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   Science & Technology Review
2009, Vol.27, No. 0923
13 December 2009

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卷首语

Chinese Leisure Studies Should be Emphasized

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 1-1. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 482 )
特别栏目

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 435 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 448 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 12-13. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 14-14. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 15-15. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 16-16. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 17-17. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 439 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 117-117. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 125-125. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 419 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 139-140. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 415 )
封面图片说明

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 451 )
半月科技风云

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 9-9. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 530 )
科技事件

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 11-11. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 470 )
科技工作者建议

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 18-18. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 472 )
Articles

Genesis Feature and Identification of High Permeability Pathways in Conglomerate Reservoir in High Water Cut Stage

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 19-27. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1252 )
The reservoir of Triassic-Permian strata in the north-west zone of Zhungar basin is a pluvial fan and sand-conglomerate reservoir, and the genesis causes of its high-permeability pathways are discussed in this paper. From the genesis and identifications of pluvial fan glutenite high-permeability pathways, 8 types of high-permeability pathways are found in the glutenite reservoir. In the middle and later stages of development, there are static and dynamic factors for injection-production controlling high-permeability pathways, which are sedimentary micro facies, micro fracture network, diagenesis uncompaction, support glutenite structure, and which induce hydraulic fracture, grain motion, depositional interface, unconformable interface etc., developing characteristics of high-permeability pathways with water intake capacity more than adjacent beds, and injection-production formation pressure enhanced apparently. Because of high-permeability pathway generation,injection-water can not drive oil effectively, which is the reason of bad productivity. This paper provides a geological basis to understand the characteristics of high-permeability pathways and to identify them.

Study on Microcosmic Mechanism of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery by Hydrocarbon Oxidizing Bacteria

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 28-31. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 605 )
In this paper, a microcosmic physical simulation system was established by transparent micro-model to study the mechanisms of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR). Two hydrocarbon oxidizing strains (Rhodococcus ruber Z25 and Bacillus cereus Z31) were employed. The rules of water-flooding process and distribution of residual crude oil were obtained by water-flooding experiment. The main residual oil located in the surface and the blind zones of porous media in the form of constant oil phase. After the cultivation of the microorganisms, zoogloea was observed in the interface between aqueous and oil phase. The residual oil was incised into pieces and the structure of the oil was totally destroyed. Therefore, the post water-flooding had performed efficiently in displacing the residual oil due to the metabolic activities of the microorganisms. The main effects on EOR process and the oil-displacing mechanisms by hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria were studied, which would contribute to the potential application of MEOR in the pilot test.

Lithologic and Lithofacies Characteristics of Volcanic Rock and Their Controlling Effects on Reservoirs of Changling Fault

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 32-40. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 546 )
The Changling fault depression is the largest fault depression in the south of Songliao Basin. The deep formation in the depression with a low exploration degree contains abundant hydrocarbon resources, where volcanic rocks are distributed extensively, as a good reservoir of oil and gasses. According to core observation, thin section identification and integration of well log and 2D/3D seismic data, the Yingcheng formation and Huoshiling formation are rich in volcanic rocks, mainly consisting of lava and pyroclastic rocks. 5 types of volcanic lithofacies and 11 types of volcanic subfacies such as explosive facies, overflow facies, volcanic conduit facies, extrusive facies and eruptive-sedimentary facies can be identified, which are mainly overflow facies and explosive facies. The volcanic rocks in the depression are distributed along big deep faults and superimposed by many times of volcanic eruption in the vertical direction in models of eruption of both central type and fissure type. And three volcanic eruption cycles can be identified in the Yingcheng formation. Statistics show that the rhyolite in the lower part and the upper part subfacies of overflow as well as the tuff in pyroclastic flow subfacies of explosive have many gas pores, solution pores and fractures, which may serve as a good reservoir.

