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   Science & Technology Review
2009, Vol.27, No. 0917
13 September 2009

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China Coal Resource Exploitation and Environmental Protection

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 3-3. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 433 )
特别栏目

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 388 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 8-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 426 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 10-10. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 439 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 12-13. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 421 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 14-14. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 389 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 15-15. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 415 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 16-16. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 399 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 17-17. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 405 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 117-117. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 386 )

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 139-140. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 431 )
半月科技风云

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 9-9. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 465 )
论文

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 11-11. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 288 )
科技工作者建议

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 18-18. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 412 )
Exclusive

Opportunity and Challenge for Land Reclamation and Eclogical Reconstruction in Mining Area

WU Xiaoli;ZHU Yu;CHEN Guangren;SU Qing
Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 19-24. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 583 )
China has rich mineral resources, which contribute huge energy, but also caused severe damage to farmland and ecological environment. This makes land reclamation and ecological reconstruction in China mining area study face enormous opportunity and challenge. Based on the discussion content of the first academic salon "Opportunity and Challenge for Land Reclamation and Ecological Reconstruction in Mining Area" held by Science & Technology Review in 2009, a comprehensive review on situation, research progress, dilemma of land reclamation and ecological reconstruction in China mining area study, foreign experience and practical case is presented, in order to provide decision-making consultation for development strategy of land reclamation and ecological reconstruction in China mining area of the twelfth Five-Year Plan.
Spescial Issues

Review and Prospect of Land Reclamation and Ecological Restoration in China

HU Zhenqi
Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 25-29. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 535 )
With a large population and limited farmland, a lot of land being damaged by mining and other industrial activities, China faces the task of land reclamation and ecological restoration, which becomes a focus of researches. This paper reviews the history and achievements of land reclamation and ecological restoration in China and related key regulations. Based on the opportunities and challenges on land reclamation and ecological restoration, the strategic targets and tasks of research and development in that field are proposed. The key tasks for research and development include: (1) damage of eco-system due to mining activities; (2) monitoring and evaluation of eco-environment in mining areas; (3) planning and design technology for land reclamation and ecological restoration;
(4) theory and method for abating the damage of land and eco-environment due to mining; (5) some basic and regional technologies for land reclamation and ecological restoration; (6) quality monitoring method and equipments for land reclamation engineering.

Study on Technology of Land Reclamation and Ecological Rehabilitation of Waste Land in Pingshuo Surface Mine

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 30-34. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1183 )
China is a big nation in the exploitation of coal resources. The destruction of resources and the degradation of the ecological environment, as a result of open-pit coal mining in particular, become important issues and constrain economic sustainable developments in China. It is important to build a technology system for land reclamation and for ecological reconstruction in the opencast mine area, under some basic principles of land reclamation and ecological reconstruction suitable for the mining situation in China, to achieve green mining and sustainable development in mine area. With due consideration of open-pit mining, soil science, ecology, botany, geology, geography, agronomy, soil and water conservation and other multi-disciplinary knowledge and technology, a systematic research of more than 20 years on Pingshuo opencast mine has built a relevant technical system for land reclamation and ecological reconstruction of mining areas in the Loess Plateau, including damage analysis of mining ecosystem; analysis factor of barriers about ecological reconstruction; planning and design of artificial ecological system reconstruction; land remodeling; soil-body construction and vegetation reconstruction. Also, the directions for further researches are suggested to follow the reconstruction of artificial ecological system in Pingshuo opencast mine.

Nondestructive Detection of Soil Layer Based on GPR

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 35-37. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 578 )
In a land reclamation project, the surface soil level thickness, especially in the thin surface soil area, directly influences the project quality. The traditional inspection procedure is both time-consuming and very difficult to implement. In this paper, the microwave remote-sensing instrument (Ground Penetrating Radar) is used to carry out the soil layer structure nondestructive survey in outdoor model experiments. The model consists of undisturbed soil (40 cm), coarse sand (25 cm), soil (15 cm), and fine sand (30 cm), from bottom to top, with central antenna frequency of 500 MHz. The radar image analysis shows that the soil layer structure can be effectively distinguished within 5 cm. The analysis on the time-oscillation amplitude shows that amplitude sees a significant change near 0.95, 7.15, 9.93, 15.7 and 17.50 ns, as a direct interpretation of the radar signal. From the frequency - oscillation amplitude chart one can see that at the frequency of 470.10 MHz, the amplitude reaches up to 1 821, as the most effective electromagnetic waves, which can be used as a reference in design of radar equipment.

