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   Science & Technology Review
2009, Vol.27, No. 0918
28 September 2009

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Academic Community Should Play Basic Role inImproving Academic Appraisal

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 3-3. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 12-13. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 14-14. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 15-15. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 16-16. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 17-17. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 116-116. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 117-117. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 139-140. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 9-9. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 11-11. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 18-18. ;  doi:
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Debate on the Priority Development of the Space Shuttle or the Manned Spacecraft During the Decision Making of China's Manned Space Program

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 19-27. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 785 )
This paper discusses the debate on the priority development of the space shuttle or the manned spacecraft during the formulation of the China's manned space program. The National High Technology Research and Development Program ("863" program) of China included the manned space flight project, but it's primary purpose is a technology tracking, rather than a construction project. In the later 1980's, a discussion was organized on the shuttle or the manned spacecraft as the priority approach in China's manned aerospace development. Affected by the USA space shuttle achievement, there are quite many experts and departments tend to give priority to the development of the space shuttle. With more in-depth researches, the viewpoint of giving priority to the spacecraft ultimately prevailed. According to China's national conditions, time and cost factors, technological accumulations as well as the degrees of difficulty, in 1992, in the manned space program, the state takes the manned spacecraft as the first step of China's manned space flight. The decision-making is correct in view of the later development of shuttles. This major policy was based on a wide range of prior researches, analyses and discussions.

Improved Image Compression Method Based on Wavelet Transform and Its Application

PU Yakun;CONG Shuang
Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 28-32. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 784 )
The lifting scheme is a new bi-orthogonal wavelet constructing method, which can effectively reduce wavelet run time. The Embedded Zero-tree Wavelet (EZW) coding algorithm makes a full use of data distribution characteristics after wavelet transform, can realize progressive image transmission and is one of the most effective image coding methods. Yet, in the EZW algorithm, low-frequency and high-frequency data are coded by the same process, which would result in the loss of more important low-frequency data in the case of a high compression ratio. Significant loss of low-frequency data would lead to a poor recovery image quality. Furthermore, the EZW algorithm has problems of space complexity as well as temporal complexity. In view of those problems, this paper proposes three improvement methods. First, the low-frequency data are adjusted to the range of [0, 255] and then are saved directly. Second, a marking matrix is set up to track the coding position, instead of the dominant table and subsidiary table in the original process. Meanwhile, the dominant and subsidiary scans are carried out for each important coefficient simultaneously. Last, one more bit of precision to the important coefficients is added in the process of the subsidiary scan. The improved EZW and the integer lifting wavelet transform are combined and applied to a practical remote vision control system of a robot arm. The two results of image compression based separately on wavelet transform and DCT are compared and the proposed method shows better performance on both the recovery image quality and running time.

Development and Application of a Performance Evaluation System for Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Shield

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 33-37. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 754 )
The importance of a Meteoroid/Orbital Debris (M/OD) shield is analyzed and the framework of a performance evaluation system for M/OD shield is given. Based on the analysis of the shield performance for different shield parameters and impact parameters, the influences of shield spacing, thickness of wall, impact velocities and impact angles on the shield performance are discussed. The shield performance of the Whipple shield is not influenced by shield spacing, when the impact velocities are less than 3 km/s, but significant influence of shield spacing is evident when the impact velocities are at the range of v>3 km/s. Better shield performance is found in thicker shield. The ballistic limit curves have three different trends. The critical projectile diameter increases with impact velocities at the range of v≤3 km/s or v≥7 km/s, and decreases with impact velocities at the range of 3 km/s<v<7 km/s. Namely, the shield performance sees three different trends with the impact velocities ranging from 0 to 15 km/s. And better performance is expected with larger impact angle. A design method for Corrugated Stuffed Whipple shield (CSW) is given. The results of analysis show that shield performance for CSW improves with increase of corrugated angle. The shield parameters of CSW are established to protect spacecraft from small orbital debris impact.

