10 July 2007, Volume 25 Issue 0713

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    . 2007, 25(0713): 15-17.
    Abstract ( ) Download PDF ( ) HTML   Knowledge map   Save
    In 2006, the 24 issues of Chinese Science Abstracts(Chinese Edition, CSAC) published a total of 42 243 abstracts covering articles published in 414 leading magazines and periodicals in China. CSAC analyzed the source of the articles upon which these abstracts were based and identified quantitatively the top 100 educational and scientific institutions which produced these articles. The productivity of these institutions evidences, from one aspect, the level of the scientific and research capability and academic achievement of these institutions.
  • 工业设计专题
  • . 2007, 25(0713): 18-21.
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    Interaction is the key factor and trend for information and industrial design in the information society. This paper focuses on interaction design methods for information design and researches on visual elements design guidelines to reach the visceral level, behaviour level and reflective level usability target and user experience target for interaction design.
  • . 2007, 25(0713): 22-26.
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    Digital Cultural Heritage(DCH) means to protect human's remembering and enhance information perception. The paper focuses on the study of information design method in DCH and provides an Information Design model originated from information philosophy which includes information management, information representation and information communication in the DCH projects. Information Design in DCH reveals rational intelligence in Science, emotional intelligence in Humanities and visual intelligence of Perception and Recognition in Social Sciences and Humanities. And the paper gives a brief review on the digital cultural heritage protection by achieving the culture systematic preservation, heritage sustainable development and civilization effective broadcasting.
  • . 2007, 25(0713): 27-29.
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    Just as more and more people realize the importance of occupational disease of the laptop, determining how to solve the problem puzzled many scientists and technicians. The ergonomic theory is used in designing the keyboard of the laptop in the paper. Considering the defects in the design of the keyboard from the ergonomic angle, and the facets of moving the location of the whole keyboard, the unique shape design of "A" and the layout of the location of some key-presses are developed to improve and redesign the keyboard of the laptop. The design is humanism and easier to operate. The efficiency and practicality of the new design is better.
  • . 2007, 25(0713): 30-33.
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    As an emerging art-form, newmedia art is becoming an increasingly important component of the field. Focused on the relationship, developing principles and basic features of newmedia art and information art, this paper claims that newmedia art is the integration and cross of art and science; in addition, newmedia art plays an important role in promoting creative industries.
  • Articles
  • . 2007, 25(0713): 34-40.
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    In order to study the potential role of mast cells in Special Pathogens Free(SPF) chickens infected by the very virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (vvIBDV), 60 SPF chickens of 30 days of age were randomly divided into two groups(control group and vvIBDV tested group). The chickens in the tested group were innoculated with vvIBDV through nosedrop, eyedrop and anusrub. Bursa of Fabricious, thymus and spleen were taken at 0, 24, 48, 72 hpi(hours post-infection). The dynamic change of mast cell was tested by improved Toluidine Blue(TB) staining. The quantity change of vvIBDV viral antigen and 5-HT in tissues were tested by immunohistochemistry. The results show: ① vvIBDV viral antigen is extensively distributed in thethymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricious, however, the localization of vvIBDV viral antigen is different in different tissues and organs. Obviously, the positive substance of vvIBDV viral antigen in the experimental group enhances the inflammatory reaction in the major immune organs such as bursa of Fabricius, spleen and thymus. ② The number of mast cells obviously increases in the experimental group (P<0.01) after vvIBDV infection. Compared with the control group, the mast cells gradually increase from 24 hpi to 48 hpi and 72 hpi (P<0.05). And few mast cells could be found in the bursa,thymus and spleen of control group. ③ 5-HT, the product of mast cells, is distributed in the tissues according to the mast cells' distribution. The result suggests that mast cells and 5-HT participate in the infectious process of vvIBDV.
  • . 2007, 25(0713): 41-44.
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    As a rapid and accurate approach, the real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR method is established to quantify the Senegal bichir Shh gene expression in tissue. The method consists of choosing the object, the sample of mRNA, increasing RT-PCR, purifying, connecting it with pGEM-T-easy and transforming pGEM-T-easy. Through selecting, cutting, testing the sample, it is indicated that the colon has been shaped. The conduction is then followed by PCR detection of plasmid and recombinant T-easy-vectors digested by EcoRI. The equation is y=-0.32x+10.47 and the ratio is 1.00. The constructed plasmid containing only the target gene was used to construct a calibration curve. The absolute standard curve method was shown to be of high linearity, sensitivity and reproducibility. This study intends to set up a solid basis for a further investigation on the distribution and the action of Shh gene and its system.
