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   Science & Technology Review
2009, Vol.27, No. 0903
13 February 2009

Articles
Reviews
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Articles

TANSHINONE EFFECT ON IRS-1, P-ERK EXPRESSION IN THE TROPHOBLASTIC CELLS UNDER INSULIN RESISTANCE

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0903): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 415 )
To investigate the expression of mitogen- activated protein kinase and insulin receptor substrate-1 in trophoblastic cell and the relationship between pertensive disorder complicating pregnancy.METHODS:(1)primary culture of human placental villus in vitro, trophoblastic cells were exposed to 2.5umol/L wortmannin for 48 hours to establish insulin-resistant trophoblastic cell. (2)Protein expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase was detected by western blotting RESULTS:(1)Under the microscope, the polygon cell grew monolayer slice and there were some syncytio- trophoblast by cell fusion. (2) Where there is insulin resistance, the level of insular signal transmission main protein IRS-1 rised 26.58% compared with normal. With treatment of tanshinone, the level of insular signal transmission main protein IRS-1 reduced 16.42% compared with model. With treatment of metformin, the level of insular signal transmission main protein IRS-1 reduced 6.66% compared with model.(3) Where there is insulin resistance, protein expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase rised 56.93% compared with normal. With treatment of tanshinone, protein expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase reduced 26.63% compared with model. With treatment of metformin, protein expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase reduced 10.18% compared with model.CONCLUSIONS: When trophoblastic cell has insulin resistance, protein expression of IRS-1 and p-ERK rised. Use of tanshinone and metformin reduced protein expression of IRS-1 and p-ERK.

New Concept of Ship Anti-Shock Layer in Underwater Explosion Wave Isolation

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0903): 19-24. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 844 )
The concept of ship anti-shock layer in underwater explosion wave isolation is developed based on the impedance mismatch theory. Wave equation and Taylor's flat plate model are adopted to derive fluid-structure interaction equations for the solid layer and the cavity layer. The numerical examples indicate that the ship anti-shock layer can isolate the underwater explosion wave from ship hull. The ship hull shock peak stress, acceleration and shock spectrum are attenuated significantly when the ship hull is covered with the anti-shock layer.

Computer Simulation of He and C60 Collisions and the Formation of He@C60

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0903): 25-30. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 799 )
Using the molecular dynamics method, describing the interaction between atoms with Brenner potential and Coulomb potential, the physical process of the collision between He and C60 and the formation of the He@C60 are simulated. By changing the incident energy of the He-Ein and the incident position of the C60, the energy threshold of the He@C60 is obtained. The analysis results of the energy transfer from the incident energy of the He to C60 agree with experimental data.

Image Denoising Based on Gaussian Scale Mixtures in the Curvelet Domain

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0903): 31-34. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 773 )
A new method using Gaussian Scales Mixtures in the Curvelet domain is proposed for image denoising. The Curvelet local coefficient model is first built using Gaussian Scale Mixtures. Then, the coefficients are estimated using Bayes least squares estimator. This algorithm combines the merits of Curvelet for image edge representation and Gaussian Scale Mixtures for capturing correlation of local coefficients. Some numerical experiments show the effectiveness of our method for image donoising, especially, for texture and detail predominated images.

Improvements of Extension Theory in Its Applications in Geological Engineering

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0903): 35-39. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1571 )
This paper focuses on the applications of extension theory in geological engineering. The characteristics of geological engineering are first discussed, and it is shown that the effect of different grades on the correlation degree is equivalent but interval lengths may be different; and correlation degree is linearly related with effect factor. With a special and simple geological engineering example, the extension matter-element theory is applied and then expanded, and related curves of all grades between correlation degrees and grades (effect factor values) are plotted. The problems are analyzed based on differences between curves and actual situations. A new correlation function is then proposed to improve the differences between the original function and actual situations. Finally, the improved function is shown in agreement with actual situations by analyzing its curves in geological engineering.

