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   Science & Technology Review
2009, Vol.27, No. 0913
13 July 2009

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Investigation on the Status of Scientific and Technological Workers of China in 2008

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 1183 )
The Second Investigation on the Status of Scientific and Technological Workers of China was conducted in the second half of 2008 by the efforts of China Association for Science and Technology (CAST) and China Institute for Development Strategy of Science and Technology. The investigation was based on the data from 209 investigation points all over the China arranged by CAST. Random sampling method was used. In total, 32 100 questionnaires were issued and 30 078 effective questionnaires were returned with recovery rate 93.7%. Compared with the results of the First Investigation on the Status of Scientific and Technological Workers of China in 2003, the numbers of scientific and technological workers of China had a rapid growth during 2003~2007, from 29.56 million by the end of 2002 to 51.60 million by the end of 2007, rising by 74%. The trend of rejuvenation is increasingly outstanding, 37 million of scientific and technological workers were under age 40, accounting for more than 2/3 of the total. The trend of high educational background was obvious, of which the number of master's or PhD degree increasing from 11.4% by the end of 2002 to 25% by the end of 2007. The scientific research output are considerable, 54.4% of scientific and technological workers of China had published scientific papers during 2005-2007, and the average per capita published papers number was 2.91. Nearly 50% of scientific and technological workers gave a higher evaluation to innovation policy environment in China, 4/5 of them concerned about general and specific policies of CPC and China government, and 75% of them were willing to participate in the public affair management. The results of the investigation of 2008 basically reflected the status and problems needed to improve in quality of scientific and technological workers of China, professional identity, working pressure, scientific research efficiency, environment of scientific and technological activities, academic communication, continuing education, science and technology awards, grants and funding, intellectual property, university-industry cooperation.
Articles

Biodiversity Characters of Coastal Wetlands in Jiaozhou Bay

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 791 )
The authors analyze the general biodiversity character by field investigations and on some correlated reference data. There are 5 type wetland creatures, such as phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos, water bird and vascular plant, which have important roles on structure and function of ecosystem of coastal wetland in Jiaozhou Bay. The phytoplankton species belong mainly to widespread species and warm temperate species in ecological type and mainly are diatoms and dinoflagellate, the zooplankton species belong mainly to nearshore low salinity species and mainly are arthropods and coelenterates, the zoobenthos species belong mainly to mid temperate species and widespread eurythermal species. The species of phytoplankton, zooplankton and zoobenthos investigated in 2003 and 2004 are obviously less than the investigation result in 1980s. The water birds in coastal wetlands in Jiaozhou Bay include two types of swimming birds and wading birds, the species belong to Palaearctic Region is main geographical distribution component of the water bird fauna, and the main seasonal types of the water bird fauna are passing bird and migratory bird. In the vascular plant flora of the coastal wetlands, the main life forms are geophyte and annual, the main ecological groups of the flora are hydrophyte and halophyte, and in the flora most seed plant genera belong to widespread type.

Experimental Research and Mechanism Analysis on Sewage Treatment with Gravel Contact Oxidation Reactor

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 966 )
This paper introduces a new technology named gravel contact oxidation reactor to the sewage treatment, whose purpose is to test the sewage treatment efficiency under different conditions by changing water temperature, HRT, and the aerating form. The paper also intends to disclose the mechanism of the excessive sludge reduction through biological analysis of the community structure of the microbes and the dominant microbe functions. The experimental results indicate that under the conditions of 20℃, HRT=10 h, continuous aeration, the sewage treating process can be expected to go in a desirable manner. That is to say, in such desirable manner, the removal efficiency for treating COD, NH3-N, SS, its turbidity can be expected to reach 85%, 65%, 91.2%, 97% with no excessive sludge discharged. Furthermore, the analysis has also found a great number of different kinds of microbes in the reactor. Protozoa, including rotifer and vorticella, which help to promote the excessive sludge decrement by lengthening the food chain, predate the bacteria directly, and enhance the bacteria activity. The dominant members are Pseudomonas microbes mainly by respiratory metabolization, and Bacterodietes/Cytophaga microbes mainly by fermentative metabolization. Such microbes are also found favorable for the excessive sludge decrement.