Visual Stereo Modeling of Mobile Robot Fighting Platform

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 38-42. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 732 )
Virtual reality technology is widely applied in mobile robot fighting platforms. This will provide the operator the visual telepresence and increase the teleoperation efficiency. The virtual surrounding is a visual stereo space. With applications of corresponding software and algorithms, models for the real environment are built. Based on the basic theory of stereo vision, the camera calibration is established. At the same time, the algorithms of feature extraction, stereo matching and three-dimensional computation are worked out. Some algorithms of three-dimensional modeling suitable to the stereo vision system are proposed. The three-dimensional model is finally displayed through Open Inventor. The result of experiment indicates that the three-dimension modeling system proposed in this paper is practical and can reflect depth information of barriers accurately.

Design and Application of Auto-feeding System for Atomic Force Microscopy Probe

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 43-46. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 743 )
Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), one of the most effective and important means of testing and processing in nanometer technology, is receiving increasing popularity in applications related with nanometer technology. The current trend of development of AFM involves its composite function. Direct observation of the surface of the nano-scale morphology is not the only thing AFM can do, it also supports nanofabrication, biological materials testing and even the mechanical property test for nanostructures. Therefore, design and development of a multifunctional AFM system is becoming a demand. The auto-feeding system, as a part of the whole AFM system, plays a very important role. In this paper, an auto-feeding system for AFM probe is designed, which can be widely used in the independent development of AFM scanning system. It can not only reduce the manufacturing costs of AFM, but also contribute to the extended applications of AFM. Single chip and A/D converter are utilized as its front-end system, and the data collected from A/D is sent to PC through RS-232 serial port, meanwhile, Visual Basic is applied to deal with data analysis and processing, and finally to realize the automatic control of the stepper motor for AFM scanning. The system can work with SIS AFM head stably, and they can provide users the access to personalized multi-function measurements.

Experimental Study on the Internal Flow on Air-modulated Speaker

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 47-54. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 731 )
The Air-Modulated Speaker (AMS) is one of the most popular high-power acoustic sources. High intensity sound waves are generated by the modulation of high speed air stream. Although there should be a close relationship between unsteady flow and acoustic source formation from the aero-acoustic point of view, few studies available concerning the internal flow evolvement inside the source. The velocity fields of 2D AMS steady model were obtained utilizing Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Static pressure measurements of unsteady internal flow were recorded by the flow induced sound monitoring system. Dominant steady flow characteristics were observed including pressure recovery, flow separation on the out wall and alternate appearance of low and high pressure area on the internal wall. Experimental results in the sound energy conversion process show that pressure distribution variation is related to the modulate frequency. The frequency response of the source is affected by many factors such as chamber pressure, input signal strength and some geometry sizes. Flow near the nozzle exit has certain influence on the voice coil vibration. Peak value of the frequency response is between 0.5 and 1 kHz. When the drive current is lower than 10 A, SPL output of AMS increases with the chamber pressure and amplitude of the drive signal. Width of nozzle exit and vocal tract inlet also have evident effects on the performance of AMS. In order to attain a higher SPL value, the acoustic source has to work in the full modulation condition by the proper adjustment of nozzle parameters, and small inlet width for vocal tract is also advantagious. Harmonic components in the distorted pressure are obvious in the source generation zone after the monochromatic modulation. The spectral composition of the distorted signal in the internal flow is coincident with the sound signal in the far field under the same working condition.

Transfer Analysis on of Atmospheric Water Vapor Based on Ground-based GPS During a Rainstorm

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 55-59. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1580 )
Based on the ground-based GPS Precipitable Water vapor(PW) data, weather stations' ground data and NCEP grid reanalysis dataset during the year 2005, the transfer process of water vapor during a summer rainstorm in Yunnan Province from August 22 to 24 in the year 2005 is studied, and the important role of the 3D distribution of the ground-based GPS net is analyzed. It is shown that the correlation between the PW from GPS and the PW from radiosondes is very good. The rapidly changing information of precipitable water vapor can be obtained by ground-based GPS high temporal resolution observations. The rapid change of PW reflects the rapid change of water vapor transfer, which could be used for the monitoring of rainstorm's generation and development. Moreover, the meeting between the cold air mass from northern China and the warm and wet air mass from the Bengal Bay is responsible for this rainstorm. During the rainstorm, the main water vapor is carried to Yunnan Province by Southwestern summer monsoon and northeastern wind. These two water vapor sources both play a very important role for this rainstorm. Transfer of water vapor is mainly centralized on the layers between 850 hPa and 600 hPa. This may be the low-level air flow blocked by the mountains. Additionally, the gaps between the terrains are very large in southwestern China. The 3D distribution ground-based GPS net is a good instrument for monitoring the water vapor channel in this region, which makes up for the fact that an individual ground-based site can not detect the atmospheric water vapor at different altitudes