Reservoir Characteristics and Reservoir Formation Model of Super Deep Oil and Gas Reservoirs

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0903): 40-45. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 890 )
With the development of the petroleum exploration, deep oil and gas reservoirs become more and more important. The Yongjin area is one of the three blocks in the interior of the Junggar basin explored by the Sinopec. The exploration target in the Yongjin area is deeper than 5 500 meters, with reservoirs mainly consisting of fine sandstone and pebbled sandstone, skeleton grains being characterized by higher ratio detritus, lower compositional maturity, lower texture maturity, with very low porosity and super low permeability. There are five kinds of pores i.e. relict intergranular pore, intergranular emposieu, intragranular emposieu, argillaceous micropore and microfissure, with pore textures of very low porosity and microfine throat. The main influencing factors with respect to reservoir physical properties are intense squeezing action, dissolution, the coversion of clay minerals, which tend to decrease the porosity and permeability of the reservoir. There are stratigraphic and lithological oil and gas reservoirs in Yongjin area, the reservoir formation model is expressed by oil and gas from basal hydrocarbon source rock migrating along faults and layers and then being accumulated in the upper reservoir.

Index Optimization and Forecast Model of Spontaneous Combustion of Sulfide Ore Dump During Early Stage

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0903): 46-50. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 797 )
This paper presents the experimental studies on the tendency of the spontaneous combustion of sulfide ore dump during early stage. It is shown that the oxygen concentration keeps almost unchanged in incubation period, development period and period near self-ignition, varying in a range of 17%~18%. In addition, the SO2 concentration can be identified only in the period near self-ignition. However, the temperature variation of sulfide ore dump, as an obvious indicator in the process from oxidization and self-heating to self-ignition, proves to be the best index for predicting the tendency of the spontaneous combustion of sulfide ore dump. Based on a few existing temperatures data, it is possible to predict the temperatures by means of the exponential curve method and the results of prediction show that the forecast model is very effective. As a result, this model can be used in the mining safety and security practice.

Selection of Substrate in Ecological Protection Technique of Rock Slope

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0903): 51-55. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 852 )
In ecological protection technique of rock slope, as a new slope protection technique, the selection of substrate is the most important. The laboratory tests are carried out to determine the influencing factors of water, soil, cements, and compound material of organic matter and fiber. The orthogonal analysis method is used to evaluate the primary and secondary relations to the index. At last, the optimal scheme and optimal technological condition for the influencing factors are proposed, which show that, (1) in order to obtain the maximum strength of 7 day lasting test, the optimal combination of each factor is A2B2C2D4, that is 120 g for cements, 820 g for soil, 220 g for compound material of organic matter and fiber, and 1 200 g for water; (2) in order to obtain the maximum strength of 14 days lasting test and 28 days lasting test, the optimal combination of each factor is A2B2C2D3, that is 120 g for cements, 820 g for soil, 220 g for compound material of organic matter and fiber, and 1 100 g for water.

Slow Release Effect and Mechanism of Palygorskite Coated Fertilizer

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0903): 56-60. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 965 )
Spring wheat pot experiments were used to study the slow release effect and mechanism of palygorskite coated fertilizer. The results show that palygorskite coated phosphorus helps to make a slow release of fertilizer, to increase the weight per 1 000 grains, the economic coefficients, the economic yield, and the biomass of spring wheat, and to promote the transformation of biochemistry matter in spring wheat and the delayed aging. Therefore, palygorskite can be used as a new type of slow-release fertilizer coating materials in production.

Superconducting Magnetic Separation and Its Application in the Purification of Wastewater in Paper Factories

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0903): 61-66. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (0 KB)  PDF  (777 KB)  ( 831 )
Abstract ( 957 )
Traditional wastewater purifying methods are expensive and involve heavy facility investment, long time in treatment, and a requirement of large land area. In this paper, the purification of wastewater in small scale paper factories by using superconducting magnetic separation method is proposed. High Tc superconducting magnet cooled directly by cryocooler is designed. The central magnetic field can reach 1.48 Tesla and 3.92 Tesla in Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC) modes, respectively. In order to separate the nonmagnetic contaminants in the wastewater, the magnetic seeding particles modified by plasma polymerization technique were employed to realize the co-precipitation between contaminants and magnetic seeds. The results indicate that the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the wastewater can be reduced to 147 mg per liter after superconducting magnetic separation. The preparation of magnetic seeds by plasma polymerization is also discussed in detail.