Land Reclamation and Ecological Reconstruction in Resource-exhausted Mining Areas

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 38-43. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1356 )
Resource-exhausted mining areas are faced with an arduous task of ecological restoration. The previous studies show that the coal-based mining cities in China are mainly distributed in the middle and west parts, but the resource-exhausted mining areas are mainly in the middle and east parts. The resource-exhausted mining areas are related with different types of mineral resources, mining methods, natural conditions and production activities of "mining, dressing and smelting", which may cause various land damage types, such as, occupation, destroy, subsidence and pollution. In view of different land reclamation approaches, this paper proposes various ecological restoration programs of reclaiming damage land for the use of rural ecological agriculture, suburban wetland parks/country parks, mine parks, etc. Based on experiences both at home and abroad about land reclamation and ecological restoration in mining areas, various ecological restoration techniques are analyzed. Cropland restoration technique is to restore and construct reclaimed cropland landscape. Water resources restoration technique is to restore river system and microclimate for water cycle, and to use mine water for multi-purposes. Wetland restoration technique is to restore and create soil landscape and surface vegetation landscape, and to reconstruct road system and connect it with surrounding landscapes, and to protect and restore mining heritages. Water body restoration technique is to purify gathered water in subsidence, and to restore gathered water surface, and to allocate animals/vegetations. Village restoration technique is to protect and plan feature villages, with architecture/infrastructure. Mountain ridge restoration technique is to restore mountain ridge ecological corridors, and to restore and recover natural vegetations in mountains. And forest land restoration technique is to select and layout forest land, and to plan tree species, and to test and build anti-drought vegetation in abandoned coal waste pileups. With scientific planning and timely and effective treatment, not only the ecological environment in resource-exhausted mining areas can be restored but also a new economic growth point for sustainable development can be created in mining areas.
Articles

Simulation of Rapid Inactivation of the Algae in Ballast Water Using Hydroxyl Radical

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 44-46. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 633 )
The algae in simulated ballast water were rapidly killed by using hydroxyl radical produced by strong electric-field ionization discharge based on the Regulation no. D-2 of IMO "International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments". The experimental results show that the inactivation is very well achieved when the initial concentration of Isochrysis galbana, Synechococcus, Nitzschia closterium and the mixed algae of the three species are 1.1×104, 5.0×104, 4.0×104 and 2.4×104 cell/mL, respectively. And the death rate of all kinds of algae can reach 99.98% when the concentration of hydroxyl radical solution is 0.62 mg/L in the ballast water simulation treatment 6 s system after contacting time of 6 s in the discharge pipelines. Moreover, the resurrection of treated algae has not been found after 24 hours. And the results agree completely with the Regulation no. D-2, the discharge standards of the Convention. At the same time, the monitoring analysis shows that pH value, salinity, conductivity of the treated seawater are almost unchanged. Turbidity is decreased, while dissolved oxygen is increased. Total suspended solids are decreased to 85%. Chemical oxygen demand is decreased to a point of no detection. The amount of phosphate and the total content of inorganic nitrogen agree with the seawater quality standards also.

Effects of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and -6 on Human Osteosarcoma Cell Lines MG63 and U2OS

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 47-51. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1540 )
To investigate the effects of recombinant human BMP (rhBMP)-2 and -6 on osteosarcoma in treating human osteosarcoma cell lines MG63 and U2OS with rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-6, the osteosarcoma cells in experimental groups were treated with rhBMPs-CMs, those in control groups with rGFP-CM, and those in blank groups with neither. Cell proliferation, apoptosis transmigration and differentiation were detected at different times by Trypan blue exclusion test, transwell-room, terminal deoynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)/acridine orange-ethidium bromide (AO/EB) double fluorescent dye staining and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, respectively. The main results are as follows. (1) There are no significant differences of all indexes tested between the control groups and the blank (all with P>0.05). (2) Compared with the control groups and the blank groups, the cell survival rates see a significant decrease when being treated with rhBMP-2 and rhBMP -6 (P<0.01). (3) The apoptosis indexes are increased (P<0.01) and the results from TUNEL and AO/EB method are consistent. (4) The cell numbers of transmembrane are significantly decreased in both MG63 and U2OS (P<0.01). (5) The ALP activity is increased after being treated with rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-6 for 3 days in MG63 and for 5 days in U2OS (P<0.01). It is suggested that rhBMP-2 and -6 could inhibit the proliferation and transmigration of MG63 and U2OS, induce their apoptosis and differentiation.

