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   Science & Technology Review
2006, Vol.24, No. 0612
10 December 2006

Articles
Reviews

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Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 1-1. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 299 )

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 36-36. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 263 )
诺贝尔奖成果介绍专题

RNA Interference: Gene Silencing by Double-Stranded RNA——An Introduction to the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 5-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 497 )
RNA interference (RNAi) refers to the gene silencing phenomenon induced by double-stranded RNAs. The RNAi mechanism is well conserved from plants to animals. It plays important roles in many important biological processes, such as antisense response, transposon repression and development regulation. RNA interference is also an important tool for gene function study and gene therapy. Due to the importance of RNA interference, two American scientists, Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello, were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine of 2006 for their contribution in the discovery of RNA interference.

The Molecular Basis of Eukaryotic Transcription: An Introduction to the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 8-11. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 499 )
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006 was awarded to Roger D. Kornberg for his fundamental study of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription. Roger D. Kornberg spent ten years in developing an in vitro yeast transcription system, and depicted pictures of RNA polymerase II and other complexes containing general transcription factors, Mediator, DNA and RNA by combining crystallography with biochemical knowledge. Furthermore, he firstly illustrated the whole process of how transcription works at a molecular level in a eukaryotic cell. Accumulative evidence demonstrates that the study of molecular mechanisms of eukaryotic transcription plays important roles in the treatment of diseases and the regulation of stem-cell development.

COBE,A Milestone in Cosmology: Comments on Nobel Prize in Physics 2006

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 12-14. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 562 )
The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2006 was awarded by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to John Mather and George Smoot for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The physical implications of COBE's achievement are briefly expounded.
Articles

Quantum Interference and Its Application in Light Storage

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 15-20. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 445 )
All-optical communication is a pursuance in optical communications, which has not yet been realized owing to that the electric-optic conversion can not be avoided in current technologies. In recent years, thanks to the development in quantum coherence and quantum information technologies, people have implemented the coherent manipulation of the group velocity of the light pulse. Moreover, one has achieved the short time storage of light pulse in medium and then releases it. These achievements have shown brilliant future to the final implementation of applicable light storage and therefore the all-optical communications.

Central Memory T Cells and Effector Memory T Cells

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 20-22. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 509 )
Immunological memory is an important characteristic of adaptive immune response and elucidation of its cellular basis is critical for vaccine exploration and disease prevention. Recent studies have shown that memory T cells could be divided into central memory T cells and effector memory T cells, which were different in distribution, function and biological characteristics. Further investigations on their relationship may contribute to our understanding of immunological memory and the clinical therapy of tumor.

Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 Contributes to Physiological and Nociceptive Sensory Processes in the Urinary Bladder

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 23-27. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1265 )
Metabotropic glutamate receptors(mGluRs1-8)are members of the G protein-coupled receptor(GPCR)superfamily and they have been implicated in processes requiring synaptic plasticity such as learning and memory,neuronal development and neurodegeneration.mGluR5 is distributed throughout the central nervous system including areas involved in nociception and in unmyelinated sensory afferent terminals as well,suggesting that mGluR may play a role in pain sensation.The present study aims to delineate the role of mGluR5 in physiological and nociceptive sensory processes of the urinary bladder.In vivo cystometry observations in the rat showed that the mGluR5 antagonist,MPEP,significantly raised the voiding threshold.In pentobarbital-anesthetized rat,MPEP attenuated the motor responses of the abdominal muscle induced by rapid noxious distension of the urinary bladder.The effect occurred in a dose-dependent manner and was reversible.In the isolated mouse bladder/pelvic nerve preparation,we recorded...更多 the bladder afferent nerve discharge in response to ramp distension of the bladder.In preparations taken from control mice,MPEP(0.1 to 100 M)failed to induce significant changes in the pressure-nerve response curve.In preparations(n=5)taken from mice pre-treated with cyclophosphamide(125 mg/kg,ip,24 hr before experiment),MPEP(0.3 M)depressed the high threshold afferent discharge.In in vivo studies,MPEP(1 mol/kg,ip)significantly attenuated the leg withdrawal frequency in response to von Frey hair stimulation of the paw in cyclophophamide-treated mice but not in normal control mice.These observations indicate that mGluR5 is unlikely to be involved in peripheral mechanosensory transduction in normal bladder,but rather may play a role in central processing of the peripheral afferent inputs.Peripheral and central mGluR5 appears to be up-regulated in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis and may therefore be potential therapeutic targets for visceral hyperalgesia and functional disorders.