Beamspace High-resolution Algorithms for Target High-lights

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 1-2.
Full text: HTML (0 KB)  PDF  (649 KB)  ( 313 )
Abstract ( 509 )
A beamspace MUSIC (B-MUSIC) algorithm for high-lights of a target is proposed in this paper. A target is assumed to be of a finite size with multiple high-lights instead of just a "point". An array signal model of echoes from multiple high-lights of the target is established. A beam transformation matrix is defined to convert the signals from the elementspace to the beamspace. Then the MUSIC algorithm is used to estimate the direction of arrival (DOA) for the multiple high-lights. The resolution probability and the mean square error of the estimates of the B-MUSIC based on different SNRs and different broad angles are statistically analyzed by simulations. The results show that the proposed algorithm enjoys high angular resolution and good precision in the condition that the sonar is located near the vertical direction to the target broadside or the SNRs is high.

Metabonomic Studies on Abnormal Savda Syndrome Patients with Neoplasm Using NMR Spectroscopy

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 7-6.
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Abstract ( 901 )
This paper studies metabonomic changes in plasma of Abnormal Savda syndrome patients with neoplasm based on the theory of Traditional Uighur Medicine. A 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) based metabonomic analysis was performed on plasma samples obtained from 223 cases of Abnormal Savda syndrome patients with neoplasm and 50 healthy volunteers, and the data were analyzed using Orthogonal Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). The results show that in plasma of Abnormal Savda syndrome patients with neoplasm, a wide range of amino acids including Leucine, Alanin, Citruline, Tyrosine, Histidine, Glycine, Methionine, Isoleucine, Valine, Acetylcysteine see a significant decrease(P<0.05) and Glycoprotein, Glutamine, Myo-inositol, Lactic acid, Choline Creatine are also decreased (P<0.05). Formic acid, Acetone, Acetic acid, Acetoacetate, Pyruvate, β-Hydrocxy butyrate, Carnitine, Malonic acid are increased as compared with healthy plasma metabolites (P<0.05). It is concluded that in Abnormal Savda syndrome patients with neoplasm, lipid metabolism-related metabolites are increased, with abnormal amino acid metabolism, cytoplasm membrane defects, oxidative damage due to abnormal antioxidation ability. These findings indicate that the Abnormal Savda syndrome may be accompanied with imbalance of endocrine dysfunction of the body, low immune function, structural changes of protein, carbohydrates, nucleic acid, biological macromolecules, membrane lipid peroxidation, membrane protein and receptor variability, which will be followed by various diseases such as neoplasm.

Enhancement of Image Contrast of Iceball During Cryosurgery Via Ultrasonic Elastography

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 7-6.
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Abstract ( 489 )
The biological tissues will change its elasticity by orders of magnitude after it was frozen. Through digesting the typical characteristics of ultrasound elastography and cryosurgery, the ultrasound elastography is proposed for the first time to monitor the formation and thawing of the iceball during a cryosurgical process. This method is expected to provide a much better imaging resolution over traditional ultrasound monitoring. As the first step to understand the new strategy, the feasibility of achieving a high resolution is theoretically demonstrated by simulated data from Comsol and Matlab software using ultrasound elastography algorithm, which lays the groundwork for further experimental investigation and coming design of hardware. As a high image contrast and low cost technique for monitoring iceball, the new method is expected to play an important role in future cryosurgery.

