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   Science & Technology Review
2006, Vol.24, No. 0603
10 March 2006

Articles
Reviews

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Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 1-1. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 336 )

Protection of Mice against a Lethal Avian H5 Subtype Influenza Challenge by Baculovirus-derived Hemagglutinin Vaccines

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 5-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1369 )
The HA gene of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) isolate (A/goose/Guangdong/l/96(H5Nl) was cloned and sequenced, then subcloned into the downstream of the baculovirus transfer vector pMelBacA. HA test and Western blot analysis demonstrated stable expression of the HA proteins. The oil-emulsion avian influenza subunit vaccine was prepared using expressed rH5HA (recombination H5HA protein) by allantoic fluid. SPF Balb/c mice were immunized three times with prepared subunit vaccine (contain 2.0 microg rH5HA per mice). Immunized mice generated a more consistent specific HI antibody response with an average geometric mean titer of 160 at 21 days of third post-vaccination. When challenged with highly pathogenic strains of the corresponding AI subtypes, the vaccinated mice were completely protected against lethal infection while all the negative control mice died, and no shedding at 5 days post infection. Vaccine protocols employing these recombinant HA proteins will not elicit an immune response against internal AI proteins and thus will not interfere with epidemiological surveys of natural influenza infections in the field. The results provide a system for the production of an effective recombinant influenza subunit vaccine that can easily be scaled up, and also establishes the baseline for developing people's avian influenza subunit vaccine.

Inhibition of Avian Influenza Virus Replication via Short Interfering RNA Expressed by Plasmid

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 9-13. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1227 )
Avian Influenza virus (AIV) is one of the most harmful pathogens in poultry industry. Because of its antigenic shift and drift, the efficacy of current vaccines and drugs therapy is limited. Here we show that four recombinant plasmids which can express four different kinds of short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) targeting at the polymerase II gene of the avian influenza virus in cell were successfully constructed. The recombinant plasmids and vacancy plasmid were transfected into MDCK cells respectively and five cell lines were established. The hemagglutinantion assay and real time RT-PCR were used to detect the inhibition efficacy. PB2-1154 , PB2-342 were proved that they can specifically inhibit the virus production in MDCK cells.

Detection of Virus Infected Poultry on the Basis of Antibody to NS 1 of Influenza Virus by NS1-ELISA

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 14-17. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1192 )
Nonstructural gene 1 (NS1) of H5N2 subtype avian influenza virus QS strain was amplified by RT-PCR, whoes nucleotide sequences is 678bp in length. The fragment was cloned into the pET-28(a) vector to construct a recombinant expression plasmid. The recombi-nant expression plasmid was induced by lmmol/L IPTG for 5 hours and analyzed by 15% SDS-PAGE. The result showed that NS1 protein was highly expressed by inclusion body. Its molecular weight was 28KD as expected. The expressed NS, protein was denatured by SKL, then the denatured protein refolded by slow diluting and dialyzing method. The result indicated that the high pure and active protein was obtained. Based on the purified recombinant protein, an indirect ELISA assay for detection of anti-NSl protein antibody was developed. The best concentration of coating antigen was 2.5 g/mL, and the best dilution of serum and HRP labeled goat anti-chicken was 1:200 and 1:5000 respectively. The positive serum of ND, IB, IBD and EDS76 were all ne...更多gative to NS 1 protein by ELISA assay . The sera of virus-infected chicken and vaccinated chicken were detected. The average OD490 value of the former were 0.592, 0.623 and 0.619, positive. The average OD490 value of the latter were 0.225, 0.210 and 0.205, negative; The result demonstrated that the NS1-ELISA assay can differentiate infected from vaccinated poultry on the basis of antibody to NS 1 protein. So the approach not only afforded a kind of quick, sensitive, specific differentiating diagnostic approach, making a solid foundation of special diagnosis kit, but also can provide an effective method for early diagnosis, real-time detection, controlling and clearing of AIV.

Comparison of Three Methods for the Detection of Avian Influenza Virus

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 18-20. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 447 )
Three methods including the classical virus isolation and identification, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and indirect fluorescence assay (IFA) were used to detect avian influenza virus (AIV) in the sample and were compared. A virus was isolated by egg allantoic cavity inoculation and identified as H5 subtype of AIV with a monoclonal antibody (McAb) against H5 subtype via the hemoagglutination (HA) and hemoagglutination inhibit (HI) test. RT-PCR was performed to detect the sample directly and a 229bp-band of AIV specific and a 380bp-band of H5 subtype specific were both amplified with the designed primers. The tissue suspension was infected onto the monolayer of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and a H5-McAb was applied to run the IFA on the monolayer cells at 24 hours post-infection. The fluorescence in both nucleolus and cytoplasm were observed. The results of the study demonstrated that these three methods could be applied to detect the AIV in the samp...更多le, while RT-PCR and IFA could identify the subtype of AIV at the same time, and have the advantages over the classical method in the aspects of sensitivity, rapidity and simplicity.

