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   Science & Technology Review
2007, Vol.25, No. 0701
10 January 2007

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Reviews

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Important Advances of Sciences in China in 2006

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0701): 5-14. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 641 )
According to the principle of evaluating within each branch, putting quality before quantity, giving facts in time order, 30 important scientific research achievements in China in 2006 are selected and introduced in this paper, in which 13 are in basic research, 7 in life science, 4 in resource and environment research, and 6 in basic research directly related with high and new technologies.
空间生命科学研究专题

A Preliminary Study on Micro-carrier Technique in the Space Cell Culture System

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0701): 15-18. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1293 )
In this paper, a refined cell monocolonization protocol is explored, together with methods of obtaining the cell shape and proliferation, and the method of isolation of nucleic acids from cells on micro-carriers. Without dissociating cells with trysin from micro-carrier, morphological characteristics of normal and apoptotic cells are analyzed by staining and microscopic observation, while the cell proliferation is analyzed by MTT methods. The RNA and DNA are directly isolated with Trizol reagent and QIAamp DNA kit from cells adhered on micro-carriers. Cells can be morphologically observed and photographed when attached to micro-carrier. MTT analysis shows that a linear relation exists between cell amount and OD value. RNA isolated from cells on micro-carriers is intact and can be used for RT-PCR. DNA quantity of directly isolated group is larger than that of trysin group. Cell monocolonization protocol modified by us is simpler and cheaper with acceptable viability. The shape and proliferation of cells attached on micro-carriers can be directly observed, and nucleic acids can be isolated.

Morphological Study on the Low Oncogenesis B16 Cell Clone Mutagenized by Space Environment

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0701): 19-23. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 603 )
The morphological characters of the low oncogenesis melanoma B16 cell clone mutagenized by space environment are studied. The mutated cell clones and control B16 cells were detected with immunofluorescence cytochemistry and confocal lasers scanning microscopy. The mutated cell clones and the control cell clones were imaged by AFM, and the differences between their images were observed. The fluorescent intensity of microfilaments increases in 8# cells. The fiber of cytoskeleton in 8# cells is enlarged. The AFM images show that the shape of the fibronectin secreted by 8# cell clone is different from that of the control clone, the fiber is flatter than that of the control clone, it is bent and circuity; while the fiber of the control clone is like mountain ridge radiated from the cell pseudopodia. There is a few “well” or “hole” like structures on the surface of the 8# cell clone, but there is no such structures observed in the control clone. The surface structure and the distribution of cell cycle are different from those of the control clone. Whether the space environment could increase the immunogenicity of the tumor cells remains to be studied. The findings suggest that there are mutagenesis factors which could mutate the culture tumor cells in the outer space.

Effects of Space Environments and Shenqi Fuzheng Injection on Jurkat Cell

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0701): 32-34. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 591 )
In this paper, the physiological characteristics of Jurkat cells in spaceflight and the protection role of Shenqi Fuzheng Injection are studied, in order to develop new methods to prevent the damage of outer space to the astronauts' immune system. The Jurkat cells were on board of the No.22 recoverable satellite and were collected after 18 days' spaceflight. The morphological characteristics of Jurkat cells are observed by microscopy and Giemsa staining. Shenqi Fuzheng Injection was added to the Jurkat cells cultured under the same conditions on the ground. And the cell morphological observation MTT assay is used for analysis of cell growth characteristics. The Jurkat cells are found to survive after 18 days' spaceflight without care. The group with Shenqi Fuzheng Injection are found to be better in cell growth and in morphological characteristics than the control group. The environment of outer space is in favor of Jurkat cell survival. Shenqi Fuzheng Injection plays a protection role for Jurkat cells.

One Step Rapid Staining Method for Cytology

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0701): 35-37. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 610 )
Morphology of cells seeded on micro-carriers can be observed in situ with the rapid staining method established in our laboratory. The rapid staining solution consists of toluidine blue and color stabilizer. B16 melanoma cells, Caski uterine cervix carcinoma cells and BEL-7402 hepatic carcinoma cells were seeded on micro-carriers separately. One drop of cell-seeded micro-carrier suspension and one drop of the rapid staining solution were placed on the slide, mixed throughly, stained 0.5~2 minutes, coverslipped and then examined with light microscope. The results show that the cellular structure can be seen clearly with bright hue, whereas micro-carriers are stainless. This method can be used for rapid staining of cells in cultural suspension, exfoliated cells or smear. The technical procedure is simple and convenient for a wide use in scientific research, clinical examination and monitoring on the samples of engineering cells in industrial production.

Progress on the Effect on Space Environment on Plant

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0701): 38-42. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 596 )
The effects of microgravity, heavy ionizing radiation, subelectromagnetic fields and other space factors on biological characteristics and genetic mutations at the protein and gene levels are discussed. The prospects and existing problems of space mutation breedings are summarized.

Aberrance Analysis of Impatiens Balsamine Induced by Space Flight and the Cultivation of New Varieties

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Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0701): 43-46. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 612 )
The aberrances of cell and morphology of impatiens balsamine induced by space flight were investigated. Lagging chromosome, dispersal chromosome and chromosomal circle were found in the course of meiosis in SP1 generation of some plants. The number of chromosomes in microspore varied from 1 to 28, and the shape and size of microspore varied greatly. The relationship between the size of microspore, the number of chromosomes and the pollen fertility was revealed. After meiosis, most pollen mother cells were developed into microspores tetrad, but with paraspores and trispores coming into being, meanwhile the number and morphology of cotylvariants was found varying in some plants. The long willow leaf-shaped and short round-shaped plants were also found. No.1 Xihang and No.2 Xihang were cultivated after three generations.

