 125-125. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 138-138. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 139-139. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 407 )
封面图片说明

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 399 )
半月科技风云

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 9-9. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 450 )
科技事件

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 11-11. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 397 )
科技工作者建议

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 18-18. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 465 )
Exclusive

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 19-25. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 528 )
In the accelerating process of globalization, the financial crisis, climate change and other global issues are becoming important issues that affect the development of a country. Developed countries have been starting to deploy international scientific and technological cooperations from the prospective of the national strategy or even the global strategy, and actively carry out science and technology diplomacy, strengthen the construction of the national soft power and smart power, in order to take the strategic initiative. This paper studies the diplomatic strategy of the United States, European Union, Japan and other developed western countries for all-round implementation of the scientific and technological diplomatic policies, and puts forward some suggestions to strengthen science and technology diplomacy in China.
Articles

Study on Immunomodulating Effect by Formulation of Fu Fang Jian Wei Xiao Shi

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 26-29. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 692 )
Objective To observe the immunomodulating effect by formulation of Fu Fang Jian Wei Xiao Shi in mice. Methods 80 healthy female BALB/C mice were administered formulation of Fu Fang Jian Wei Xiao Shi for 30 days with the dose of 0, 0.2, 0.6 and 1.8g/kg body weight, then detected the capacity of lymphocyte proliferation, delayed allergic reaction (DTH), the number of plaque-forming cells, the level of serum HC50 and natural killer cell activity. Results In comparison with the control group, formulation of Fu Fang Jian Wei Xiao Shi could significantly enhance the capacity of the mitogen Concanavalin A(Con A)-induced lymphocyte proliferation, delayed allergic reaction (DTH), the number of plaque-forming cells and natural killer cell activity. Conclusion These results suggest that formulation of Fu Fang Jian Wei Xiao Shi may strengthen the immune function on cellular immunity, humoral immunity and natural killer cell activity.

Application of Photosensitive Model of Red Blood Cell to Evaluate the Anti-photosensitive Additives in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 30-33. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 726 )
With the increase of UV-sensitive groups, more and more attention is paid on the problems of UV-sensitive skins. However, the methods to evaluate the photosensitive damage are more often than not for animal testing. In this paper, a relatively less time consuming and less expensive convenient method is developed to detect the damage of UV-A by red blood cell hemolysis, first to obtain the hemoglobin of the injured red blood cell, and then to calculate the hemolytic rate. The experiments on the effects of ultraviolet light or photo sensitizer alone, the different exposure times and the different drug concentrations show that the red blood cell hemolysis does not occur under ultraviolet light radiation alone without chlorpromazine nor only with chlorpromazine without ultraviolet light radiation. With the chlorpromazine content of 0.33mg/mL in red blood cell, 50% hemolysis can be resulted after being radiated by ultraviolet for about 30min, and 100% hemolysis after 60min of radiation. 10 kinds of Chinese medicine were found with the active ingredients of anti-photosensitive from ginkgo biloba leaf, tea polyphenols, grape seed extraction, as the most potential anti-photosensitive materials. Among them, the main components of ginkgo biloba flavonoids were shown be able to prevent the damage of UV on the cell membrane from the source through the broad UV absorption capacity, tea polyphenols and grape seed polyphenols could protect the cell membrane by scavenging free radicals and other optical products.

Iris Recognition System at a Distance Based on Stereo Vision and Pan-tilt-zoom Camera

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 34-39. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1272 )
Iris recognition is an emerging biometrics technology. It is more accurate and robust than fingerprint recognition and face recognition, but with a bottleneck of the inconvenience in iris image acquisition. Many recent studies focus on the automatic iris recognition at a distance to make the operation more convenient. In this study, an iris recognition system is designed at a distance based on a stereo vision and a pan-tilt unit. The stereo vision system is pre-calibrated. After the human face detection, the system makes a face image registration between two stereo-vision cameras and uses the corresponding relationship to estimate the accurate spatial position of human eyes. The pan-tilt unit moves an iris camera towards the eye position, and with the auto-focusing function, the iris camera acquires high-quality iris images for the iris recognition. Experiments show that the stereo vision is accurate enough to estimate the spatial position and the acquired iris images are clear enough for a high performance of the iris recognition. The iris recognition system has a potential large-scale application in the future.