Uncertainties of climate warming for the last 100 years

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 41-48. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 609 )
There are the uncertainties and gaps in knowledge for the recent climate warming, especially in the special region such as China. The uncertainties of climate warming in China came from both lack of the observed data for the first half of the 20th century and urbanization progress (heat island effects) for the second half of the 20th century that might be contributed by the 25% of the total warming. The climate warming in China for the last 50 years was not only contributed by the human activity, but also by the urbanization, the natural periodicity and decadal variability, dimming and brightening, as well as other forcing such as solar activity, volcanic activity and interactions inside climate system.. The fractional uncertainties of the future climate prediction and projections vary due to internal variability, climate model uncertainty and scenario uncertainty. The reliability of climate change prediction and projections in China for the next decades will be low. More research should be conducted in future for narrowing the uncertainties.

Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Nutrients in Liaocheng, Shandong Province

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 49-52. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 566 )
By 8km × 8km grid, the land was divided into 136 sampling points in Liaocheng city. The contents of soil organic matter, total N, total P and total K were monitored. Geostatistics method and Moran’s I of spatial autocorrelation method were used to analyze the spatial features of soil nutrients. Study shows that, the spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients’ content changes mainly by random factors, for example, human activities such as irrigation, fertilization, cultivation measures, cropping systems, etc. The spatial correlation of the soil nutrients’ content is very weak. On the whole, there is an obvious spatial distribution of the four soil nutrients which gradually declines from the eastern and southern to the western and northern part of Liaocheng city. In the scope of the 40km, Moran's I coefficients of four kinds of soil nutrients are positive which shows a positive spatial correlation. The response of organic matter on the scale is more sensitive than that of other three nutrients. The change of Moran's I of total N and total P is similar, but Moran's I coefficient of total K outside the scope of 64km performs the volatility in the vicinity of 0, which may be related to the local agricultural activities.

Application of Distributed Neuron PID in Synchronous Controlling of an Unbalanced System

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 53-56. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1395 )
The hydraulic turnover mechanism, using a dual cylinder hinge, is an advanced blade mould closing equipment of high technologies, mostly used for megawatt class wind blades above 40 meters, where more than three mechanisms are arranged along one blade mould at the same time. Obviously, there will be an unbalanced load on each mechanism due to the irregular shape of moulds and the inaccurate installing locations. The synchronous performance of multiple rotating arms, during a large-angle rotating process, directly influences the service life of blade moulds and the production quality of wind blades. For the turnover mechanism to enjoy high reliability, adaptability and control accuracy, a new control method using the distributed single neuron PID algorithm is proposed for a synchronous control of angular displacement of rotating arms. An improved LMS algorithm is used in the learning process, and the gain of the neuron output is adjusted automatically by the neuron based on the motion analysis results. Through rotating motion analysis with iterations, some basic parameters are determined, and a mechanical and hydraulic combined simulation model in AMESim is established, including a planar mechanical model. The LabVIEW subprogram of neuron PID could be run through dynamic shared memory simultaneously. Finally, the results of traditional PID and neuron PID are shown in the same plot. It is shown through simulation results as well as practical applications that this method enjoys a good control accuracy for nonlinear and time variant unbalanced systems.

A 1.5 V Low-power Rail-to-Rail CMOS Operational Amplifier with Constant-gm

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 57-61. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 535 )
Operational amplifier is a basic device, most widely used in the analog integrated circuits. With the reduction of the system power consumption and with a low power supply voltage, the traditional operational amplifier can not meet the requirements of the large input common-mode range and the wide output swing under a low voltage. The rail-to-rail operational amplifier can meet these requirements. But the trans-conductance of the traditional rail-to-rail operational amplifier is not constant. A 1.5 V low-power CMOS rail-to-rail operational amplifier is designed in this paper. A minimum current selection circuit is adopted in the input stage to achieve constant-gm so that the trans-conductance is not independent of the ideal square law model, and the MOSFET transistors can work not only in a strong inversion region but also in a weak inversion region. A feed-forward class AB output stage is used to ensure that the current of the output transistors to be controlled precisely and the output swing reaches rail to rail. In the operational amplifier, an improved compact circuit structure is adopted to reduce the noise and the offset of the operational amplifier. The circuit is simulated by using SMIC 0.18 ?滋m process model and Hspice simulation software. The simulation results show that the DC gain is 83.2 dB, the unity gain bandwidth is 7.76 MHz, and the phase margin is 63° when the circuit is driving a load capacitance of 2pF and a load resistance of 10 kΩ. The input common-mode range and the output swing both reach rail to rail, and the variation of the gm is only 2.49%. The common-mode rejection ratio and the power supply rejection ratio of the circuit are both high. The circuit operates normally in a low voltage of 1.5 V, and the static power consumption is only 0.24 mW.