Study on Water Consumption and Deficiency of Main Crops in Northeastern China

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 7-6.
Full text: HTML (0 KB)  PDF  (832 KB)  ( 267 )
Abstract ( 961 )
Natural environmental resources and reasonable configuration of agricultural planting structural are the two important targets of reperking in the northeastern China, where is the uppermost food provision base in the future 30 years. In this paper, depending on the statistical datum in 2002, GIS datum and crop physiological databases in the DNDC(denitrification and decomposition) model, it was analyzed that the spatial distribution characteristics of water consumptions and deficiencies of main food crops, optimal planning based on the agricultural water resources and rational regulation based on crop-planting structures were also been discussed. It was shown that: (1) The quantity of main crops with water deficiency was 151.56 billion m3 and the rate of water deficiency was 57.1% in northeast China, 2002. These characteristics were the most serious in Liaoning and Heilongjiang Province, which were 56.21 billion m3 and 69.0%, then the Heilongjiang Province. (2) The main crops production in Heilongjiang Province, especially the corn and soybean, will increase significantly with the increasing of accumulation temperature. Manual irrigation in Liaoning Province should be extended. (3) Rice planting areas should be enlarged in Heilongjiang Province especially in the Three-river plain, on the other hand, the corn planting areas should be reduced properly. Then, the most appropriate crop is corn in Jilin Province, secondly rice and soybean. At present, cultivating land should be consolidated and the crops production would be improved in Liaoning Province.

Synthesis of Polylactic Acid-Polyethylene Glycol via Melt Copolymerization

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 7-8.
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Abstract ( 525 )
In this study, Polylactic Acid-Polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG) was synthesized via melt copolymerization. The influence of the type and the amount of catalyst, the reaction temperature, the reaction time, the type and the amount of PEG on molecular weights of products are discussed. The performances of products are analyzed. The results show that from lactic acid and 1% polyethylene glycol(PEG)[Mn=400] with 0.8% stannous tin as catalyst, under the condition of 170℃, for 10 h, one obtains Polylactic Acid-Polyethylene glycol(M?浊=2.79×104), with improved hydrophilicity.

Comparative Analysis of the Destroy Effectiveness to Tank Armor Caused by Anti-tank Ammunition

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 9-11.
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Abstract ( 537 )
As the tank armor' thickness is gradually increasing and various active and passive reactive armors are widely used, modern tanks' protection ability has greatly improved. Meanwhile, anti-tank ammunitions are developing and changing as well, species increasing and performance improving. In order to make the strongest strike to the tanks, the essay conducts a comparative analysis among the damages caused by main anti-tank ammunitions, which are armor piercing projectile, shaped charge projectile and grenade, via methods such as theoretical calculation, modeling and experimental data collections. Comparing the key indicators, probability of a first round hit and firing intensity, and contrasting the changes of tank armor, the study concluded that more armor piercing projectiles and grenades, and less shaped charge projectiles should be placed in tanks. This not only lays the foundation for the optimization of the ammunition, but also creates conditions for the armored equipment digitized.

Energy Consumption at Nodes Wireless Sensor Networks Based on ZigBee

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 12-11.
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Abstract ( 1287 )
This paper studies the key issues of how to reduce the energy consumption of the ZigBee nodes, through optimizing node's dormancy mechanism without affecting the quality of network communication. Low-power module chips are used in the hardware module and the selected chips are in multi-mode and can switch conveniently. The energy consumption of wireless communication modules to send and receive data is important. Based on this platform, the effect of the network nodes' sleeping time on communication quality and energy consumption is analyzed. The simulation shows that the power consumption can be reduced as much as possible without affecting the quality of network communication when node's sleeping time is around 20 ms.

A Method for Spatial Straight Line Fitting Based on Production System

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 12-13.
Full text: HTML (0 KB)  PDF  (451 KB)  ( 317 )
Abstract ( 497 )
Solving actual high-precision rotation axes of revolute pairs is one of significant initiatives to improve running-precision of a set of equipment. As a classical approach, least square method is difficult to obtain appropriate fitting straight line when measured spatial points are intensive. It was found, through the study on the problem, that least square method causes a 90° deflection easily, that is, straight line after deflection locates in a vertical plane of the ideal straight line, and that the reason resulted in deflection is that distance function of least square method is not a single extreme value function, the occurrence of deflection reaches only one of the minimums rather than the extreme minimum in fact. In order to prevent the deflection, a production system based-on fitting method was proposed for spatial straight line fitting. First, the proposed method specifies a basic direction for the fitting line, and then sets the differential change, at last, through limited iteration, the ideal fitting straight line can be found. The proposed method can effectively avoid the deflection of adopting least square method of straight line fitting, and has been proved with a high value of application in practice through the real joint axes measurement of a robot.