Effects of Temperature on the Sorption of Pb2+ from Aqueous Solution by Natural Kaolinite

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 27-30. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 507 )
This report is based on the investigation of the effects of temperature on the removal of Pb2+ in aqueous effluent using natural kaolinite in a batch sorption process. The result showed that the experimental data are in good agreement with the Freundlich isotherm. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG°, ΔH°, ΔS° and Ea have been calculated. The data showed that the sorption process is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The sticking probability model was further employed to assess the applicability of the natural kaolinite as an alternative adsorbent for Pb2+ in aqueous system. The findings of this investigation suggest that physical sorption plays a role in controlling the sorption rate.

A Model and Simulation of Laser Target Detecting System

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 31-33. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 498 )
The aim of simulation research is to provide effective guidance for scientific design and performance evaluation of laser detecting system. The simulation modeling is presented aiming at certain laser detector system. The laser echo power formulation and photo-electricity transform model are analyzed. The simulation of laser detecting system is carried out based on these models. Ultimately, the models mentioned are proved effective by detecting sample experiments. The simulation aiming at certain typical detecting target can deduce that the laser detecting system can realize target identification exactly and distinguish targets with different figure by the difference of echo waveform.
实验技术

Inspections on Carbon Fiber-reinforced Concrete Compound Materials for Defects with the Method of Infrared Thermograph

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 34-36. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 538 )
First, add a lower voltage to the sample of carbon fiber-reinforced concrete(CFRC) to create a Joule effect on this sample, which is a composite with some defects, by making use of this CFRC material's good electric conductivity. As the Joule effect caused some temperature differences on the surface of this sample, the second step it to inspect this sample with the method of infrared thermograph, which won't cause any damage to the testing sample. Finally, make a theoretical analysis on the tested data. The result shows: when the materials have some flaws of the same depth, we found the difference of temperature of the material with a smaller resistance is bigger compared with that of the material with a bigger resistance; when the materials share the same resistance, we found the depth flaws also have an effect on the difference of temperature on the surfaces. This result provides some theoretical and experimental proofs for further studies on methods of inspecting composite material for defects.
研究报告

Research of Relationship of Entrepreneur's Competence and Enterprise Performance

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 37-41. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 464 )
This paper presents a research of the factors that affect enterprise performance by the function of enterprise performance. Based on established indenture, the author discusses the relationship between entrepreneur's competence which has a decisive effect and enterprise performance from the point view of demand and supply, and comes to a conclusion that enterprise performance is considerably influenced by those factors of entrepreneur's ability, producing effort, resources, industrial situation and environment. Producing effort, resources, industrial situation and environment, each of those factors has a positive relationship with the enterprise performance, and the four modifying factors bring enterprise performance by acting on entrepreneurship.

Thinking about Watershed Eco-hydrology Research

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 42-44. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 451 )
Watershed eco-hydrology is a new subject applying the theory and scientific method of eco-hydrology to grope after sustainable water resources development and safe water environment management at the watershed-scale. Several key scientific issues of watershed eco-hydrological research, which may ensure that eco-environment and socio-economy develop harmoniously, consistently and continuously, were discussed They are as follows: ① the influence mechanisms of natural geography factors on the eco-hydrological patterns and its processes; ② the responding mechanisms of the eco-hydrological patterns and its processes on the land utilization and management; ③ the conceived of characteristic eco-hydrological model.

Study of Enterprise Grid and Grid-enabled Business Transformation

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 45-49. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 458 )
Enterprise grid has enormous potential business value, and has been attached much importance by the enterprise and academic. But there are still a lot of technology and application problems yet to be solved. This paper takes a perspective of enterprise application. Firstly, this paper defines the concept of the enterprise grid and related concepts. And then it introduces the status quo of the enterprise gird and the existed problems. Finally, it presents a grid-enabled business transformation framework. The result of this research will help the academic and enterprise CIOs.