The Prevention the Memory Loss Through Long-term Ginsenoside Consumption in Aged SAMP8 Mice by Decreasing Oxidative Stress

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 52-56. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 568 )
To investigate the preventive effect of ginsenoside on the spatial reference memory impairment in Senescence Accelerated Mouse Prone 8 (SAMP8) and the mechanisms, in the present study, SAMP8 mice aged 4 months were chronically treated with ginsenoside (given in drinking water: in 3 dose groups and for 7 months). The 3 dose groups were administered with ginsenoside of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg per day, respectively. Placebo-treated aged mice and young mice(4 months old) were used as controls. In addition, Senescence Accelerated Mouse Resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice were used as "normal aging" control. The beneficial role of ginsenoside was manifested in the prevention of spatial reference memory loss in aged SAMP8 mice. The optimal dose of ginsenoside is 100 or 200 mg/kg per day. In ginsenoside treated groups, the antioxidase level in serum is significantly increased. However, the neurons damage level of the ultrastructure and the Aβ1-42 level markedly decreased in hippocampus. These findings suggest that the increase of antioxidation may be one of mechanisms of the memory loss prevention of ginsenoside in aged SAMP8 mice.

Experimental Study on the Nonlinear Flow in Low Permeability Reservoirs

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 57-60. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 590 )
The filtering flow in the core of low-permeability does not follow Darcy's law. There is a starting pressure in the filtering flow, and the porous flow curve is no longer a straight line. Some improvements on the existing core flooding experiments and methods of measurement are proposed in this paper to obtain the non-linear filtering flow curves. The low-velocity flow characteristics in a glutenite with high contents of clay-swelling minerals were studied by using the improved experimental device. The experimental curves do not pass the origin of the coordinate system, with an intercept in the pressure axis. There are two types of filtering flow curves: the upward bending curves and the downward bending curves. The tiny throat size and high heterogeneity of rock in a low permeability reservoir are the causes to make the flow non-linear. The reservoir lithology is also responsible to the nonlinearity. The cores used in experiments with a high content of clay minerals including illite/smectite formation and illite have a significant effect on the effective permeability. Based on the theories of the seepage flow model, taking account of the throat radius, with the clay-swelling ability as a target, a preliminary study is carried out on the mechanism of different nonlinear flow curves. The final results show that the clay-swelling reduces the size of the throat participated in seepage, and as a result, reduces the velocity and increases the starting pressure, which accounts for the upward bending of the nonlinear flow curves.

Pyrotechnic Current Generator with Axial Metal Electrode

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 61-64. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 559 )
An intelligent bus dispatching system can better meet people's travel needs. The optimized algorithm takes advantage of advanced technology and equipments. However, in recent years the development of Chinese intelligent bus dispatching systems is not satisfactory with an. excessive attention to advanced technology but less to practicality. Dynamic scheduling has yet to be fully exploited. In this paper, intelligent transportation scheduling systems and scheduling characteristics are analyzed. The information about dynamic transportation and vehicle locations is acquired and merged. An optimization model for intelligent dispatching of buses is proposed on basis of real data. This model is under the support of GPS positioning, communications, computers and other technologies, where intelligent algorithms are used in bus operation and dispatching and both passengers satisfaction and company profit are considered. The method of collecting data automatically and the algorithm of this model are presented. This model is shown to be able to significantly improve the rate of bus full loading, shorten the waiting time of passengers, and reduce the total vehicle trips, with an evident effect of optimized dispatching.

Study on Extended Kalman Filtering for Sensorless Control of Dual Y Shift 30 Degree PMSM Drive System

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 65-68. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 557 )
This paper presents a method based on Extended Kalman Filter for sensorless control of dual Y shift 30 degree Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) drive system. The mathematical modeling and nonlinear state equations of dual Y shift 30 degree PMSM are established. The stator current, the rotor speed and the rotor position in the synchronous dq-reference frame are chosen as the state variables. The stator current is used as the output variable. At the same time, the stator voltage is chosen as the input variable. Based on the above-mentioned conditions, the Extended Kalman Filter is established and is used for estimation of the rotor speed and position in the synchronous dq-reference frame. The full digital control is realized by the DSP TMS320F2812. Without any change of the structure of the multi-phase PMSM, this method is applicable to salient pole and non-salient pole permanent-magnet synchronous motor. It enjoys a good position precision in a very wide speed range. Simulation and experiment results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