  • . 2007, 25(0713): 45-48.
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    A useful experimental system for primary hemocytes cultures using pearl oyster(Pinctada fucata) is established. Seven days after initiation of the culture, the viability of hemocytes remained constant as measured by the trypan blue exclusion technique. Survival of cells cultured in FBS-supplemented L-15 medium was similar to that of cultured in L-15 medium not containing FBS. The effects of LPS and IL-2 on the pearl oyster hymocytes cultures were examined through determination of the iNOS activities. LPS and IL-2 were found to induce the iNOS activities in a dose and time-dependent manner. The best response in the activity of iNOS was obtained after about 36 hours of stimulation, and the optimized concentrations of LPS and IL-2 were 1~10 ?滋g/mL and 10~100 ng/mL, respectively. The results also indicate that iNOS activity would be induced more rapidly by IL-2 than by LPS.
  • . 2007, 25(0713): 49-53.
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    Orderly growth of mesophase was studied using FCC slurry as raw materials, in a multi-tube well-crucible furnace controlled by programmed heating. The thermal decomposition gas flow was continuously observed to see its influence on the mechanism of mesophase orderly growth using a high temperature optical microscope. It is shown that reactant yield was rapidly decreased in the initial reaction stage and tended towards stability gradually on a later reaction stage, and the yield could be represented by an index decay function. The polymerization initial stage was the main period of formulation and growth of mesophase in the pipe of variable diameter, and the size distribution of mesophases was non-uniform. With the growth of mesophase and the increase of its content, the viscosity was also increased in the system. The orderly growth of mesophase was promoted by the single flow of the thermal decomposition gas. In-situ observation shows that there was a little micro-crystal in the raw materials, while it was precisely the superfine anisotropic crystal that further promoted the growth and development of mesophase. The suitable temperature for mesophase growth was in the range of 440~450℃. In addition, the mesophase moving path was observed as in a continuous change in the high temperature optical microscope because of surface tension and the side blowing of N2. That fact further verifies the influence of the flow of gas on orderly growth of mesophase.
  • . 2007, 25(0713): 54-59.
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    This paper studies the fundamental theory of the discrete ill-posed regularization and the generalized minimal residual algorithm (GMRES(m)) based on Krylov subspace methods and specially the relationship between residual vector and Krylov subspace. The techniques are based on the projection process. Discrete ill-posed regularization methods convert ill-posed problems into posed problems, so the generalized minimal residual algorithm can be used in this kind of ill-posed problems. Numerical results show the reliability and efficiency of the algorithm.
  • . 2007, 25(0713): 60-64.
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    Considering the poor physicochemical property, its non-uniformity, and low permeability of mainly lithologic and stratigraphic pool of reservoir type in the southern depression of Wuliyasitai sag, the sedimentary reservoir is studied in this paper, using sequence stratigraphic methods and new technique of reservoir prediction. Many sandstone bodies of different periods and different types are identified, the range of the sandstone bodies is determined, and the reservoir position is predicted. In recent three years, ten wells were drilled with success.
  • Reviews
  • . 2007, 25(0713): 65-74.
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    Ecological assets evaluation is one of hotspots and difficult problems in the studies on environmental resources,ecological economics and applied ecology.This paper reviews the current state of the evaluation through the following three aspects: the evaluation of a single ecosystem (an artificial or natural system), the evaluation of a complex ecosystem, and the evaluation of ecological assets, which are affected by biological or no-biological factors. It is concluded that the ecological assets evaluation is a very complicated task that needs the cooperation of experts in different fields, especially ecologists and economists. At the same time, some issues are suggested for future studies, such as spatial heterogeneity, glue value of system, dynamic system, social goals (fairness, efficiency).
  • Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25(0713): 75-79.
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    An important characteristic of the interfacial constitutive model for the fracture initiation and propagation is different with macroscopic fracture criteria, which based on elastic or elastic-plastic analyses, In interfacial constitutive model, material strength, toughness, crack nucleation and propagation are all characterized by the local traction-separation relationship and the cohesive surface methodology. The five current main interfacial constitutive models were introduced. These interfacial model characters and the interface traction-separation relation were presented.