Model Establishment and Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of the Rotating Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Blade

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 40-44. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 577 )
The nonlinear dynamics of the rotating blade of the Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine(HAWT) under the forces caused by the pulse wind is investigated in this paper. The blade is modeled as a rotating cantilever beam under the actions of aerodynamic forces, elastic forces and inertia forces. The nonlinear governing equation of motion for the rotating cantilevered blade under harmonic wind forces is obtained based on the Newton's law of motion. The Galerkin approach is used to transform the nonlinear partial differential governing equations of motion to a two-degree-of-freedom nonlinear ordinary equations. Due to the quadratic terms, the method of asymptotic perturbation is employed to transform the ordinary equation to the averaged equations in the case of 1/2 subharmonic resonance and 1:3 internal resonance. The planar phase portrait, the three-dimensional phase portrait, the waveform and the frequency spectrum of the averaged equations are obtained by numerical simulations. The influence of the mean wind speed and the stochastic wind speed on the system is studied. The results indicate that the motion of the blade of HAWT follows the following process: from periodic motion to chaotic motion and then to periodic motion.

Effect of Cylindrical Confined Space Size on Fire Induced Smoke Flow

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 45-48. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 514 )
This paper discusses the geometry characteristics of the fire-induced smoke flow in cylindrical confined spaces. Due to the confined nature of the vaulted ceiling, the smoke moves down along the wall and close to the fire source, with a sedimentation rate greater in upper side of the fire source than that around the fire. LES and mixture fraction numerical methods are used to simulate the smoke movement in cross sectional confined spaces. The results well validate the forecast of the flow course. Smoke temperature distributions with transverse size of 6.4m and longitudinal size of 6m, 9m, and 12m are compared. The results show that as the longitudinal size increases, the temperature at places under 2cm and D/4 of the top in the spaces is obviously reduced, meanwhile, the temperature at the top delays its time to reach the maximum value. The smoke temperature distributions in cylindrical spaces with longitudinal size of 12m and transverse size of 3.2m, 6.4m and 9.2m are compared. The results show that as the transverse size increases, the temperature at places under 2cm and D/4 of the top in the space is also obviously reduced. When the transverse size decreases to 3.2m, the oxygen concentration is too low to sustain the fire source combustion, about 160s later, the combustion stops. The reduction of the transverse size will restrict the combustion of the fire source, and quickly reduce the heat release rate, then reduce the fire danger.

Application of Hypersingular Integral Equation Method to Study Earthquake Fault in Wenchuan

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 49-54. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 627 )
Based on the nonlinear boundary element and the main-part analysis method, the problem of earthquake fault in Wenchuan is reduced to a set of hypersingular integral equations coupled with nonlinear boundary integral equations, in which the unknown functions are the general displacement discontinuities. The behavior of the general singular stress indexes around the crack front terminating at the fault surface is analyzed and the stress intensity factors are defined. A numerical method for the problem is put forward with the extended displacement discontinuities being approximated by the product of basic density functions and polynomials. Finally, the radiation distributions simulated by stress intensity factors against fault length, width and height at the crack surface are obtained, which can reveal the mechanism on co-seismal slip. The future work will focus on using the extended volume energy density function and Richter magnitude scale geophysics theory to analyze the extended macro/micro electromagnetic earthquake fault mechanism.

Numerical Analysis of Anti-penetration Property of Magnesium Alloy

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 55-59. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1305 )
The weight of weapons is a very important factor in the quick response capability in battlefield, it has paid much attention and strict requirements are posed in modern high technology warfare. The developed countries have invested huge amount of money in studies on lightweight structural materials as well as the advanced manufacturing technology to reduce the weight of weapons and equipment, improve their mobility, increase the number of bombs carrying and the amount of the field aid system and even improve the survival and combat capability of soldiers and weapons in battlefield. Magnesium alloy is an ideal material to be used in reducing the weight of weapons. In accordance with the ballistic performance of AZ31B magnesium alloy, three types of projectile penetration target plate models are established by numerical simulation. The general process of magnesium alloy being perforated is studied. The ballistic performance of magnesium alloy is analyzed comparing with aluminum alloy and steel made target plates under the same area density. It is shown that the ballistic performance is closely connected with the penetrator parameter and the target thickness.

