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   Science & Technology Review
2007, Vol.25, No. 0706
25 March 2007


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Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0706): 1-1. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 320 )

Generalized Remote Sensing for Solid Earth Hazards Under Condition of GEOSS

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0706): 5-11. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 527 )
Geological hazards, tectonic earthquake and mine hazards are three kinds of chief solid Earth hazards in China, caused by the crust movements and rock disastrous fracturing due to overloading . By analyzing the present situations of experimental researches on electromagnetic radiation from overloaded rock and on remote sensing related with solid Earth hazards, it is suggested to establish a 3D coordinated integrated remote sensing system with all kind of electromagnetic and non-electromagnetic techniques being applied and satelli: e-based, airborne-based, surface-based and underground-based monitoring units being integrated. The limitation of information fusion theory for classic remote sensing should be overcome so as to search for and to mine out at temporal, spatial and physical scales the correlated mechanisms and laws between multiple physical parameters inside the generalized remote sensing information. In order to improve the reliability in identifying the precursors related with solid Earth hazards, the feasibility of establishing a generalized remote sensing system for the monitoring solid Earth hazards in the condition of Global Earth Observation System of System(GEOSS) is analyzed. Meanwhile, some important issues including the information fusion theory for generalized remote sensing and the identification model for the precusors of solid Earth hazards are discussed.

Monitoring Agricultural Drought by Vegetation Index and Remotely Sensed Temperature

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0706): 12-18. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 850 )
Agricultural drought is one of major natural disasters and has devastated impacts on agriculture. Generally, soil moisture is a key indicator of agricultural drought, which can be estimated based on the relationship between remotely sensed surface temperature(LST) and vegetation index(NDVI), and be used to evaluate crop drought. Specifically, the dry and wet edges in LST/NDVI feature space are identified using 14 years NOAA/NASA Pathfinder AVHRR Land data over China and an algorithm is proposed for the regional estimate of soil moisture. Results show that the slope of the relationship between LST and NDVI (LST/NDVI slope) is significantly correlated to in situ soil moisture (R2=0.78, P<0.01), and the intercept and slope of dry edge have a consistent relationship with those of wet edge, but the dry and wet edges show great spatial and temporal variations. In this paper, the mainland of China is divided into 6 zones, and the parameters of LST/NDVI space are determined for each zone. Then, the soil moisture is obtained by inversion using the proposed method. Based on the arable land map and drought grade, the drought distribution map for arable land is produced, which may be used in quick macroscopic agricultural information services for drought relief.

Inversion Model for Dynamic Monitoring of Suspended Sediment: A Case Study on Poyang Lake

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0706): 19-22. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 509 )
The suspended sediment is closely related with water environment quality and is also the key issue in the disaster study associated with the processes of erosion, deposit and sediment transportation. A fitted inversion model plays an important role in the dynamic monitoring of suspended sediments. In this study, in situ observed remote sensing reflectance data were used to simulate the corresponding channels of TM/ETM+ and MERIS data. A comparison is made on five empirical and semi-empirical inversion models for a single channel and the ratios among different channels. The result suggests that the logarithmic model based on reflectance of MERIS channel 7 is most suitable for suspended sediment dynamic monitoring in Poyang Lake.

Using Hyperspectral Derivative Index to Identify Winter Wheat Stripe Rust Disease

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0706): 23-26. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 480 )
The canopy reflectance of winter wheat infected with stripe rust of different severities through artificial inoculation and the disease index(DI) of the wheat corresponding to the spectra were measured in the field. The results shows that the 1st derivative values increase in the green edge(500~560 nm) and decrease in the red edge (680~760 nm) with DI increasing. The ratio of the sum of derivative within the red edge (SDr) and that within the green edge (SDg) has a good correlation with the healthy or diseased crops 12 days before symptoms appearing. Therefore, the derivative vegetation index SDr/SDg can be used to identify crops disease information effectively.

Remote Sensing Survey for a Landslide Disaster in the Boundary River Between China and India

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0706): 27-31. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1123 )
On 22nd June 2004, a landslide disaster occurred in the right bank of the middle reach of the Pali River, a boundary river between China and India. The landslide blocked the Pali River and formed a barrier lake, then, with the dam broken, flood discharged and destroyed villages in China and India near the boundary. AGRS organized "the landslide of the Pali River satellite remote sensing survey" program. With a total of 13 temporal satellite data of 6 types as the data resources, based on "digital landslide" technique, which combines the landslide principle and integrates RS with GPS and GIS, the disaster survey and monitoring is carried out. It is shown that the disaster was caused by a middle scope rapid rock landslide. Two years' monitoring indicates that the whole of 2004-6-22 landslide body has already fallen down to the Pali River and the bank slope where the landslide occurred is now basically stable with only a few upside rock slip. Remote sensing ascertained that the original place of barrier lake was an atrophic lake basin of scale now of 1.3 km2. The entire process from formation of the barrier lake to the lake burst has been monitored by remote sensing. It is predicted that if the Pali River should block again, the Kala and Chulushongjie villages in China will be mostly affected and some villages in India near the boundary may also be affected, so the lower reach villages should seek refuge to avoid the disaster.