Research of 3mm Wave Radiation Characteristic by Using Neural Network Inversion Method

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 62-65. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 561 )
The relationship between the passive detecting system's antenna temperature and the apparent temperature can be expressed by a morbid integral equation. A dynamic approximation method for the inversion of the apparent temperature based on the antenna temperature is proposed, by solving a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. The passive detector in this paper is 3 mm Dicke radiometer. Firstly, different objects and backgrounds are measured by the radiometer to obtain the antenna temperature. Secondly, with the introduction of the factor of radiation temperature and the factor weight of the apparent temperature, the dynamic approximation method is formulated by using BP neural network. Finally, the effect factors on the apparent temperature are analyzed based on the above method. The relevant antenna temperature can be obtained by the measurement directly. The curve of temperature factors can be used to calculate the apparent temperature of objects easily to obtain the objects' radiation characteristics. The above approximation method can be used in the study of millimeter wave radiation characteristics.

The Approximate Solution of a Nonlinear Oscillation by a Method of Linearization and Correction

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 66-69. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 616 )
The nonlinear problems are frequently found in practical engineering. Among the common methods applied for these problems are the multiple scale method, the integral calculus method, the average method, and the homotopy method, but they have very limited capability in real applications. The nonlinear oscillations of the Duffing equations are studied by means of the method of linearization and correction, and the approximate solutions are compared with the exact solutions. With Maple 9.0, the curves of the period, the absolute error and the relative error are plotted against the parameter . It is concluded that the period decreases and the relative error increases with the increase of parameter ; as compared to the exact solution, the approximate solution is simple, with high accuracy and lower relative error. So the method of linearization and correction is very useful in solving problems of nonlinear oscillations.

Isolation and Functional Determination of Fructan Biosynthesis Enzyme Encoding Gene 6-SFT from Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 70-75. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1313 )
Previous studies have shown the relevance of fructans deposit to plant tolerance to abiotic stresses. In this study, 6-SFT, a fructan biosynthesis enzyme encoding gene, was isolated from hexaploid wheat to reveal the resistance mechanism against adverse environmental factors and to provide a theoretical basis for future transgenic researches in wheat. Touch-down PCR was adopted to isolate the gene coding for fructan biosynthesis enzyme, sucrose: fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT), from common wheat cv. Yangmai 6 genome DNA (gDNA) and complementary DNA (cDNA). Relevant bioinformatics assay on 6-SFT gene was performed online and its ability to resist abiotic stresses was confirmed in transgenic tobacco plants obtained by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation approach. The results show that the gDNA and cDNA of 6-SFT are 3 134 bp and 1 851 bp, respectively, containing four exons and three introns and encoding a protein with a MW of about 68 kD. The isoelectric point (pI) is 5.25 with potential vacuole-directed signal peptide (TLPI). Positive transgenic tobacco lines are confirmed through traditional PCR detection and ELISA assay, showing high tolerance to drought, salinity and low temperature stress. This study provides a theoretical platform for the improvement of tolerance to adverse environmental stresses through subsequent transgenic pathway in wheat.