A New Solution Method for Absolute Value Equations

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 60-62. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 664 )
The absolute value equations come from linear programming, quadratic programming, bimatrix games and other problems, that can all be reduced to a linear complementarity problem, which in turn is equivalent to absolute value equations. The solution of this kind of equations is an NP-hard problem in its general form. In this paper, a new method for solving this kind of equations is presented. Firstly, the existence and uniqueness theorem of the solution to absolute value equations problem is proven under the condition that the singular values of A are greater than one. Based on the theorem, the solution is transformed into a general linear complementarity problem. Then the mixed-integer linear programming method is applied to the linear complementarity problem. At last, some numerical examples are given to indicate that the method is feasible and effective to absolute value equations problems. These results may play a key role in solving this kind of equations.

Functional Zoning in Land Use of Jiaozhou City

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 63-67. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 675 )
The land has multiple functions , including the ecological functions, the productive functions, and the living functions. The productive functions and living functions are based on ecological functions, but have also an influence on the ecosystem. In order to bring into full play of all functions of the land, it is necessary to plan as a whole the important functions of land resources in an area. For that reason,, the functional zoning in land use is proposed with Jiaozhou City as an example. Thirteen indexes such as the population density, the per mu yield GDP, the proportions of irrigated land and urban land are selected. Eighteen towns (subdistrict administrative offices) under Jiaozhou′s jurisdiction are zoned by hierarchical clustering of SPSS software to obtain the system clustering. Considering inter-regional differences, ecological environment differences, economic development characteristics, geography and resources conditions and other factors in the land use structures, Jiaozhou City is divided into four major types of functional zones: (1) central town development zone, which accounts for 7.80% of the total area and 27.30% of the GDP of Jiaozhou City in 2008, is the core development zone; (2) eastern development construction zone, which lies by Jiaozhou Bay and Dagu River and accounts for 29.43% of the total area and 36.13% of the GDP of Jiaozhou City; (3) north protective zone of basic farmland, which has a larger area of irrigated land than the other three functional zones and accounts for 26.78% of the total area and 16.08% of the GDP of Jiaozhou City; (4) southern low hills environment protective zone, which has a larger area of forest land than the other three function zones and a fragile ecological environment and accounts for 35.9% of the total area and 20.49% of the GDP of Jiaozhou City. Accordingly, the control measures and utilization directions of the four functional zones are put forward, as the scientific basis of rational utilization of land resources. The functional zoning in land use will provide some guidance for regional land sustainable development.

Synthesis and Performance of Waterborne Polyurethanes with Different Hard Segments

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 68-73. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 632 )
Different hard segment waterborne polyurethane prepolymers are synthesized in two steps from isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI)/toluene diisocyanate (TDI), polyester polyol (N210), dimethlolpropionic acid (DMPA), using deionized water with triethylamine to neutralize and emulsify, then being chained with ethylene diamine (EDA), to obtain WPU adhesives from TDI and IPDI. The structure and properties of different hard segment WPU emulsions and films are investigated by FTIR, Viscosity, Thermo Gravimetric(TG) methods. The NCO contents are analyzed by the quantitative and qualitative analysis methods. It is shown that with the reaction in process, the NCO group content is gradually reduced, and it takes at least 200min to reach the theoretical value. WPU adhesives from TDI and IPDI emulsions are more stable, transparent, and the solvent resistance is better when the contents of DMPA are 3.0%(W/W) and 8.0%(W/W), respectively; Under these conditions, the viscosity can reach 2000mPa·s and 6950mPa·s, respectively. Both WPU films from TDI and IPDI have good thermal stability, and the thermal decomposition temperatures are 350.8℃ and 295.0℃, respectively. WPU from IPDI has higher mechanical strength, with tensile strength of 3.37MPa. The overall performance of WPU adhesive prepared by IPDI is better than that by TDI.