Features and Mechanisms of the Satellite Thermal Infrared Anomaly

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0706): 32-37. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 541 )
Thermal infrared anomaly before tectonic earthquake is a much studied topic related with seismology and remote sensing. In this paper, the thermal infrared anomaly before the Hengchun earthquake (Dec. 26, 2006, Ms=7.2) in Taiwan region is analyzed. The results show that the anomaly has the following features: ① a thermal infrared anomaly area appeared on the east of Philippines six days before Hengchun earthquake, and it gradually moved toward west; ② the anomaly moves to Philippines two days before shocking; ③ then the anomaly changed its moving direction from westward to northward, the anomaly became gradually close to the epicenter, and the strength as well as the scope of the anomaly region became more and more larger; ④ the strength of the anomaly reached the peak one day before shocking, and the brightness temperature increased by about 10℃. The relationship between the thermal anomaly and the tectonic activity of Taiwan region is also studied. The results indicate that the satellite thermal anomaly before Hengchun earthquake is evidently controlled by the tectonic activity of Taiwan region. It is suggested that the overall action of the out-going stress heating effect and the geothermal and the greenhouse effect initiated and amplified by the movement and concentration of crustal stress field in the seismogenic zone is the chief mechanism of satellite thermal anomaly before Hengchun earthquake.

Satellite Thermal Infrared Anomaly and Impending Earthquake

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0706): 38-42. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 448 )
In this paper, the infrared anomaly related with impending earthquakes is analyzed as the basis for forecasting tectonic earthquakes by satellite thermal infrared anomaly. Many hypotheses based on experiments are reviewed, in the light of the infrared image analysis and ground observations. Their theoretical basis——Stefan-Boltzmann law is applied to analyze the features of infrared anomaly, including the transient features in time, the regional features in space and the amplitude variation features in temperature. The paper focuses on the method of forecasting earthquake with satellite infrared remote sensing.

War Simulation and Its Challenge in the Information Age

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0706): 43-48. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 472 )
The study on war in the information age requires a new methodology with respect to war gaming and simulation. According to the system complexity theory and, considering the characteristics of the information age war, first we give the basic conception of war simulation; then discuss some key problems about the modeling of war gaming and simulation, and methods of modeling and simulation in the war complex system, and finally analyze the challenges of war simulation in the information age.

Comprehensive Simulation of War System Based on Artificial Life

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0706): 48-53. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 436 )
War system is a typical complex system, whose study must be guided by the complexity science, where the concept of artificial life plays an important role. In this paper, the artificial societies of war system based on artificial life and agent-based modeling and simulation, including the special public opinion, the general public opinion, the economy in a special area, and international political ecology, are reviewed and analyzed. Finally, some key problems——emergence, solutions of war problems, and individual's adaptability, etc. are discussed.

Analytical Simulation Experiments of War System

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0706): 54-59. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 474 )
The analysis and experiments of the war system, as a typical complex system, should meet a series of requirements, such as the system of systems encounter, their integrity and dynamic characteristics under the conditions of information warfare. With the up-down warfare analysis methods being integrated into the Computational Experiments, the conception of Simulation based Warfare Analysis Experiment (SWAE) is proposed. Its modes, phases and basic framework are discussed. This paper focuses on the exploratory simulation experiment method and its key technique, and also briefly describes the experiment environment support to the warfare analysis simulation.

Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) and Its Applications

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0706): 60-67. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1294 )
The Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) is one of the most important free international database, used widely in international disaster management and research community. This paper introduces the creation and characteristic of EM-DAT database, the criteria, type and content of the data contained at first, including the procedure and method, and some extant questions of this database. Secondly, the applications of the EM-DAT in The Hotspots Indexing Project (Hotspots) and The Disaster Risk Indexing Project (DRI) have been analyzed. Finally, this paper carried on preliminary research on the flood disaster characteristic in Asia during 1976-2005 years on the base of this database.

Controversies on SSC in the Hearings Before the US Congress, 1986-1993

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0706): 68-72. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 474 )
The superconducting super collider was one of the big science programs in the USA, with its final budget being about 11 billion dollars and it was planed to be completed in ten years. However, when over 1/5 of the whole program was completed and about 2 billion dollars was spent, the Congress voted down this program with 0.6 billion dollars to deal with the consequent problems of the SSC's termination 8 years after it was ratified. In this article, the controversies on SSC in the hearings before the US Congress are discussed, tracing back from the time when SSC was ratified to the time when the program was voted down by the Congress. The reasons of SSC's termination and the related problems are also analyzed.

Entrepreneur's Role in the Technological Innovation Based on the Theory of Principal and Agent

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0706): 73-76. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 479 )
The entrepreneur,as the leader of an enterprise, is the key factor in the enterprise's innovation, and is also the principal force in making that decision. But he will have to pay part of the cost in case of an unsuccessful innovation. So, it is essential to cultivate the innovational motivation of the entrepreneur. In the first part of the paper, based on the theory of principal and agent, a dynamic model is set up, considering that motivation in case of asymmetric information. The correlative parameters and solutions of that mode are analyzedl. Furthermore, the entrepreneur's innovational behavior in his decisions and the roles he plays in the process of innovation are also discussed. Some helpful suggestions on innovation are given.

On Construction of Culture Inside Editorial Board of Sci-Tech Periodical

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0706): 76-78. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 489 )
A set of cultures inside editorial board must be set up to help the editorial board hold sustainable development. Combined with the definition of culture inside editorial board, the contents of constructing culture inside editorial board and the method for constructing culture inside editorial board are proposed. The contents of constructing culture inside editorial board are developed and implemented through the practice of Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University.

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