The Application of Rain-Flow Counting Method in the Analysis of Load Spectrum

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0903): 67-73. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1002 )
The rain-flow counting method is discussed in this paper. Based on the loading spectra of a vehicle obtained from a standard test ground testing, a method is proposed for treating the actual measured data for load histories. The examples of the compression and extrapolation of loading spectra based on rain-flow counting are given, where the time scale is reduced remarkably. Then different roads in the test ground are combined to simulate the customer road. This research can pave the way for road simulation in a further step.

Utilization of Recombination Effect of PGMS Genes and TGMS Genes of Rice

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0903): 74-79. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (0 KB)  PDF  (414 KB)  ( 590 )
Abstract ( 973 )
By recombining the photo-sensitive Genic Male Sterile (PGMS) gene from Nongken 58S and the thermo-sensitive Genic Male Sterile (TGMS) genes from AnnongS, it was found that the frequency of PGMS plants was greatly increased, and abundant PGMS plants with various characteristics were obtained in the filial generations, and the male sterility of the rPGMS (recombinogenic PGMS and TGMS genes) plants was complete and stable. The recombination of PGMS and TGMS genes can not only solve the problems of incomplete sterility of PGMS lines, but also provide a very effective way to develop various types of elite rPGMS lines. By crossing an rPGMS line with another rPGMS line, more than 70% of F2 plants were found to be photo-sensitive male sterile. Based on the method, several rPGMS lines with low critical sterility-inducing temperature were developed in our study. When an sTGMS line (TGMS line with lowest critical sterility-inducing temperature) was crossed with its near iso-genic line, an rPGMS line, an rPTGMS line (TGMS line with PGMS and TGMS genes) or a TGMS line with high critical sterility-inducing temperature, the F1s saw a lowest critical sterility-inducing temperature and can be used to replace sTGMS lines in hybrid seed production. sTGMS lines were also multiplied by planting in a green house with supplementary pollination.

Isolation and electrophysiological characterization of cardiomyocytes in mouse heart

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0903): 80-82. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (0 KB)  PDF  (371 KB)  ( 494 )
Abstract ( 754 )
The methods of isolating cardiomyocytes in mouse heart and the electrophysiological characterization are studied in this paper. Enzyme digestion method was used to isolate single ventricular myocytes and whole cell patch clamp technique was used to record action potential and calcium current. The results show that 90%~95% pachyntic calcium tolerant ventricular myocytes can be obtained regularly, with a typical current of calcium channel recorded. The established method of isolation is simple, stable, effective and reliable. The electrophysiological recording of calcium current will provide a useful method for exploring the electrophysiological characteristics.

Influence of the Sand Treatment in Uyghur Medicine on Hemodynamics and Hemorheology of the Rabbit Experimental Knee Osteoarthritis

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0903): 83-86. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (0 KB)  PDF  (345 KB)  ( 623 )
Abstract ( 1547 )
This paper studies the effects on hemodynamics and hemorheology of sand treatments and the free-running of the rabbit experimental knee osteoarthritis. A model of genu OA is established successfully by fixing right hind limbs with gypsum in 20 rabbits. They were divided randomly into free movement group A and free movement added sand treatment group B, and the numerical values of hemodynamics and hemorheology were obtained 20 days after. The results show that: (1) Compare with group A, the blood viscosity of group B in low, middle, high shear rates, the erythrocyte electrophoresis and the volume of packed red blood cells have reduced after intervention (P<0.05); the plasma viscosity, and the shear rate of reduction viscosity in low shear rate have significantly improved after intervention (P<0.01). After the sand treatment, the shear rate of blood viscosity in low, middle, high shear rates, the plasma viscosity, the shear rate of reduction viscosity in low shear rate have significantly improved in group B as compare with before (P<0.01); the shear rate of reduction viscosity in high shear rate and the volume of packed red blood cells have degraded in group B as compare with before (P<0.05). (2) Compare with group A, the numerical values of PS, ED in arteria femoralis of right lower extremity have significantly increased after intervention in group B (P<0.01). After the sand treatment , the numerical values of PS, ED in arteria femoralis of right lower extremity have significantly increased in group B as compare with before (P<0.01), the numerical values of RI have reduced (P<0.05). The conclusion is that the sand treatment in Uyghur medicine could improve blood viscosity, reduce Peripheral Vascular Resistance (PVR) of the rabbit experimental knee osteoarthritis, meanwhile it could accelerate blood flow rate and lessen vascular resistance in arteria cruralis of the lower limbs in rabbit. This is one of the causes which sand treatment plays a role in anti-inflammatory action.