Determination of Trace Element Phosphorus in 23Co14Ni12Cr3MoE Ultrahigh Strength Steel

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 74-76. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 473 )
To improve the performance of military aircraft, special steels are required in the critical components, with ultrahigh strength, high toughness and improved resistance to stress-corrosion cracking. The past several decades saw an extensive interest in the structure and mechanical properties of cobalt-nickel secondary hardening ultrahigh strength steels, which led to the successful development of Hy180, AF1410, AerMet100. AerMet100(23Co14Ni12Cr3MoE) is a super strength steel with high contents of cobalt and nickel with a typical ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 1965MPa. The contents of impurity elements in this alloy are less than a tenth percent. In this article, a method for the determination of trace amounts of phosphorus (P) is described. The trace P is determinated by "butyl acetate extraction spectrometric method", which is a method without separation, of one step extraction, with good accuracy and precision, and with detection limit of 0.001%, RSD<30%. The method has been applied to the determination of P in 23Co14Ni12Cr3MoE steel with satisfactory results.

Glow Discharge Plasma Electrolysis of 1-propanol Solutions

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 77-81. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 631 )
The glow discharge plasma electrolysis of 1-propanol solutions is studied in this paper by GC-MS, GC and optical emission spectroscopy. It is shown that the gas and liquid products of the reactions induced by the glow discharge plasmas mainly include hydrogen, monoxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, water, carbon dioxide, formaldehyde, benzene, and toluene. The kinds of the gas products and the yields of the products are mainly affected by the discharge voltage and discharge current. The decomposition of 1-propanol molecules is induced by the glow discharge plasmas around the discharge electrode, similar to those induced by the corona plasmas and dielectric discharge plasmas. Non-faradic phenomena related with the glow discharge electrolysis of the 1-propanol solutions are caused by the accelerated electrons within the gas sheath around the discharge electrode. Reactive species and electrons excite the 1-propanol molecules on the plasma-electrolyte interface during the cathodic glow discharge, and meanwhile some reactive species are produced. The reactive species mainly contain C3H3, CO+, CH, CH2O, H, H2O+, CH2 and H2O. The bond energy theory is used to analyze the generating paths of the main products.

Parameter Analysis of Fluid Flows in Low-Permeability Reservoirs

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 82-85. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1018 )
Pores are underdeveloped in low-permeability reservoirs, so permeability and productivity of low-permeability reservoirs can be quite low, and the pressure transits at a very low speed. When a pressure gradient is established in low-permeability reservoirs, the response of production takes a long time period. The Darcy law is improved through experimental studies in this paper. As an experimental rule, the Darcy law has limitations in its applications. For conventional reservoirs, this law is appropriate. However, in low-permeability reservoirs the fluid flows are quite different from those in the conventional ones. An improvement of the Darcy law, based only on the threshold pressure can not properly describe the fluid flow in low-permeability reservoirs. A new relation between the permeability, pressure and rate of flow has to be considered and it is established through experimental studies in the paper. The relation is in an explicit expression, which can be used to study the fluid flow in low-permeability conditions.

Volcanic Reservoir Characteristics in Xingcheng Gas Field

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 86-90. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 632 )
The reservoir in Xingcheng gas field has a complex lithology. In order to study the diversity of the capability of reservoirs and to find a most favorable reservoir, this paper analyzes the pore genesis and evolution, the petrosal structural fabric, and the physical properties related with tectonic disturbance, as the controlling factors of the reservoir storage. The results show that reservoir physical properties influence the diagenesis type and development, and tectonic disturbance. The petrosal structural fabric controls diagenesis and the physical properties related with tectonic disturbance. Advantageous petrosal structural fabric is a very important prerequisite for a favorable reservoir formation and is the main controlling factor for volcanic reservoir properties. In the studied area, the favorable reservoir rocks comprise volcanic rubble, rubble lava, and porous rhyolite, where rubble lava is the most important component, volcanic rubble and porous rhyolite take the second place, volcanic agglomerate, tuff, competent rhyolite, and low-porosity rhyolite can hardly be the effective reservoir rocks.