Effects of Space Environment on Proliferation Ability in vivo and Immunogenicity of Melanoma B16 Cells

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0701): 24-27. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 600 )
The effects of space environment on the proliferation ability and immunogenicity of melanoma B16 cells are studied in this paper. Four B16 cells, which were on board in the 20th recoverable satellite, are selected. Their biological characteristics are found changed significantly in experiments in vitro. B16 cells selected were inoculated into C57BL/6 mice; each kind of space cells was injected into 20 mice, which were divided into two groups randomly, with ten mice in each group inoculated with experimental cells and one group were inoculated in the abdominal cavities to observe the survival time of tumor mice, and the other group were inoculated under the chest skins to record the time named as the forming-tumor time when the diameters of tumors exceeded 3 mm. The tumor mice were killed 2 weeks after the space cells were inoculated. Then, tumors were ablated and serum was separated. The tumors were weighted to measure the abilities of space mutant B16 cells in forming tumors; tumor slices were stained to observe the changes of shape of space mutant B16 cells; the concentration of InterLeukin-2 (IL-2) of the serum of tumor mice was determinrd to observe the immunogenicity of space cells with the method of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Comparedwith wild melanoma B16 cells, the survival time of the tumor mice with inoculated 11# cells was found to be shortened significantly, while that with 4#, 9#, 15# and Gro cells saw no apparent changes; the time in forming tumors for tumor mice inoculated with 11# and Gro cells was prolonged significantly, while that with 4#, 9# and 15# cells saw no apparent changes; the weight of carcinomas of tumor mice inoculated with 11# cell decreased significantly, that with 15# cells increased, while that with 4#, 9# and Gro cell saw no apparent changes. Tumor slices stained by the method of HE showed that the necrotic area of carcinomas of 11# space cells was reduced and there were lymphocytes within the tumor tissues in tumor mice inoculated with 11# and 15# space mutant cells. RIA tests showed that the IL-2 concentration in the serum of tumor mice inoculated with 9#, 11#, 15# and Gro cells increased, especially that with 11# cells; while that with 4# cells saw no changes. Space environment may change the proliferation ability and immunogenicity of melanoma B16 cells.
研究报告

Protection of Magnesium Lithospermate B on Aortic Endothelial Cells of Human Beings in Spaceflight

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0701): 28-31. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 581 )
This paper studies the protecting effects of Magnesium Lithospermate B(MLB) on aortic endothelial cells of human beings in a low temperature cell system in space. Aortic endothelial cells cultured in the low temperature cell system were on board of the No. 22 recoverable satellite. After 18-day's flight, cells were harvested, counted and stained by Giemsa. Comparing with the control group, the cells treated with Magnesium Lithospermate B are found to be in better conditions in morphology and proliferation. Magnesium Lithospermate B can improve the living condition of endothelial cells in spaceflight and reduce the damage to the cells from space radiation, micro-gravity and magnetic microfield.

Editors’ Evaluation of Summitted Papers Based on Fuzzy Selection in a Multi-Objective Decision-Making System

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0701): 62-64. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 504 )
Editors' evaluation is an important part of the three stage evaluation system for submitted papers. At present one may find two extreme tendencies: editors' evaluation is totally based on experts' advice or totally ignores experts' advice. An index based system for editors' evaluation is put forward in this paper, and a fuzzy selection model for a multi-objective decision-making system is established to evaluate the quality of submitted academic papers. This new method is found effective in practical applications.

Study on the Key Successful Factors of Enterprise Technology Alliance

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0701): 65-68. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 545 )
With the globalization competition environment, the fast technical progress, and the increase of technical investment cost, enterprises should take advantages of each other's strong points to disperse technical investment risk through an alliance. This paper studies a level analytic method (Analytic Hierarchy Process, AHP). Based on the technical alliance' goal and motive, the confronted questions and the factors concerning its success or failure, the enterprise strategic plan, the alliance partner choice, the alliance communication management, the law and regulations, and the government measures are taken as main axle in the technical alliance development strategy for appraisal index of small and medium-sized enterprises. The questionnaire survey was made of three groups of people from, industry, the government unit, and the experts, and key factors influencing enterprise technology alliance' success were obtained.
Reviews

Epidemics and Prevention of Main Rodent-Borne Diseases in China from 2000 to 2005

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0701): 47-51. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (892 KB)  ( 124 )
Abstract ( 524 )
There are 20 rodent-borne diseases that have been ascertained in China. The names of diseases, rodent hosts, vectors and geographical distribution are listed in this paper. Plague, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and leptospirosis are three main rodent-borne diseases in China. The cases of these 3 diseases show a decreasing trend generally in 2000-2005 according to the surveillance data. The control measures include the control of infection sources, the cut-off of routes of transmission and the vaccination.

Controlled Organic Reactions: Some Important Selective Methodologies

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0701): 52-58. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (4057 KB)  ( 307 )
Abstract ( 534 )
Some controlled organic reactions in the organic synthesis were discussed, and a detailed description about the substrate control, reagent control, protective group control,kinetic control and stereochemistry control was given.

How to Build a Harmonious Editorial Atmosphere

Science & Technology Review. 2007, 25 (0701): 59-61. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (115 KB)  ( 314 )
Abstract ( 1405 )
A harmonious editorial atmosphere may promote a positive circulation of sci-tech periodicals. Some typical examples of unharmonious phenomena in the editors' work are given to remind editors of the importance of a good relationship in the editorial field, for evoking intiatives of editors, authors, and readers, building trust among them and encouraging their cooperations. A harmonious editorial atmosphere can make up the deficiency in editors' knowledge and capability, and ensure the achievement of editors' working objectives.

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