Statistical Analysis of 48 Year's Rainfall in Shaoxing

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 60-65. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1568 )
This paper analyzes the historical rainfall data of Shaoxing National Meteorological Observatory, by using methods of linear regression, wavelet analysis and Mann-Kendall mutation testing, to reveal the seasonal variation and interannual change of 48 year's rainfall series in Shaoxing region., and to forecast the future rainfall. The results are as follows. Multiple time scale features can be seen in the whole seasonal and annual rainfall series. The 3~4 years period variations prevail in spring rainfall series, with a transition trend from 3 years period to 4 years period. 4 years and 14 years period variations are the main types in summer rainfall series. 2 years and 12 years period variations are mainly found in autumn rainfall series, and 4 years and 16 years period variations in winter rainfall sequence. 2 years, 4 years and 13 years period variations prevail in annual rainfall sequence. The sudden change of spring, winter and annual rainfall is not obvious. The mutation points of summer and autumn rainfall occur, respectively, in 1973 and 1963. The same tendency is seen in summer and annual rainfall sequence. The summer rainfall mutation influences the annual rainfall mutation. The rainfall of Shaoxing region will become affluent in the future 5~6 years according to the main period of summer and annual rainfall series.

Fabrication of NiO Electrochromics Films by Electrodeposition and Their Properties

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 66-70. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 890 )
Electrochromism can be defined as a persistent and reversible optical transformation induced by electrochemical processes. Electrochromic (EC) materials can reversibly change their optical properties upon charge insertion/extraction, usually with low power consumption, high Coloration Efficiency (CE), and excellent memory effect under an open circuit condition. Hence they have received great attention in the past decades. EC materials can be classified into two categories as anode colored and cathode colored materials by electrochemical reaction modes. As a kind of anode colored materials, NiO is one of most attractive materials due to its high electrochromic efficiency, large dynamic range, good cyclic reversibility, and low cost. Several physical and chemical methods have been used to fabricate nickel oxide films. For example, sputter coating, vacuum evaporation, pulsed laser deposition, spray pyrolysis, sol-gel, chemical deposition and electrochemical deposition. However, the materials prepared by above methods must subject to an post-annealing process in order to show electrochromic properties. In this paper, NiO thin films with reversible electrochromic properties are fabricated using electrochemical technique in organic solutions (N,N-dimethylformamide solution, DMF solution) controlled by potentiostatic electrolysis. Fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO2:F, FTO) glass plates are used as substrates as well as cathodes. Appropriate experimental conditions for the film deposition are chosen based on our investigation on the effect of solvent dehydration methods and electrodeposition voltages. XRD, SEM, HRTEM and EDS are employed to analyze the composition, structure and thickness of the films. Ultraviolet-visible transmission spectroscopy is applied to measure electrochromic properties of the deposited films. Cyclic voltammetry and double potential step technique are used to study the electrochromic processes.

Effects of PEG Concentration and Temperature on the Rheological and Thermodynamic Properties of PSF Casting Solution

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 71-74. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 844 )
In this paper, N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) were used as the mixed solvent, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was used as the additive in the polysulfone (PSF) casting solution. The blending ratio of DMAc to NMP was 8:2 in the mixed solvent. The effects of temperature and PEG concentration on the rheological and thermodynamic properties of the PSF casting solution were studied quantitatively based on the casting-solution viscosity measurement by Rotational Rheometer and the cloud-point phase diagram obtained by Cloud-point Titration. It is found that the PSF solution with PEG additive is Newtonian fluid in the examination scope (shear rate from 0 to 100 s-1). The viscosity of the PSF casting solution was obtained via linear regression between shear rate and shear stress. The viscosity of PSF casting solution increases with the increase of the PEG concentration and with the decrease of the temperature. PEG reduces the miscibility of the PSF solution with non-solvent, leading to thermodynamic enhancement for phase inversion, but temperature increase can increase the miscibility of the PSF solution with non-solvent, therefore, it can decelerate the phase inversion of the PSF casting solution.