An Optimization Model for Dynamic Intelligent Dispatching of Buses

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 69-72. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (0 KB)  PDF  (724 KB)  ( 370 )
Abstract ( 1781 )
An intelligent bus dispatching system can better meet people's travel needs. The optimized algorithm takes advantage of advanced technology and equipments. However, in recent years the development of Chinese intelligent bus dispatching systems is not satisfactory with an. excessive attention to advanced technology but less to practicality. Dynamic scheduling has yet to be fully exploited. In this paper, intelligent transportation scheduling systems and scheduling characteristics are analyzed. The information about dynamic transportation and vehicle locations is acquired and merged. An optimization model for intelligent dispatching of buses is proposed on basis of real data. This model is under the support of GPS positioning, communications, computers and other technologies, where intelligent algorithms are used in bus operation and dispatching and both passengers satisfaction and company profit are considered. The method of collecting data automatically and the algorithm of this model are presented. This model is shown to be able to significantly improve the rate of bus full loading, shorten the waiting time of passengers, and reduce the total vehicle trips, with an evident effect of optimized dispatching.

Study on Quality Standard of Prepared Slices of Rhizoma Cimicifugae

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 73-76. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 923 )
The dried rhizomes, which encompass three species namely Cimicifuga heracleifolia, C. dahurica and C. foetida, and known in traditional Chinese medicine as "Sheng-Ma", are officially listed in Chinese pharmacopoeia and clinically available for treatment of wind-heat headache, sore throat, toothache and uterine prolapse. There are no detailed standards about the quality of prepared slices of Rhizoma Cimicifugae. In this paper, an integrated quality assessment of prepared slices of Rhizoma Cimicifugae is proposed. Some methods such as character identification, thin-layer identification, check of water, ash, and ethanol soluble extract are established to evaluate the quality. On the basis of these examinations, the quality standards of all indices can be formulated. The average values of the indices of the prepared slices of Rhizoma Cimicifugae are the moisture of 12.20%, the total ash of 8%, the acid-insoluble ash of 1.48%, the 95% ethanol extract of 16.28%. It is suggested by the present paper that the quality standards of prepared slices of Rhizoma Cimicifugae could be tentatively set as follows: the moisture of not more than 13%, the total ash of not more than 8.0%, the acid-insoluble ash of not more than 4.0%, the 95% ethanol extract of no less than 16.0%.

Orthogonal Design Test to Optimize Lidocaine Transfersomes

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 77-80. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 626 )
Screening of lidocaine transfersomes is to obtain the best ratio of preparation and to achieve good performance for production processes. The level-factor indicators shown in Table 1 are used as orthogonal rows, comprehensive comparison and statistical analysis are carried out to determine the best conditions through a limited number of experiments. Lidocaine transfersomes volume ratio is obtained with encapsulation efficiency and drug loading as the inspection targets, in L9(34) orthogonal test. Each test has a good representation. The orthogonal table with a balanced dispersion characteristics of a comprehensive experiment can ensure some key requirements. The experimental results show that Lidocaine transfersomes A2B3C1D2 is the best combination of prescription, that is, lecithin: cholesterol 2:1; lecithin: lidocaine 3:1; methanol: chloroform 1:1; ultrasonic time of 10 min. This ratio has been used here to convey the body of lidocaine with the average particle size of (81.1±3.1) nm, with encapsulation efficiency of (80.95±0.5)% for the drug loading (1.87±0.03)%. Therefore, through the orthogonal tests we get prescription drugs of the best quality, with drug loading suitable for moderate size and good stability.

Changes of α-synuclein After Accumulation

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 81-83. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 605 )
Deposition of filamentous structures of α-synuclein(α-syn) in the neuronal cytoplasm is a common pathological feature of many neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Lysosome is one of the main clearance ways for α-syn degradation. The α-syn accumulation has been found in the lysosome enzyme Cathepsin D (CD) deficient mice in our previous work. However, little is known about how cells handle protein aggregates. To study the process of α-syn accumulation, the bands in the α-syn Western blot were analyzed in the soluble and insoluble homogenate of the wide type and CD knock out mice. Obvious changes were not found in the monomer α-syn, however, they were found in other bands, especially between 25~37 kD. These results suggest that lysosomal functions are important to the equilibrium of α-syn metabolism, especially to the oligomer. It is speculated that natural α-syn may exist in the form of monomer, as well as oligomer. The dysfuction of lysosomal will lead to the imbalance between monomer and oligomer of α-syn untill the α-syn form accumulation.