The Gene Polymorphism of ACE, eNOS, FVII and ICAM-1 Genes in Uighur Patients with Coronary Heart Disease in Xinjiang

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 76-81. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 528 )
The gene polymorphism of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene, Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) gene, coagulation Factor VII (FVII) gene and Intercellular Cell Adhesion Molecules-1 (ICAM-1) in Uighur patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) in Xinjiang are studied in this paper. The four types of genes related to CHD are compared to each other by using polymerized chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 124 cases of CHD Uighur patients and 50 healthy subjects as verified by diagnosis. The results show that there are no significant differences in genotype distribution and allele frequencies of ACE gene, FVII gene, ICAM-1 gene in Uighur patients with CHD when compared to healthy subjects (P>0.05). There are significant differences in genotype distribution and allele frequencies of eNOS gene in Uighur patients with CHD when compared to healthy subjects (P<0.05). There is no correlation in genotype distribution and allele frequencies of ACE gene, FVII gene, ICAM-1 gene in Uighur patients with CHD in Xinjiang. Significant correlation is discovered in genotype distribution and allele frequencies of eNOS gene in Uighur patients with CHD in Xinjiang

Effects of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi on Alcohol Content in Blood and Activity of Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH) of Animals After Drinking Alcohol

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 82-85. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 594 )
To observe the effect of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi on relief of alcohol toxicity by animal experiments, female NIH mice were ovariectomized and randomly divided into 5 groups. The animal models of acute alcoholism were duplicated by force-feeding them with liquor "er guo tou". The influence of aqueous extract of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwion on the alcohol concentration in blood within 0.5~3 hours was studied by methods of biochemistry. The alcohol concentration in blood took the highest value in 0.5~1.5 hours. Compared to the model group, the alcohol concentration in blood for the group of aqueous extract of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi is decreased in 0.5~3 hours; the activity of ADH in the liver is increased in 2~3 hours (P>0.05), while it is significantly increased in the first 0.5~1 hours (P<0.05). The aqueous extract of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi could reduce the alcohol concentration in blood of animals after being fed with alcohol and increase the activity of ADH. It relieves alcohol toxicity and prevents drunkenness by restraining the absorption of alcohol in the gastrointestinal tract and promoting the metabolism of alcohol in the liver.

Study on Ethanol Microbial Sensing System

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 86-91. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1316 )
The determination of ethanol content finds fairly wide applications in different fields, such as clinical, pharmaceutical, liquor, beverage and fermentation industries. An accurate determination of the concentration of ethanol is of great significance for the control of production targets during the fermentation process and the quality assurance for children's drinks. The method of microbial sensor for the ethanol determination is a simple, rapid, accurate, inexpensive and tracking detection method. This study is to find a strain of ethanol-oxidizing bacteria (Methylobacterium sp.) with greater specificity, to determine the best method for the microbial immobilization, and finally to construct a micro-alcohol test system by combining immobilized cell with dissolved oxygen electrode, as a simple, non-toxic method, which can be used for the determination of micro-samples. The selected ethanol-oxidizing bacteria is immobilized with the PVA-alginate sol-gel entrapment method, which is conducive to the growth of microbial cells. The immobilized small balls with good air permeability and high mechanical strength are prepared, which can be repeatedly used and easily be unloaded. The mechanical strength and the permeability of immobilized particles are studied. Optimized conditions of immobilization are determined by comparing different methods and materials. The best result is: 10% polyvinyl alcohol, 1.5% sea alginic acid sodium, 4% CaCl2, and 4% boric acid solution. Effects of the sensing system are tested, including temperature, pH, salt ion concentration, retention time and so on. The linear response to the ethanol of this system is 0.002%~0.2% (V/V), with relative standard deviation of 6.3%. It is shown that the system is suitable for detection of trace ethanol, with advantages including high-precision, nontoxic, fast-response, convenient, low-cost and good reproducibility.