Prediction Based on Hidden Markov Model

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 75-77. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1495 )
The amount of information on web is increasing at an alarming rate. It is an urgent need to find tools to automatically obtain, extract and filter information from web, from hundreds of millions of pages to find the content in need, to find related patterns and associations. Markov model predicts the user's next link, only from the user's browser start page, which does not involve the real interest of the user. In this paper, HMM-based prediction of the web browser path is presented. First of all, according to known sequences to determine the browser type of user. As can be seen for the browser with a very short sequence length, the accuracy of the forecasts is lower than the Markov model. This is due to the short sequence length, the system can access only limited information to make judgement, with more classification of user errors as more likely. However, with a gradual increase in sequence length, the system may capture more and more user's browsing information to reflect user's interest and to increase the accuracy of prediction. When the sequence length is greater than or equal to 8, the forecasting accuracy rate reaches 80%.

Prediction of Possibility and the Level of Rockburst Based on Uncertain Average Gradted Analysis Method

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 78-81. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1638 )
To solve the uncertain problems in rockburst prediction, uncertain average graded analysis method is applied to predict the level of rockburst. Uncertain average graded analysis model is first established for the prediction of possibility and the level of rockburst. Four indexes such as the maximum tangential stress of the cavern wall, uniaxial compressive strength, uniaxial tensile strength, and the elastic energy index are selected as the factors for synthetic evaluation of rockburst. The indexes criteria are determined by averages of each graded sample. The intensity of rockburst is divided into four grades that are considered as four normal populations in uncertain average graded analysis. Uncertain functions are obtained by indexes criteria. Uncertain average graded analysis model were obtained through training a series of underground rock projects both at home and abroad. The faith judgment criterion is used to judge which grade the evaluating sample belongs to. The processes of the proposed method are given. The proposed model is verified by the back substitution method. Results show that the back-test-correct rate is high. The proposed model is applied to two practical projects of tunnel and mine. Cases study shows that calculation results are consistent with actual conditions. The proposed model could be used widely in practical engineering.

Improvement and Implementation of Gompertz Model for Transportation Prediction

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 82-85. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1475 )
The predictions of traffic and transportation demands are important and serve as basis in determining the road level, formulating technical standards and making plans as well as evaluating investment. A trip-generation forecast is an important part of the demand forecast, which is generally acquired based on Gompertz model. However, the parameters of Gompertz model estimated by analogy are lack of a sound basis. Therefore, this paper proposes to improve the estimation efficiency of undetermined parameters in Gompertz model with the least-squares method and obtains more reliable model parameters by Matlab. Its better performance is shown by the residual estimation and analogy. Statistical data from Dongying, Shandong Provinces, is analyzed by the proposed model to predict the trip generation in 2025. The final result shows that this proposed Gompertz model can improve effectively the prediction accuracy and may be used in rational road network planning.

Measurement of Posture Parameters in Aerobatics

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 86-89. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 678 )
Attitude parameters are important among the aircraft flight parameters, especially in the aerobatic test. Current flight test aircraft attitude parameters are measured by the combination of the whole attitude gyro. In the high angle of attack, stall, spin and other special flight tests, airborne attitude gyro output parameters processed by the data acquisition system differ with the true aircraft flight conditions. By analyzing the output characteristics of the aircraft's flight status and attitude parameters, errors in the attitude parameters of measurement and the output ambiguity, this paper proposes the stunt flying test methods for improving multi-second validation, and through the analysis of the measured curves, has verified the correctness of improved methods. They may be used for future tests for large angle of attack, stall, spin high-risk, difficult aerobatic flight parameters.