Clinical Study on Synchronous Recording of Intracranial and Extracranial Electroencephalogram in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 84-87. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1319 )
This paper explores the clinical significance of synchronous recording of intracranial and extracranial EEG in temporal lobe epilepsy. Intracranial electrodes were implanted in highly-suspected refractory temporal lobe epilepsy patients to lateralize the epileptic focus. Intracranial and extracranial EEGs were synchronously recorded and analyzed for finally diagnosed temporal lobe epilepsy patients. Time intervals from seizure onset to every electrode were recorded. The propagation patterns were deduced. Numbers of Interictal Epileptic Discharges (IEDs) at bilateral PG were counted for intermittent 3 hours to find its lateralization significance. Ictal discharge propagation sequence of inferior temporal area, hippocampus, temporal pole area, and lateral middle temporal area are found to follow certain rules in most attacks. Number of IEDs in epileptic focus side is greater than that in non-focus side. IEEG is important to patients whose focus lateralization are hard to be identified before operation. Synchronous recording of intracranial and extracranial EEGs help the focus lateralization in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Usage of Cisatracurium Besilate in Adult Anesthesia Induction

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 88-91. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1331 )
The clinical effect of different doses of cisatricurium besilate in adults after anesthesia induction is discussed in this paper. Sixty aged 25 to 65 years old ASA class I~II adult patients scheduled for elective surgery were randomized assigned to three groups: C2 (2ED95: cisatricurium 0.1 mg/kg), C3 (3ED95: cisatricurium 0.15 mg/kg), C4 (4ED95: cisatricurium 0.2 mg/kg) or C6 (6ED95: cisatricurium 0.3 mg/kg) and were given 2ED95, 3ED95, 4ED95 or 6ED95 of cisatricurium besilate, respectively. Patients were free of psychiatric, neurologic, neuromuscular, hepatic, renal, pulmonary, and cardiovascular diseases, and without a history of unusual susceptibility to neuromuscular blocking drugs or malignant hyperthermia. Anesthesia was induced by intravenous injection of sufentanil and propofol, after which different doses of cisatricurium were given in 5 s. Tracheal intubation was performed. As soon as the Train-of-Four Stimulations (TOF) arrived at 0, the onset time, clinical duration, recovery time and recovery index were recorded. The results show that tracheal intubation are performed successfully in all four groups. The onset time is shortened and the recovery time is prolonged as the dose of cisatricurium besilate is increased. But the recovery index is similar in all groups. No adverse effects were recorded in all groups. It is concluded that all 4 doses of cisatricurium besylate can produce anesthesia induction and intubation. As doses are increased in 2ED95~6ED95, the onset time is shortened and the recovery time is prolonged while the recovery index is similar for adults.

Effects of Different Fertilizer Application Levels on POD

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 92-95. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 556 )
POD activity and shoot ratio of pumpkin plug seedling under different fertilizer application levels were systematically studied by L9(34) orthogonal experimental design. The results show that the effect of nitrogen application levels on pumpkin plug seedling's POD activity and shoot ratio is significant. The POD activity is significantly increased and the shoot ratio is significantly reduced after application of nitrogen fertilizer. As compared with the control group, for pumpkin plug seedlings in 20, 30, 40 d, the increase of POD activity with the application of nitrogen fertilizer and the increase of pumpkin plug seedling age are more significant. However, in view of various pumpkin seedlings, with nitrogen application levels between 5 and 10 g/L, the POD activity and the shoot ratio of pumpkin plug seedling see no significant difference. In most cases, the POD activity and the shoot ratio see no significant difference for application of CK of phosphorus and potassium. However, with phosphorus and potassium application in 200 mg/L and for pumpkin plug seedling in 30, 40 and 50 days, the POD of pumpkin plug seedling activity are enhanced. Microelement fertilizer has no significant effect on POD activity, but the shoot ratio sees a significant increase.