Effect of Electromagnetic Environment on the Performance of Electric Proportional Variable-capacity Pump

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 91-95. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 680 )
In the electromagnetic environments, the mechanical electrical hydraulic control system of engineering machinery's electromagnetic sense organs is susceptible to electromagnetic interference, which will in turn cause failures due to the change of the mechanical electrical hydraulic control system's input and output. According to engineering machinery hydraulic system control principle, based on the study of the structural features and the non-linear magnetic properties of shell materials, this paper analyzes the change of electromagnetism in the proportional solenoid around the output air gap in the electromagnetic environments, the electro-hydraulic proportional variable displacement pump's load sensing control system, the electric-hydraulic proportional control mediation, with respect to the hydraulic system property and affecting factors on the system performance, and proposes a mechanical model of proportional solenoid in the electromagnetic environments. System output performance will be changed by the action of the output force change in the proportional solenoid for the load sensing control component. Using antennas to emit electromagnetic wave to generate the electromagnetic environments, we analyze the proportional solenoid changes on the impact of the variable pump performance in the electromagnetic environments, by testing the electric proportional variable pump's output pressure. Experimental results show that the electric proportional variable pump's output pressure is elevated and the mechanical electrical hydraulic control system's control performance will become unstable. One should improve the anti-jamming capability of electromagnetic sense organs.

Dielectric Loss Measurement Device Based on Hanning Window Interpolation FFT

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 96-100. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 569 )
Dielectric loss is a key indicator, reflecting insulation damping, deterioration or gas discharge of high-voltage electrical equipment insulation. Its accurate measurement is very important for the power system security and economy. According to the technology requirement of high-voltage electrical equipment, this paper has designed a dielectric loss measuring device, with its hardware based on ADS8364 and TMS320F2812. The hardware system is detailed, such as the sampling module and the data-processing module. The Hanning Window FFT Interpolation Algorithm is more advantageous than the traditional FFT algorithm in the dielectric loss measurement, as it can significantly improve the measurement accuracy of results, eliminating effects of spectrum leakage and fence. Therefore, it is used to accurately measure and analysis dielectric loss. Simulation and experimental results show that the device is accurate and stable, which can overcome the interference of the harmonics, frequency fluctuations and the impact of noise.
学术争鸣

Smart Network of Human Power: Construction of a New Type of Electricity Grid and Its Feasibility Analysis

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 104-110. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 564 )
Human power, one of the long neglected renewable and clean energies, is now put on the agenda to face the current serious imbalance between energy supply and demand. For a highly efficient management and utilization of the dispersed, low power electric energy produced by human motion, a new conceptual smart network of human power is proposed in this paper for collecting electric power from each individual at different regions and thus for supplying unique and flexible power to the customers covered in the network, without relying on the conventional electricity grid. The basic strategies to configure and make full use of the human electrical power resources, which are scattered but huge in the total amount, are proposed, based on the computer and information network controlling system. Furthermore, the feasibility of building the new network is evaluated, its features are described and some key technical and scientific issues are discussed. The prospect of developing a future smart network of human power is pointed out. The establishment of this kind of electricity grids would lead to breakthroughs in either fundamental or practical researches in the energy utilization technology

Reviews

A Review of Studies on Inflatable Anchor

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 111-115. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 616 )
Inflatable anchor is a new type of anchor, developed based on the soil-anchor characteristics. Under compressive loading, the soft soil will be greatly deformed. Inflatable anchor makes a full use of this feature of soft soil. This paper discusses the characteristics of inflatable anchor and reviews the present state of development of inflatable anchor, the mechanism of load transferring and the anchoring mechanism. It is shown that the limit tensile load of inflatable anchor is related to many factors, including soil density, soft soil liquidity index, anchor length, inflatable air pressure, rubber thickness, rubber fiction, air inflatable volume and the anchoring depth. Among those factors, the anchor length is the most important. The limit tensile load of inflatable anchor is 4 times of that of helical plate anchor. The limit tensile load in the drainage test is 3~4 times of that in undrainage test. If the air pressure is constant, the limit tensile load varies greatly in different soils. The short anchor (about 100mm in length) will be loaded along the whole shaft. The long anchor (about 300mm in length) will be loaded only in the inflatable part.

Science & Technology Review. 2010, 28 (05): 116-116. ;  doi:
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科技评论

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Focus

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主编心语

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走向职场

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