A Parallel Chasing Algorithm for Solving Cyclic Tridiagonal Equations

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 90-93. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1224 )
A parallel algorithm for solving the cyclic tridiagonal equations is developed in this paper. This algorithm is mainly based on the matrix decomposition. Firstly, a lower order cyclic tridiagonal equation can be formed by extracting the first and the last equation in each process. Secondly, the lower order cyclic tridiagonal equation is solved to obtain the values of the key variables. Finally, the values of the key variables are used in the corresponding processes and the related equations are solved in parallel. The cyclic tridiagonal equations can be solved efficiently and stably by using this algorithm if the coefficient matrix is diagonally dominant, which condition is also required by the traditional chasing method, so, the parallel algorithm developed in this paper to solve the tridiagonal equations does not need additional conditions to restrict the coefficient matrix. The computational cost of the parallel algorithm in one process is only O(17n) and equal to that of the traditional algorithm for solving the cyclic tridiagonal equations. Moreover, the distributed parallel computation can also be performed and the data communication cost is small. In fact, the data length for the communication from child processes to the master process and from the master process to child processes is 8 real numbers and 2 real numbers, respectively. Therefore, the computational cost and the data communication cost are smaller than the traditional parallel algorithm for solving the cyclic tridiagonal equations. The numerical experiments indicate that,as far as large scale cyclical tridiagonal equations are considered, the parallel computational efficiency is greater than 0.75 if the rank number is less than 16. Indeed, the traditional chasing algorithm is a particular case of this algorithm. So, this algorithm can be used to solve the tridiagonal equations naturally.

MSCT Findings of Parotid Benign Non-epithelial Cell Tumors

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 94-97. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 711 )
To evaluate the value of MSCT in the diagnosis of parotid benign non-epithelial cell tumors, 12 cases of CT findings of Parotid benign non-epithelial cell tumors proved by pathology were reviewed retrospectively. In them, 3 cases underwent the contrast enhanced CT examination. Among the 12 cases, there were 1 case of Schwannoma, 2 cases of neurofibroma, 2 cases of cyst, 2 cases of branchial cleft cyst, 2 cases of lymphangioma, 1 case of vasculolymphatic malformation, vascular malformation, and liopma, respectively. The location of the lesions was in the superficial lobe in 9 cases; regular shapes of the lesions were shown in 7 cases, while irregular shapes were shown in the other 5 cases; a clear interface with the normal parotid tissue was found in 9 cases, unclear interface in the other 3 cases; homogeneous distribution of density in 8 cases, heterogeneous density distribution in the other 4 cases; heterogeneity is enhanced after a contrast operation in 2 cases, no enhancement in 1 case of liopma. There were certain CT characteristics in parotid benign non-epithelial cell tumors. Most of them with regular shape and clear interface were located in the superficial lobe of parotids. Most vascular disease produced irregular shape and unclear interface. There was no abnormal swelling lymphnode in the neck. MSCT played an important role in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

Microsurgery of the Recurrent Trigeminal Neuralgia after Gasserian Ganglion Radiofrequency Therapy

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 98-100. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1557 )
The Microvascular Decompression (MVD) of the recurrent trigeminal neuralgia treated with the Gasserian ganglion Radiofrequency Therapy (RT) is studied in this paper. 11 recurrent cases from 152 MVD operations of trigeminal neuralgia from Oct. 2004 to Dec. 2007 are analyzed. Among the 11 cases, there are 5 Partial Rhizotomy (PR) of trigeminal sensory root, 4 MVD plus PR, 1 MVD and 1 cholesteatoma ectomy plus PR. Under microscope, the circumference of trigeminal root is changed compared with the normal. The in-hospital effective rate is 100%, and the long-term cure rate is 80%. The results show that the recurrence of radiofrequency therapy seems to be related to the first treatment time, the target and extent of radiofrequency damage. The MVD of trigeminal neuralgia is still an effective treatment to recurrent cases of radiofrequency therapy, but the changed anatomy needs more attention of PR.

Effects of Remifentanil on Rocuronium-induced Neuromuscular Block

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 101-103. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1378 )
The effect of remifentanil given by Target-Controlled Infusion (TCI) on rocuronium-induced neuromuscular (N-M) block during Total Intravenous Anesthesia (TIVA) is investigated. Sixty ASA I or II patients aged 25~55 years undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under TIVA were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=15 for each group): group A propofol; group B propofol + (the target plasma concentration of) 2 ng/mL remifentanil; group C propofol + 4 ng/mL remifentanil; group D propofol + 6 ng/mL remifentanil. Propofol was delivered by TCI at the target plasma concentration of 3 ?滋g/mL during introduction of anesthesia, and was adjusted according to BIS maintained between 40 and 60 during surgery. Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was given intravenous. to facilitate tracheal intubation. N-M function was monitored and recorded using acceleromyography (TOF-GUARD, Organon Teknika B.V.). The force of thrum adduction in response to single and TOF stimulation of ulnar nerve was recorded. The onset time of N-M block was compared among the four groups ranging from 54 to 57 seconds. The duration of N-M block, the 75% recovery time and the recovery indexes among groups saw no significant difference. The results show that TCI different concentration of remifentanil has no synergistic effect on rocuronium induced N-M block. It is suggested that the mechanism of remifentanil reducing the requirements of rocuronium in total intravenous anesthesia is due to the effect on CNS.