Study on the Nano-fly Sandwich Block

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 96-100. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1032 )
A fundamental policy of our country is to substitute solid center clunch brick with a new type of mural material. Fly ash block is a new type of mural material, which is encouraged to be studied by the policy. At present, the fly ash mural material has the performance of weight bearing and a poor heat preservation function. But the heat preservation one don't have weight bearing character. The propose of this paper was to work out a new type of mural material which has the functions of load-bearing and thermal insulation. The block is composited by fly ash, nanometer material, portland cement and other raw material. The waste polystyrene is filled in the middle of the block. The block-type was designed in accordance with the requirements of fly ash concrete hollow block. According to the method of orthogonal experiment, block's compressive strength as the main index, the mix ratio of raw materials of the block was optimized. Through methods of nature conservation, a new wall material-the nano-fly sandwich block was developed. Through the experiment, the compressive strength of the new type of block achieved 13.68 MPa. The heat transfer coefficient of such mural material was 1.02 W/(m2·K). The nano-fly sandwich block studied in this paper possesses the good performance of anti-press strength, attains the standard of Mu10. The block's heat preservation property is better. Such sandwich block has the functions of weight bearing, heat preservation, environment protection and waste using.
Reviews

Progress of Model Studies on Total Dissolved Gas Supersaturation Downstream of Sluicing Dam

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 101-105. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 631 )
The strong air entrainment is related with the hydrostatic force of the water column, which increases the pressure within the entrained bubbles. This phenomenon may lead to the Total Dissolved Gas(TDG) supersaturation downstream of spillway and aquatic animals may suffer from gas bubble diseases at a certain water depth. Thus, it is necessary to study the gas-liquid mass transfer of turbulent water in still basins. The paper reviews some representative models of the total dissolved gas concentration both at home and abroad, and discusses the development of the TDG transport equation, two-fluid model, mass transfer coefficient, interfacial area, bubble size, gas volume fraction, and the effect of saturation concentration. However, in these models the air bubble hydraulics is not well represented. To determine the number and size of air bubbles, the air concentration and the air bubble rising velocity, some assumptions are still necessary. Some parameters in the models remain to be verified by experiments. Bubble breakup and coalescence are assumed to be negligible since neither bubble size nor bubble distribution are actually measured in the field. The predictive capability of the models is limited by the modeling accuracy of the different terms in the turbulence, bubble and TDG transport equation. This paper provides some food for thought for further development of the numerical models of the TDG supersaturation and the methods for solving supersaturation problems.

Research Advance of Synthesis and Modification of Polylactic Acid

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 106-110. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 694 )
Polylactic acid is a widely used biodegradable material, which, together with its copolymers, are now among the most important biomedical materials. There are two main methods for synthesizing homopolymer of lactic acid: the ring-opening polymerization and the direct polycondensation. The direct polycondensation method includes the direct melt polycondensation and the solution polycondensation. In accordance with the reaction mechanism, the ring-opening polymerization includes the anionic ring-opening polymerization, the cationic ring-opening polymerization and the ring-opening polymerization of coordination. In this paper, the polymerization mechanism and the research progress of different polymerization methods are discussed. The high cost in synthesizing lactic acid homopolymer, the low molecular weight of products and its hydrophobic, brittle performance have limited its applications. The current study of polylactic acid is mainly concentrated in the modification. The latest research progress on chemical and physical modifications are reviewed, such as copolymerization, cross-linking, surface modification, blends, fiber composites and so on. Synthesis and modification of polylactic acid are discussed. Synthesis conditions should be improved. Non-toxic or low-residue catalysts should be used.

Hyperbaric Oxygen in Treatment of Neurosurgery Related Diseases

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 111-115. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 967 )
This paper discusses the mechanism of the Hyper Baric Oxygen (HBO) in the treatment of neurosurgery related diseases, in order to find scientific methods in clinical conditions. The related literature is reviewed, including the effects of the hyper baric oxygen in treatment of cerebral infarction, brain hemorrhage, cerebral trauma, migraine headache and Parkinson's syndrome. It is shown that the HBO plays a very important role in the treatment of some neurosurgery related diseases, but there are a few problems in the clinical application and empirical study of HBO. The curative effect of the HBO should be analyzed to avoid the misuse of HBO therapy in the treatment. A better curative effect of HBO can be achieved when it is used promptly and appropriately.

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 116-116. ;  doi:
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Focus

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科技评论

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 120-120. ;  doi:
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主编心语

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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 127-127. ;  doi:
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走向职场

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 128-128. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 129-129. ;  doi:
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Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0917): 134-137. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 409 )

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