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   Science & Technology Review
2009, Vol.27, No. 0924
28 December 2009

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卷首语

Pharmaceutical Industry and New Drug Discovery of China in the Financial Crisis

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 1-1. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 433 )
特别栏目

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 440 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 445 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 12-13. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 444 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 14-14. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 465 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 15-15. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 442 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 16-16. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 466 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 17-17. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 452 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 93-93. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 449 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 101-101. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 430 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 115-116. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 453 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 117-140. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 466 )
封面图片说明

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 436 )
半月科技风云

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 9-9. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 520 )
科技事件

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 11-11. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 445 )
科技工作者建议

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 18-18. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 487 )
Exclusive

Optical Fiber and Charge Coupled Device: Brief Introduction of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 19-22. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1545 )
The brief introduction of the three winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2009 and their inventions (optical fiber and charge coupled device(CCD)) are given. The structures, working principles and applications of the optical fiber and CCD have been described. The Nobel Prize in Physics in the hundred years not only enhanced our understanding to the world and the universe (such as quantum theory, relativity and the model of universe), but also changed our daily life (such as X-ray, radio technology, discovery and research of the superconductivity, discovery and research of the cosmic inicrowave background radiation). Optical fiber and CCD have been joined our daily life and will play very important role.

Story of Ribosome Structure: Brief Introduction of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 23-28. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 2223 )
This year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to three protein crystallographers, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath, for their studies of the structure and function of the ribosome. The high resolution ribosome structures not only provide us with deep and precise understanding of the molecular mechanism of in vivo protein synthesis, but also lay the foundation for structure-based novel antibiotics designs. Ada E. Yonath's persistent pioneering work for more than 10 years on ribosome crystallization has made it possible to conduct high resolution structural and functional studies in the whole field of ribosome.

Discovery of Telomeres and Telomerase: Brief Introduction of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 29-33. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 567 )
The 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to Dr. Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak for their discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase. Telomere is a specific structure of chromosomal termini composed of a series of DNA repeats, to protect the stability and integrity of chromosome. Depending on an intrinsic RNA template, telomerase synthesizes telomere DNA, and maintains the length of telomere. The discovery of telomere and telomerase has solved a long-standing fundamental problem in biology: how can the end of chromosomes be maintained and spared from erosion during repeated cellular divisions. The discovery has a deep influence on biological and biochemical research, and has provided insights into our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of aging, aging related diseases and cancers.

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 34-36. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 479 )
Articles

Properties of Conductive Fluid Sol Used in Blackout Ammunition

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 37-40. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 526 )
An ammunition against power systems based on the mechanism of high-voltage flashover is proposed. The essential properties of the damaging elements (conductive fluid sol) are discussed, including electrical conductivity, anti-removal property, flashover property, long-term storage property and high/low temperature stability. The sample of conductive fluid sol is trial-manufactured with the modified acrylic resin as binder and silver-plating copper particles as conductive filler. The effects of the relative amounts of filler, thinner and coupling agents on the electrical conductivity are analyzed. In view of the physical and chemical properties, it is shown that the sample enjoys good performance. The simulation damage test shows that the sample has a good damage property against insulator and the conductive fluid sol has a promising prospect. The results lay a foundation for further researches.

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 41-45. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 649 )
This paper discusses the particle composition and distribution in cement with large volume of fly ash and their influences on the mechanical property of the cement. Through changing the grinding time and the content of fly ash adulterated into the cement, different samples of fly ash cement are obtained. The relation between the particle distribution and the mechanical property of the cement is analyzed by using the grey correlation analysis method, and the mechanical property of the cement could then be improved with the optimization of the particle distribution. The results show that for the same kind of cement, with different grinding time, the particle zones that dominate the strength of the cement varied; for cement of different compositions, with the same grinding time, the effective particle zones that dominate the mechanical property of the cement also much varied.