New Logging Techniques Used in Formation Evaluation on Xujiahe Group Reservoirs in Bao-Jie Area, Sichuan Basin

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 14-13.
Full text: HTML (0 KB)  PDF  (1455 KB)  ( 459 )
Abstract ( 585 )
Xujiahe group reservoir in Bao-Jie area is a typical low porosity and low permeability reservoir which is characterized by quick lateral variations and strong heterogeneity. Because of the restriction of amplitude structure, lithology and physical properties, differential degree of gas and water is poor. It was difficult in reservoir identification which was used by conventional log data. The difficult problem was solved by the application of new logging techniques, such as array induction resistivity, array sonic imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance logging. The results showed that fluid property identification using combination method of dual lateral logging and array induction resistivity has best effect. Gas-bearing of sandstone reservoir can be qualitatively indicated by ratio of compressional wave slowness to shear wave slowness and NMR logging. Meanwhile, micro resistivity imaging played an important role in the research of sedimentary structure and structural feature in Bao-Jie area. After explaining in detail by a few examples, these new logging techniques have been proved to be practical and helpful in fluid property identification and sedimentary structures of the Xujiahe Group reservoirs in Bao-Jie formation of Sichuan Basin.

Improved Center-Line Method for Large Linear Sparse Equations

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 14-13.
Full text: HTML (0 KB)  PDF  (384 KB)  ( 357 )
Abstract ( 1252 )
A Center-line method for solving large linear sparse equations was proposed in 1986. In Reference[7], the method was improved partially, with convergent proofs of the algorithms and numerical experiment results. In this paper, based on an improved deviation and the redefinition of the center-line vectors, a large-range convergent iterative algorithm is proposed, which is independent of the choice of initial vectors. Compared with the algorithms in Reference[7], the algorithms given in the paper enjoy large-range convergence, small calculation amounts and high precisions.

Method and Practice Disposing Gently Inclined Abandoned Stope

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 14-13.
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Abstract ( 553 )
Abandoned stope disposal is a great problem of mining technology and production safety. In current, domestic and foreign methods disposing abandoned stope, it was expensive that they could solve the problem rockburst. In order to dispose a great deal of abandoned stope left behind in breast method and so on openstope method and extract out remnant mine economically and effectively, on the basis of domestic and foreign methods disposing and utilizing abandoned stope, local grooving top-caving and roof cutting and pillar dilapidation is proposed by controlled explosion in this paper. And their methods designing the basic parameters and analysing and evaluating the effective cutting roof are studied by numerical simulation, similarity simulation and Acoustic Emission (AE) techniques of rock-mass. In a word, a set of the method and actualizing and evaluating system is put forward that may be extended and used for reference. The integral method and actualizing and evaluating system includes analysis method, project design method, the method carrying out and monitoring and evaluating. The result shows that it is technologically feasible, economically reasonable and simple suitable, and it has the significant social significance and the important economic value.