Flexion Deformity after Operation for Metacarpal and Phalangeal Fractures

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 104-105. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 701 )
To study the flexion deformity after surgical treatment for metacarpal and phalangeal fractures, from January 2003 to December 2007, 128 outpatients suffered from metacarpal and phalangeal fractures were chosen in this paper. All of the fractures were fixed with Kirschner wires. Among them, 25 cases are of metacarpal fractures, 37 cases of proximal phalanx fractures, 42 cases of middle phalanx fractures, and 24 cases of multiple fractures. All of the fractures, of which 38 cases of closed fractures and 90 cases of open fractures, were fixed with cross or oblique Kirschner wires. All the Kirschner wires did not go through the joints. After the operation, plasters were used for 3 to 4 weeks, 53 of which in flexion position and 75 in extension position. The Kirschner wires were taken out 4 to 15 weeks after the operation. The results show that 19 cases of proximal interphalangeal joint flexion deformity were found (15%). The Flexion position is usually used in Kirschner wire fixation of metacarpal, phalangeal fractures to avoid the skin stimulation of the tail of Kirschner wire. The damage of the dorsal fascia might be responsible to flexion deformity.

Experimental Research Progress of Dynamic Characteristics for Rock Materials on Triaxial SHPB Apparatus

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 106-111. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1552 )
The study of three-dimensional dynamic characteristics of the rock materials is an important filed and hot topic in rock dynamic mechanics. The historical developments of triaxial SHPB apparatus were reviewed and the characteristics of various types of testing machines were compared. A comprehensive analysis of related research literatures on triaxial SHPB tests and some common conclusions were summarized: (1) the dynamic compressive strength of rock will increase with a linear or exponential function as strain rate increases under a constant confining pressure, the brittleness of rock will reduce while plasticity increases; (2) a significant linear relationship is shown between the dynamic compressive strength of rock and confining pressure when strain rate is in a certain circumstance; (3) the compressive strength coupled dynamic and static loads shows a similar linear-increase trend with the increase of confining pressure under a constant axial pressure, while it shows a rising trend firstly and then decline with axial pressure increasing under a constant confining pressure. However, due to the characteristics of triaxial SHPB apparatus and the rock material itself, some basic issues, such as stress loading waveform, the sample size requirements, there is no uniform test specification for tests. Many results of historical documents can only be compared qualitatively and don't be analyzed on a unified scale. In the future, developing an international suggested method about triaxial SHPB test will be a key work.

Progress of Studies on Cancer-related Anemia in Chinese and Western Medicine

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 112-115. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 758 )
Anemia is a common complication of cancer patients. The incidence of cancer-related anemia is associated with gender, age, characteristics of tumor, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Being one of the most important factors in the Quality of Life (QOL) of cancer patients, anemia reduces the QOL by inducing tissue hypoxia. Degree of anemia is associated with the efficacy of chemotherapy, sensitivity of chemotherapy agents, and resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy agents. Thus, the prognosis of patients with cancer-related anemia undergoing chemotherapy is poor, as compared with those without anemia. In addition, the reduced hemoglobin level decreases the sensitivity of tumor cells to radiation therapy, as an independent prognostic factor. Numerous factors are involved in the pathogenesis of cancer-related anemia, such as tumor itself, treatments and nutrition. The use of recombinant human erythropoietin is becoming a new standard of care for cancer patients. Various well-controlled studies show that the use of erythropoietin (EPO) increases the hemoglobin level, thereby decreases the need for frequent transfusions and improves the tumour responses, cancer-free survival and quality-of-life parameters for cancer patients. To better understand the cancer-related anemia, numerous clinical trials on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatment of cancer-related anemia have been conducted, showing that Chinese Medicine is of good efficacy in treatment of cancer-related anemia.

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 118-119. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 122-122. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 124-124. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0918): 125-125. ;  doi:
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