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   Science & Technology Review
2006, Vol.24, No. 0609
10 September 2006

Articles

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Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 1-1. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 341 )

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 58-58. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 309 )
天体物理专题

Pulsars and Quark Stars

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 5-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 472 )
Studies of pulsars, neutron stars, and quark stars are reviewed. After a brief introduction to the research history, recent achievements of quark stars are presented, with a focus of the work by the authors' group. Possible challenges, especially the ways to distinguish normal neutron stars and quark stars, are discussed. Quark star candidates are suggested, which could be tested by future observations.

Detecting Dark Matter in the Universe

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 8-12. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 642 )
The existence of dark matter in the universe has been confirmed by a lot of astronomy observations. However, we do not know the properties of dark matter yet. In order to learn the nature of dark matter, many experiments searching for dark matter are taking data or are under construction. By direct detection the experiments look for the signal when the dark matter particles scatter off the nuclei of the detector material; by indirect detection the experiments look for the annihilation products of dark matter, such as the high energy gamma rays, neutrinos, positrons or anti-protons. To study the signals, not only the particle nature of the dark matter should be well known, but the astrophysical nature of dark matter should also be well known, such as the profile of dark matter in the galaxies or in the clusters of the galaxies. As more experiments are going to take data we expect the nature of dark matter will be solved in the near future.
气候问题专题

Research on Multicells Storm and Bow Echo with Doppler Radar Detection

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 13-16. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1204 )
Due to the effect of the low-level wind-shear line and surface depression, a heavy precipitation and strong gust wind process happened in the western, middle and northern parts of Zhejiang province on May 8-9, 2006. In this paper the process is analyzed by means of two Doppler radars located in Ningbo and Wenzhou city. The initiation and maintaining of 3 Multicells Storms produced the heavy rainfall from 8 o′clock May 8 to 13 o'clock the next day. The short-time heavy rain and severe highwind swept over the middle part of Zhejiang province from west to east at 16-23 o'clock May 9 is in good agreement with a bow echo.

Primary Research of the Evolvement Characteristics and Disaster Reasons of Strong Tropical Storm BILIS (0604)

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 16-20. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1273 )
The strong typical storm BILIS (0604) is a oddball typical cyclone. Its structure is eccentricity, and the wind speed in its periphery is greater than that in its center. The storm persisted for a long time after landfall, and it gave birth to heavy rain for a long time in southern China and the southern Yangtze River basin, which produces severe disasters in six provinces. The analysis finds that the greater pressure gradient between the storm center and its northern subtropical pressure, the stronger gradient wind in the storm's periphery. The durative rainstorm in southern China and the southern Yangtze River basin in longer period is the action production one another among remnant low pressure, twist cloud zone and monsoon cloud surge; moreover, it is the heavy rainfall that caused the disasters, such as flood, mud-rock flow, landslip of the mountains, falling and the downthrow of the earth etc. in some smaller valleys.

Structure Characteristics and Appearance Areas of a Spring Rainstorm Process in the Lower Reaches of the Yellow River

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 21-24. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1072 )
Using the results of HLAFS and really detected data this paper analyses a strong rainstorm process on April 17-18, 2003 in the Lower Reaches of the Yellow River. The obtained results show that this rainstorm process is mainly resulted from the joint effect of high-level cold air, low-level low pressure shear line and inverted trough around Huang-huai cyclone; the low-level southwest jet from the South China Sea to Shandong Province provides abundant water-vapor and heat energy; higher θse at 850 hPa, stronger updraft at 700 hPa, low-level convergence and high-level divergence are the main favorable and physical characters of this rainstorm process. The vertical distribution of physical characters in the rainstorm is higher positive vorticity at 500 hPa, stronger convergence and divergence over and below 600 hPa respectively, which provides dynamical mechanism for the rainstorm process.

Study of the Prediction of the Probability and Trend of Severe Drought Occurrence in Zhejiang

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 25-27. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 459 )
To prevent drought and to mitigate losses, it is very important to forecast the severe drought year. This paper tries to use statistical methods and the forecasting model of GM(1,1) to forecast the probability and trend of drought year in Zhejiang Province. It concludes that in the next 50 years, the probabilities of severe drought are 0.920 7, 0.805 1, 0.621 7, 0.409, and 0.217 7 for one to five times of occurrences, respectively. It is predicted that a severe drought in Zhejiang Province will happen likely in around 2009. Finally, some suggestions to mitigate the drought loss are presented based on the current water resource in Zhejiang Province.