Simulation of Extrusion of Rigid Polyvinyl Chloride in Twin-screw Dies

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 14-13.
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Abstract ( 516 )
Flat and round dies are numerically designed in this paper. The non-isothermal flow fields of rigid polyvinyl chloride melts in the dies are obtained by using the finite element method. The effects of die structure on polymer flow fields are studied to provide a theoretical and technical support for the die design. It is shown that the pressure in the transition zone is greater for the flat die than for the round die. The parameters along the axial direction have a greater variation for the flat die than for the round die. On the exit plane, the gradients of velocity and viscous heating are smaller for the flat die than for the round die. The velocity of the melts on the exit plane is more uniformly distributed for the flat die than that for the round die. However, the gradients of pressure, shear stress, shear rate and viscosity of the melts are greater in the flat die than in the round die. Higher stress leads to bigger die swell. In the die design, the die structure should be determined by considering all factors discussed and the characteristics of the polymer.
卷首语

Hydraulic-Hydroelectric StorageOperation and Sustainable Development

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 3-3. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 482 )
Reviews

Review on the Expansion Mechanism of Cement Paste Mixed with MgO-type Expansion Agent

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 3-6.
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Abstract ( 1238 )
In this paper, the research origin of MgO-type expansion agent(MEA), the state of study on expansion mechanism of cement paste mixed with MEA, the factors, such as curing temperature, MgO calcination system and verities of cement effecting of cement paste mixed with MEA on the expansion performance were reviewed. And the expansion mechanism of cement paste mixed with MEA was discussed. The deficiency of current mechanism is confusing the conceptions between MgO hydration and expansion mechanism in cement paste and the expansion mechanism of cement paste mixed with MEA, which is severely hindering the development of the expansion mechanism of cement paste mixed with MEA and disadvantage to instruct practical engineering. Only the expansion mechanism of cement paste mixed with MEA can fully instruct practice engineering, whereas, it is essential to investigate the hydration and expansion mechanism of MgO in cement and properties of cement paste effecting of cement paste mixed with MEA on the expansion performance to perfect the mechanism.

Review of Research on Wind Resources Changes in China and in the World

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 7-6.
Full text: HTML (0 KB)  PDF  (1044 KB)  ( 525 )
Abstract ( 545 )
Since the 20th century, with the rapid growth of the world economy, the energy demand has multiplied and energy industries are in a process of massive development with respect to wind resources. The wind energy, clean, renewable, and abundant in nature, offers pollution-free electricity, as the fastest growing energy approach in the world. Studies on wind climate and the change of wind resources are widely carried out. The observations of wind speeds during the 20th century indicate that: ① the wind speed sees an increasing trend in high latitudes and a declining trend in low latitudes of both hemispheres; ② the annual mean wind speed sees an obviously declining trend over broad areas of China; ③ urbanization, the change of anemometers, or the relocation of stations in China are factors that might be responsible for the decreasing trend of mean wind speeds. The decreasing trend in China is mainly due to the changes of atmospheric circulation. Furthermore, the prediction of wind and wind energy in the 21st century shows that as a result of increasing anthropogenic emissions and global warming, the annual and winter mean wind speeds and wind power densities are likely to reduce. The changes of summer mean wind speeds and wind power densities see great uncertainties. At present, the studies on the prediction of surface wind speed by the climate models and simulations have just started, and much work has to be done before some relatively reliable conclusions might be reached.

In-Vehicle Information System and Driving Safety

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 7-6.
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Abstract ( 502 )
As a fresh growth on technology and economy, new solutions of telematics, navigation, internet and entertainment while driving based on In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) was applied widely in automobile industry recently. The process of automobile-informationization has been accelerated gradually. However, based on Multi-Resource Theory, the application of IVIS during driving in forms of display check and text input distracted drivers visually in certain degrees, which caused threats to driving safety by competing with major driving tasks on visual, cognitive and other resources. Previous research found that the glance frequency and duration from using IVIS related to crashes and traffic dangers directly, meanwhile, decreased driver's ability on detecting key road incidents and controlling vehicles. Thus the safety design of IVIS, which focused on human-machine interactive method and driver's behavioral character, was very important. General methodologies of such research include field test, simulation test and simple laboratory test.

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0913): 116-116. ;  doi:
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特别栏目

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封面图片说明

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半月科技风云

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科技工作者建议

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Focus

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科技评论

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主编心语

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走向职场

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