Some Issues in the Study of the Emergency Plan of Advanced Reactors

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 92-95. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 528 )
Emergency planning is an important component in the strategy of defense in-depth for nuclear safety. As far as the current nuclear power plants in operation over the world are concerned, enhanced safety features are integrated in the design of advanced reactors. For example, their probabilities of occurrence of severe accidents are very low. The time delay before the release of radioactivity into the environment after the initiation of an accident would be considerably long. Based in part on such considerations, the nuclear industry expects that nuclear safety authorities would take this into account when making decisions about emergency planning of advanced reactors. Preferably, the current relevant requirements concerning emergency planning could be relaxed when applied to advanced reactors, and the emergency planning be simplified. This paper presents first the general approach currently used to estimate the size of emergency planning zone. Then the current status of studies on emergency planning of advanced reactors is reviewed. Finally, important issues which should be carefully investigated in the decision making of emergency planning of advanced reactors are discussed.

Technical Patterns and Incentive Policies for Energy Saving and Emission Mitigation in the Paddy Field in China

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 96-100. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 880 )
Rice is the most important grain crop in China, and the paddy field is one of the main sources of methane (CH4). It is essential that we should sustain the increase of rice yield under the energy-saving condition and at the same time limiting the emission of methane. This paper reviews the studies on direct/indirect energy-saving and emission-mitigating in the paddy field, emphasizing their importance to food security, soil quality improvement and prosperity of farmer's living standards. The comprehensive effects of conservational farming system, infiltrating irrigation and efficient fertilization on energy-saving and emission-mitigation are assessed. Three types of rice cropping systems with energy-saving and emission-mitigation are identified in the context of the characteristics of Chinese rice cropping regions, and some incentive policies are suggested in view of energy-saving and emission-mitigation in high yield rice production. More attentions should be paid to technology support system, as well as the construction of ecological compensation mechanism for energy-saving and emission mitigation. Moreover, some measures should be taken to cultivate the awareness of rice producers on energy saving and emission reduction in high yield rice production.
Reviews

Development Status and Trend of Sounding Rocket

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 101-110. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 635 )
Sounding rocket is the only method for near space field detection, an effective method for middle and upper atmosphere stereo profile detection and microgravity scientific experiment, and also a verification platform for the new payloads and their new technology, devices and materials. Currently, sounding rocket is widely used in the domain of space weather forecast, middle and upper atmospheric research, near space environment research, materials processing under conditions of microgravity, high-altitude biology and earth resources exploration. Sounding rocket has irreplaceable advantages and functions. This paper gives an overview of the scientific status of the sounding rocket and its development and application situation both at home and abroad, with an emphasis on the research and application status of America, Japan, Europe and China, analyzes and summarizes the development trend of sounding rocket and proposes that Chinese rocket sounding technology must be developed with greater efforts, more rocket sounding activities should be organized, such as direct detection for the middle and upper atmosphere and ionosphere, short-term flight test for the space payloads and components, microgravity experiments, and space life science experiments, innovative flight tests into space, to improve the capacity and level of rocket sounding, make Chinese rocket sounding career step out of valley, and provide economic and effective methods for the development of Chinese space detection technology.

Modulation of Apoptotic Effects in Host Cells During Mycobacterial Tuberculosis Infection

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 111-115. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 590 )
Tuberculosis, one of the major infectious diseases worldwide, is caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) infection. There are around one-third of the world's population is latently infected. In recent years, the tuberculosis control situation is even grimmer along with the multi-drug resistant MTB and HIV epidemic. MTB is a highly adapted human pathogen that has evolved with multiple strategies in its attempt to avoid an efficient host immune response. Apoptosis is an ancient immune defense response to intracellular pathogens in both plant and animal kingdoms. This paper reviews the current progresses in the field of interaction between mycobacteria and host cells regarding the induction of host cell death by apoptosis. It is believed that MTB can modulate macrophage apoptosis through a variety of ways, by either inducing or inhibiting apoptosis after infection. However, the molecular mechanisms of host cell apoptosis induction or inhibition are still not well understood. Therefore, the identification of apoptosis-related genes in the genome of MTB is necessary to investigate the details of this host-pathogen interaction and may be useful for the development of new drug targets and/or vaccine candidates.

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 116-116. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 496 )
Focus

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科技评论

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 120-120. ;  doi:
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主编心语

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 125-125. ;  doi:
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走向职场

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0923): 126-126. ;  doi:
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