Psychological Typhoon Eye in 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake of May 12

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0903): 87-98. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1784 )
To analyze whether there is a so-called "Psychological Typhoon Eye" effect in 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake of May 12, a survey was carried out one month or so after the Earthquake. Residents in non-devastated area (N=542), slightly devastated area, moderately devastated area and extremely devastated area (N=1720) were asked to estimate the time and money needed for the reconstruction and rehabilitation of devastated areas. The ANOVA analysis shows that the main effect of devastation degree on estimated time and money is significant. The estimated time and money for the reconstruction and rehabilitation of devastated areas are greater by those in non-devastated area than by those in devastated area. A "Psychological Typhoon Eye" effect is in evidence, as contrary to common sense and ripple effect, where residents in non-devastated area tend to worry more than their counterparts in devastated area.
Reviews

Inventory of the Chinese Journals Indexed by International Database Services in 2008

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0903): 90-94. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (0 KB)  PDF  (355 KB)  ( 502 )
Abstract ( 1621 )
According to the E-mails and their attachments from 22 international indexation organizations of 7 countries, 2 134 Chinese journals are indexed in 2008. Among them, 1 921 journals come from mainland, 152 from Taiwan, 60 from Hong Kong and 1 from Macau. In view of the rapid development of science and technology in China, the number of Chinese journals selected by international indexation organizations in 2009 will surely increase.

Progress in Studied on Tandem Solar Cells

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0903): 95-98. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1682 )
The tandem solar cells increase the absorption of solar light and allow a more efficient use of the photo energy. The researches on tandem solar cells have been focused on a-Si tandem solar cells, compound tandem solar cells and dye-sensitized tandem solar cells. Their progress is reviewed in this paper. The structures, characteristics of every kind of tandem solar cells are discussed and evaluated. There are two major constraints for the development of tandem solar cells. One constraint is that it is difficult to find two semiconductor crystals matched well together. Another constraint is that solar cell materials that do not pollute the environment and can be obtained with a reasonable cost are scarce. Among the three kinds of solar cells, the dye-sensitized tandem solar cell will be the future development trend, for its production process is simple and enjoys a rich source of materials.

Studes on Miraculin, a Taste-modifying Protein

Science & Technology Review. 2009, 27 (0903): 99-101. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (0 KB)  PDF  (234 KB)  ( 603 )
Abstract ( 990 )
Miraculin is a glycoprotein with taste-modifying activity and is isolated from miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum), a shrub native to West Africa. The protein can modify human's taste and turn a sour taste to a sweet taste. The mature peptide of miraculin consists of 191 amino acids and has taste-modifying activity in the forms of dimmers or tetramers, but not in monomers. Two histidine residues, exposed on the outside of the protein, are the main functional groups. In addition to the taste-modifying activity, it can also improve sensitivity of diabetic animals to insulin. Several methods have been developed for the purification of miraculin, including dialysis, centrifugation, solvent precipitations and chromatographic separation. Recently, genetic engineering approaches have been applied to its production in transgenic microbes and plants. This paper reviews recent studies on its structure, function, extraction and biosynthesis in transgenic organisms.

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