Trends and Abruption Analysis of Air Pollutants

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 28-31. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 498 )
A non-parameter Mann-Kendall test method was used to analyze the trends and abruption of air pollutants series of SO2, NOx and TSP at three monitoring sites in Lianyungang city during the past 10 years. The results indicated that the SO2 series had a significant increasing trend, while a significant decreasing trend was detected for TSP series. The NOx series showed an uneven change with slightly increasing trend in residential, commercial area and an insignificantly decreasing trend in industrial area. According to seasonal Mann-Kendall test, there was relatively stronger increasing trend for SO2 and NOx in summer than in other seasons except for the pollutant of NOx in the industrial area, while the TSP series decreased significantly in the four seasons. The analysis of the abruption revealed that except NOx, the air pollutants series had abrupt changes between early 2000 and early 2002. The results of the research would be helpful to recognize air quality change process and also be ...更多useful to make scientific environmental protection decisions for Lianyungang city.

Analysis of Snow Cover Temperature and Depth with Data from Weather Stations

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 32-35. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 460 )
According to the principle of conservation of energy, and having considered solar-wave radiation, atmospheric and ground long-wave radiation, latent heat fluxe, sensible heat fluxe and heat conduction of ground,and the temperature distributing in snow cover,a forecasting model for snow cover temperature and depth with data from weather stations was established. The daily observation data of weather stations, Xinchang, Zhejiang (from December 30, 2004 to January 2, 2005 and from March 12, 2005 to March 13, 2005) has been used in the validation of the model. Results showed that from sundown to sunrise, the snow surface temperature forecast value and the actual value error was less than 1.5℃; from sunrise to sundown, the observation of snow surface temperature was higher than prediction, and sometime was higher than 0℃ owing to mercury thermometer illuminated by sunlight. The biggest error for the snow cover depth was less than 2 cm. So the model is practically useful for forecasting snow...更多 surface minimum temperature and snow cover depth.
Articles

Exotic Reactions and Element Separation

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 36-37. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 485 )
14- MeV neutrons could induce the exotic(n, 2p) reaction of heavy nuclear. The heary ion of kighter mass with intermediate energy bombardment of heavy nucleus could produce multinuclear transfer reaction. The physics idea and technical route for production, separation, and identification in the synthesis and study of new heavy neutron-rich nuclides were formed based on the mentioned above. The radiochemical separation and X-γ coincidence methods (element separation method) are introduced. Some new heavy neutron-rich nuclides such as 185Hf, 186Hf, 237Th, 238Th, 239Pa, 175Er, and 197Os were successively synthesized. Their half-life were determined to be 3.5 min, 2.6 min, 5.0 min, 9.4 min, 106 min, 2.8 min, and 1.2 min, respectively. And their other decay properties such as new γ rays and partial decay scheme were observed.

Synthesis of Nickel Nanopowders in Ethylene Glycol

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 43-45. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 473 )
Nickel nanopwders were synthesized using ethylene glycol as the solvent. Based on X-ray diffraction data, the resulting powders were identified as pure crystalline nickel with an average crystal size of 20 nm. The reaction stages can be judged from the changes of solution color. The mean diameter of the Ni powders is close related to the concentration of reactants and the nucleating agent. Ethylene glycol was found to be effective in keeping the nanopowders from agglomeration.

AFM was Used to Observe Interaction between Mouse Cardiac Nuclear DNA Fragment in vitro Transcription and Junk DNA

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 46-50. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 508 )
Direct observation and in vitro transcription were used to study mouse (Balb/C) cardiac muscle genes which exist on transcription platform. Regulatory elements of two ends of active genes non-covalently bind proteins that were encoded by these genes, and these proteins bind small informative molecules to form dissolvable transcription factors (dissolvable switch proteins). These transcription-related proteins are positively and negatively regulated by junk DNA-specific protein pathways.

Studies of Cortex Phellodendri Amuren on HPLC Fingerprint and Genealogied Cluster Analysis

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 51-53. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 466 )
Aim: An effective and convenient method was established for HPLC fingerprints of Cortex Phellodendri Amuren, which provided an approach for quality control. Methods: Hypersil-C18 column, phase A: meth, phase B:0.3%, eluted with a gradient program and detected at 230 nm. Genealogied cluster analysis characteristic absorption band. Results: The fingerprint method for Cortex Phellodendri Amuren was established. The similarity of 20 batches of Cortex Phellodendri Amuren was not lower than 0.80. Conclusion: This validated method is available for quality evaluation and quality control in Cortex Phellodendri Amuren.

Progress of Research and Application of Biodiesel from Animal and Vegetable Oil

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 54-58. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 477 )
The significance of producing biodiesel from animal and vegetable oil to the sustainable economy was stressed. The properties and standard as well as research advances and application of biodiesel in the world were introduced, and the methods for production of biodiesel by transesterification including homogeneous chemical catalysts, heterogeneous chemical catalysts, biocatalyst reaction and supercritical technology were reviewed. Moreover, the future prospects of biodiesel in China were pointed out.
研究报告

Trust Mechanisms of Regional Innovation Network:An Empirical Study of High-tech Development Region and Scientific and Technological Park in Jiangsu Province

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 59-62. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 435 )
Under the background of economic globalization and market competition, the behavioral subject of innovative network should adapt to the changing environment, and their independence in the context of interdependence must be ensured, which requires behavioral host of innovative network trust each other, treat each other, and abide by the commitment sincerely. It is to keep innovative network survive and promote innovation network foundation-behavioral subject develop together for a long time. This study summed up the main innovation networks among six trust mechanisms to Southeast University Science Park and Nanjing-Gulou Chinese University of Science and Technology Parks for innovative empirical main targets, confidence building mechanisms and networks to explore the characteristics of the members of the impact of the establishment of relations of trust.