Comparison Analysis of Mini-oil Layer of Complex Structures on Oil Reservoir of Multi-faultage

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 46-50. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 708 )
The dynamic analysis of oil reservoir is important both in theory and in practice. According to a comparison analysis, the faults of mini-oil layers on complex structures and the multi-faults of oil reservoir would make the production-injection relation of the oil and water wells and the block completion degree unclear and wouls even have thorny effects on the whole geological research. The dynamic analysis, a new approach of perfecting the comparison method on the oil layers is carried out for an example for the comparison analysis on the mini-oil layers of the western fourth section of the oil extraction area of Fuyu in Jilin oilfield in this paper. The multi-wells are analyzed to discover faults betimes by adopting conventional comparison on the oil layers and considering the position of the geological formation, the tendency of geological formation and the drilling geologic logging data. The analysis results of three-dimensional seismic data show that the drilling faults and the neighborhood fault wells are consistent basically with the comparison analysis on the mini-oil layers of 728 new wells, especially, the fourteen drilling meeting faultage wells from 1984. The comparison methods of the oil layers are further improved for the further development of oil fields to obtain the relationship between the production-injection of the oil and water wells, which may provide a guide for practical work in the oil field.

Incidence of Bronchitis in Haixizhou Region Based on the Asymmetric ARCH Model

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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 51-55. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1378 )
Based on the theory of the asymmetric ARCH model, the ARCH, TARCH-M, EGARCH and EGARCH-M models are established to study the relationship between the monthly incidence rate of bronchitis and the average temperature in Haixizhou Region. The EViews software is used for statistical analysis of the data of registered cases of bronchitis and the average temperature in Haixizhou Region, Qinghai Province, at the same time, the independence tests and forecasts for the residue series are carried out to validate the established models. The optimized model, TARCH(1, 1)-M model, is obtained. The results show that this model can be best used to describe the relationship between the monthly incidence rate of bronchitis and the average temperature, to simulate the variation trend of the monthly incidence rate and to predict the future incidence trend, with a high prediction precision.

Global Spatial Statistics of the Territory of China

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 56-60. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 565 )
In view of describing the territory of China as a whole from a statistical perspective, this paper gives an estimate of the global spatial characteristics of the territory of China using global spatial statistics (or statistics of spatial distribution). A design-and pattern-based method of spatial sampling, or the global spatial random sampling, is proposed, and applied to the China's Digital Elevation Model (DEM, 1 : 4 000 000). The parameters of the spatial pattern, including the center of gravity, orientation, geographical range and spatial intensity, are estimated for the DEM, which is decomposed into a terrain surface and a geometric outline. The results demonstrate that both the surface and the outline differ remarkably in the center of gravity, orientation, geographical scope and spatial intensity, revealing the complexity of the territory of China on the global surface; the small margins of errors show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed pattern- and design-based approach of spatial sampling.

Effects of Natural Medicine Turkish Gall and the Union Fluorine on Caries Development in Rats

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 61-66. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 592 )
Based on the experimental observation of animal, the effects of the natural medicines Turkish gall and the union fluorine on dental caries prevention are studied. To provide a basis for the natural medicine to be used for the prevention of dental caries, SPF-SD rats infected with Streptococcus mutans were selected. The caries 2000#, with distilled water, infusion Turkish gall, NaF and CHX solution, as well as the Turkish gall+NaF mixture, respectively, were applied to 5 groups of rats by painting their mouth. The collected rat saliva was cultured, the levels of Streptococcus mutans and dental caries score of Keyes were recorded to see the effects of Turkish gall on the rat growth and reproduction of Streptococcus mutans in their mouth and to evaluate the effects of drugs in inhibiting the formation of caries. The results show that (1) Streptococcus mutans level: as compared with the distilled water, there is a decrease to different extents for all strains, but only for NaF and CHX groups there is a significant difference (P<0.05); (2) caries scores of Keyes: the experimental groups of drugs all show some inhibition effects on the formation of dental caries in rats in varying degrees, of which Turkish gall shows good effects on sulcal-surface and smooth-surface caries (P<0.05), but they are all lower than the NaF group; Turkish gall+NaF group has no obvious role in the synergistic inhibition of caries. The natural medicine Turkish gall inhibits rat oral Streptococcus mutans growth and metabolism, which effectively prevents the occurrence of dental caries.