Positive Research of the Career Plateau in the Firm

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 50-56. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1186 )
The career plateau is an important aspect of career, so the problems caused by it must deserve much attention. In this paper, based on the questionnaires completed by the staff of the machinery firm, statistic software SPSS is used to derive scientific statistics and analysis from these data. As a result, it bears out six main factors that cause the career plateau. Furthermore, the interrelationship of the six factors is discussed here. The research is supposed to the causes of the career plateau, and then it will benefit not only in solving the problems effectively but also in keeping away from such plateau.

Study of the Influential Factors of Technical Efficiency Difference among Provinces of China: A Stochastic Frontiers Analysis

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 57-60. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 431 )
In this paper, stochastic frontiers analysis is used to make empirical study on the influential factors of technical efficiency difference among provinces of China. We find that the technical efficiency of every province gets steady increasing, but the gaps among provinces are wide. The development degree of the non state-owned economy, the foreign direct investment (FDI), the amount of imports and exports, and the region all influence the technical efficiency. When the percentage of non state-owned economy to the total economy increases by 1%, the technical efficiency will increase by 0.463 6%. When the percentage of FDI to GDP increases by 1%, the technical efficiency will increase by 3.462 4%. When the amount of imports and exports increases by 1%, the technical efficiency will increase by 4.654 9%. Under the situation of other conditions being equal, the technical efficiency of the eastern region is higher than that of the middle and western region of China.
Reviews

On the Advances of the Biosorption of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solution by Algae

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 61-66. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (444 KB)  ( 624 )
Abstract ( 460 )
Compared with traditional methods, the biosorption technique offers the advantages of cheap, high efficiency, metal selective, metal recovery possible and no sludge generation. The mechanism of the biosorption of heavy metal by algae and the affecting factors of biosorption and equilibrium modeling and the kinetics equation are reviewed, and the development tendency in this field is also elucidated.

Exploring Theoretical Model of Network Science and Research Progresses

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 67-72. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 524 )
Exploring theoretical model of complex networks is one of the most challenging subjects in network science. In this article, after giving a brief review of classification of complex networks, we emphasize our recent main advances in theoretical model of complex networks, supported by the key project of NSFC. Our proposed models include: harmonious unifying hybrid preferential model, large unifying hybrid network model, quantum information network, Nano-interference network model, local world evolution model, non-local connective model, community network model, property connective model, weighted scientist cooperation model, synchronization optimization model, generalized synchronization and clustering synchronization.

Review of Classification Algorithms in Data Mining

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 73-76. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (424 KB)  ( 458 )
Abstract ( 507 )
With the application of database deepening and the size of database expanding quickly, Data Mining has recently become the hotspot. Classification, the problem among them especially because of its extensive usage, has acquired more and more concerns presently. On account of this, the article carried on an overview according to the present condition of data mining's classification. Firstly, the article discussed in detail the classification methods that were researched widely, such as Decision Tree, Artificial Neural Network and Bayesian classification. Secondly, the article analyzed the new brought forward algorithms briefly. Lastly, according to the data mining's developmental conditions and the emphases of research, the article forecasted the trends of the next research of classification.

Progress of Research on Artificial Neural Network in Air Pollution Prediction

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 77-81. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (439 KB)  ( 465 )
Abstract ( 542 )
The artificial neural network, which rapidly sprung up in the 1980s, is a non-linear science. It is especially suitable for the research on the objects with the characteristics of multi-factors, uncertainty, randomness, nonlinearity, and so on. And the air pollution prediction is just this class of problem. The fundamental conception of artificial neural network is briefly described; the research progress of air pollution prediction based on artificial neural network is reviewed in detail. At last, further research directions of artificial neural network in air pollution prediction are provided.
科技评论

Main Problems and Countermeasures to the Environment of Reservoirs in China

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0612): 82-84. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 473 )
The definition of reservoir environment and its spatial structure have been discussed. The components of the reservoir environment and its relationship with the catchment have been analyzed. The siltation, eutrophication and pollution are the main problems to the environment of the reservoirs in China. Some measures for improving the reservoir environment at present time should be carried out effectively.

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