Effect of Digital Network on Scientific Communication and Scientific Research

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 63-65. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 439 )
This paper discusses the scientific communication and research on the digital network. The scientific communication and research with digital network as a carrier has become an important developing trend. According to the current situation, the scientific communication can be divided into three forms : inter-synchronous communication, inter-asynchronous communication and unilateral communication. Compared with the traditional scientific communication, the digital network communication and research has both superiorities and limitations. The perfect model of scientific communication and research should include traditional scientific communication and digital network scientific communication.

Overview of Dynamic Capabilities View and Its Application in Information Systems Field

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 66-68. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 440 )
Modern firms exist in the turbulent changing environment. So the research of competitive advantage forming in this condition becomes a hot point in the research field of firm growth theory in recent years. With the development of information systems application, information technology promotes the firm to sense, acquire and integrate the information and knowledge from outsides, and obtains the sustainable competitive advantage. Firm is a set of capabilities, and information systems promote the development of firms' dynamic capabilities. Exploring the mechanism of information systems, dynamic capabilities and sustainable competitive advantage will be a challenging problem in information systems field, which is also a direction for the strategy management.

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 69-72. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 456 )
The economic growth situation is studied through analyzing the basic data of GDP about different industries quantity of employment and the total population from the year of 1993 to 2003, by adopting the contribution model on industrial structure, human resource and population growth influence the economic growth. The result indicates that it is far higher in individual productivity of the second industry and the third industry of Xi'an than that of the tertiary industry, and so is the rate of economic contribution. Moreover, the proportion of labor force of the tertiary industry accounts for 40%, the sum of the second and the third is only about 60%. According to the developing trend, the effect of negative growth of the population of Xi'an rises year by year, the industrial structure also tends to the rationalization basically and develops towards industry higher trend.

Managing Supply Chain Risks with Derivatives

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 72-76. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 495 )
In this paper, we discuss the value and impact of derivatives for managing supply chain risks. Our analysis is based on a simple two-stage supply chain in which a retailer can either buy products directly, or purchase options on product. We first derive optimal replenishment policies for the retailer, optimal production policies for the supplier, as well as close-form solutions for optimal expected profits. We then show how options enhance information flows, encourage risk sharing, and improve supply chain efficiency. The paper includes a discussion of how options can be used to align the incentives of supply chain partners, and to improve supply chain responsiveness to changes in the business environment. We also provide analytic and numerical results that provide insight into how supply chain participants could most effectively utilize options to enhance their profitability.

Study of Optimal Parameter Design Based on Integration of Soft Computing Method

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 77-80. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 450 )
Optimal parameter design is a very important part in robust design and is also a continuous improvement process. Optimal parameter design with qualitative and quantitative characteristics is studied using integration of Artificial Neural Network, Genetic Algorithm, Fuzzy theory and Exponential Desirability Functions. Some results are reached, which show that the method proposed is effective.

Comparison of Space Economic Organizations and Classification of Urban Economic District in Guanzhong, Shaanxi Province

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 80-83. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 441 )
According to the reality in Guanzhong, Shaanxi, and based on comparing the two trains of thought of its regional space economic organization, the paper puts forward that building the regional space economic organization on the basis of urban economic district is a necessary choice to complement the regional economic coordination development in Guanzhong. Further, the paper valuates the centricity of every cities in Guanzhong by using the analytic approach of main component and SPSS software, and puts forward the overall design and countermeasures of promoting the regional economic coordination development in Guanzhong.

A Collaboration Network Description on the Chinese Travel Route System

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 84-87. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 515 )
We have studied the empirical statistical properties of Chinese travel route system with a viewpoint of complex network. The properties include the average path length, clustering coefficient, degree distribution, act size, act degree distribution, assortativity and other. We suggest that Chinese travel route network can be included in the so-called "extended collaboration networks". We also propose a self-organizing developing model of Chinese travel route network. The simulation results based on the model are in quite good agreement with the empirical statistical results.
科技评论

New Strategy and Characteristics of the Development of Science and Technology in Developed Countries

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0609): 88-92. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (216 KB)  ( 228 )
Abstract ( 448 )
According to the introduction of USA, European Union, Japan and Korea, this paper presents the strategy and measure on S&T policy-making, R&D funding and the priority areas setting in developed countries. It also summarizes the new characteristic of the development of science and technology briefly.

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