530 Cases of Microsurgery for the Congenital Neural Tube Deformans

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 67-69. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 659 )
To discuss the therapeutic effect of microsurgery for the Congenital Neural Tube Deforman (CNTD), the clinical data of 530 cases in examinations of nervous system and MRI were considered. The microsurgical treatment for the congenital neural tube deforman was performed in all cases and the therapeutic effectiveness after operation was graded according to the physical improvement of the patients: excellent, effective, ineffective and aggravation. The degree of untethering after microsurgery based on Kirollos grading system is used for assessment. The results are as follows: Grade I in 518 cases (97.7%), Grade II in 12cases (2.2%), Grade III in 0 cases (0%). The short term curative effectiveness in 530 patients is as follows: excellent for 112 cases (21.1%), improved for 410 cases (77.4%), not changed for 6 cases (1.1%) and aggravated for 2 case (0.3%). It is concluded that microsurgical release may be the only therapy for CNTD.

Influence of Passenger Waiting Time on the Energy Consumption of Escalators in Railway Stations

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 70-75. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 565 )
Our research is based on the Little Formula and the classical queuing model of multi-channel M|D|n. The escalator allocation and the influencing factors of the energy consumption are studied. The relations between the average queue length, the maximum waiting time and the escalator service intensity are obtained. The waiting time simulation model is built. The passenger delivery data at a railway station in China is used. With the probability distribution model of waiting time, an analysis is made on the escalator allocation, power and energy consumption on three kinds of working days, that is, holidays, ordinary working days and the largest-passengers-volume days. Meanwhile, the fixed and variable energy consumption rates for different waiting times are compared. For example, the waiting time can take values of 5, 10 and 30 seconds. The result shows that the waiting time settings affect the allocation of the escalators and the energy consumption of the escalators. The fixed energy consumption takes 70% of the whole. Variable energy consumption takes 30%.
Reviews

Evaluation of Anti-tactical Ballistic Missile Operation

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 76-80. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 571 )
Anti-Tactical Ballistic Missile (ATBM) operation is one of the important operational modes in future air defense. The evaluation of an ATBM system is essential for the development and deployment of relevant weapons and equipment. First, the relation between operational effectiveness and operational capability of a weapon system is analyzed. The operational capability refers to the performance of a weapon system, and is a static concept. The operational effectiveness refers to the capability of completing a mission, and is a dynamic concept. But if the operational capability includes the operational course, it is also a dynamic concept. Second, the traditional and newly developed operational capability evaluation methods are analyzed, including the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional methods. The basic idea and applications of the new methods are discussed.

Recent Progresses in Plasma Flow Control

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 81-85. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 861 )
Plasma is one of newly emerging aerodynamic flow control technologies, with advantages of no moving parts and a short response time, which will become a new research field of great importance in the aerodynamics and plasma physics. This paper reviews the recent progresses in plasma flow control, including DC corona discharge, one atmosphere uniform glow discharge, and surface dielectric barrier discharge. At present, the surface discharge is commonly employed to control plasma flow, which concerns a weakly ionization discharge for low electric fields and the technology of "ion wind" does not have breakthroughs, so the maximum induced neutral gas velocity is only 8 m/s, without any useful value. The pulsed-periodic nanosecond excitation surface dielectric barrier discharge shows a higher efficiency for flow control, and becomes a promising research direction on plasma flow control. But the duty cycle of pulsed-periodic nanosecond is small, so it is still an issue worth to be explored for a small duty cycle to produce a great action efficiency. The plasma flow control techniques are of practical value, it is necessary to increase the velocity of controlled air flow up to over 100 m/s. Therefore, it is necessary to solve the problems in plasma actuators. An urgent problem needs to be solved in the field of plasma flow control is to improve the performance of plasma actuators based on studies on the mechanism of plasma flow control.

Advances of Studies on Electromagnetism Shielding Fabric

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 86-91. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 715 )
The harm of electromagnetic radiation is discussed, in particularly, the harm of electromagnetic radiation in the modern warfare, to reveal the significance of developing EMS (electromagnetic shielding) materials. The shielding mechanisms in different conditions, the species and the characteristics of the EMS fabric materials are described. The preparation technologies of various EMS fabric materials, the metal-coating fabric, surface-spreading fabric, affixed foil metal fabric and blended fabric, are analyzed, including the advantages and disadvantages and their present status. The development trend of EMS fabric materials is pointed out.

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 92-92. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 479 )
Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 94-95. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 542 )
科技评论

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 96-96. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 502 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 97-97. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 439 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 98-98. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 99-99. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 100-100. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 462 )
主编心语

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 101-101. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 450 )
走向职场

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 102-102. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 482 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 103-103. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 471 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 104-108. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 486 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0924): 109-113. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 483 )

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