Strategies of Bioremediation and Ecological Reconstruction on Contaminated Soils in the Overlapped Areas between Mining Industries and Food Production

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 25-28. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 450 )
In the overlapped areas between mining industries and food production, soil contamination is widespread. In this paper, characterization of the environmental quality in these regions, utilization of identified environmental biological resources and searching for new environmental biological resources, development of principles and techniques for environmental remediation and ecological reconstruction, full post-utilization of remediation biological products for economic and ecological values were discussed. Strengthen should be given for the investigation on the development of practical remediation techniques for contaminated soils in the overlapped areas, and the strategy of controlling food quantity and quality in the food production areas.

Plant in Mining Area: Important Resources for Environmental Restoration

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 29-32. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 454 )
A belief review on the advances of research on plants in mining area was introduced in this paper. The plants; common kinds, characteristics on ecology, genetics and taxonomy were summarized. The endurance and uptake of the heavy metals, the role and importance of plants in mining area were also introduced. In the end, the future research aspects were discussed.

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 56-56. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (134 KB)  ( 75 )
Abstract ( 284 )
矿-粮复合区问题专题

Problems,Reasons and Countermeasures for Environmental Quality and Food Safety in the Overlapped Areas of Crop and Mineral Production

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 21-24. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 522 )
This paper presented the concept of the overlapped areas of crop and mineral production. Based on data analysis, the overlapped areas between farmland and coal resource distribution are over 40% of total farmland in China. 12 of 13 key crop production provinces are also key coal production provinces. The overlapped areas of crop and mineral production are huge and directly affect the nation i-s food safety, ecological safety, environmental safety and society safety. In the overlapped areas, there are many problems such as environmental pollution, farmland damage, decrease of crop production, poor quality of crops, serious social conflicts and decrease of economic development. This paper discussed theses problems and presented countermeasures and suggestions. The aim of this paper is to call for attention on the overlapped areas of crop and mineral production, so that balance the crop production, mineral production and environmental protection, promote the regional sustainable developme...更多nt, and safeguard national food safety, ecological safety and social safety.

Risk Assessment of Reclaimed Land Filled with Fly Ash and Stabilization Remediation Technology

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 33-35. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 498 )
The heavy metal contamination degree and latent ecological risk in reclaimed land filled with fly ash were investigated by the method of sampling analysis and evaluation of ecological risk. The results showed that the soil of reclaimed land was. as a whole, contaminated by heavy metal, especially the cadmium. Heavy metal contamination degree and latent ecological risk of soil in reclaimed land is gradually aggravated with the increase of reclamation time. The pot experiment results also suggest that clay mineral and microorganism mycorrhiza can remedy cadmium contaminated soils.
Articles

On-site Digital Reconstruction of Yuanmingyuan Using Augmented Reality Technology

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 36-40. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 581 )
Augmented Reality (AR) is a new research field derived from virtual reality. It is a technology that enables computer-generated information to be superimposed on the real world. Users of an AR system can observe the real scene augmented with computer-generated text, graphics or 3D models of virtual objects. The basic constitution and key technologies of an AR system are discussed. Three types of AR systems proposed for the on-site digital reconstruction of Yuanmingyuan are introduced, including a fixed-position viewing system, a handheld personal digital assistant (PDA) system and a wearable system using a head-mounted display (HMD). Their architectures and working principles are presented. The development status quo and initial experiment results are provided in detail for the fixed-position viewing system.

Scientific and Technological Problems of Digitalization of Microfluids (Part II):Conceptual Study of Digitalization of Matter and Integrated Digitalization of Matter-Energy-Information

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 41-47. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 481 )
We define the digitalization of matter as one, in which substances change digitally in some respects of themselves or from one kind to another, and the integrated digitalization of matter-energy-information as that, in which the three, as constituents of a unified body, arc coordinately and digitally transported respectively and transformed mutually. "Digitally" means in a controllable pulse manner, which is rhythmic in time and standardized in the value of a quantity. The contents and applications of the micro transform of matter are staled in geometrical, physical, chemical and biological fields. The mutual complementation of the electric effects and the fluidic, chemical and biological effects in the two kinds of digitalization mentioned above is expounded. It is emphasized that the mass scale application of microsystems and nano ones should be supervised by a proper fundamental mechanics theory. We think that a system, when its representative dimensions reduce, will experience thre...更多e levels, and suggest that the first and third levels, in which Newtonian mechanics and quantum mechanics, respectively, take a supervisory part, should enjoy priority in mass scale application consideration.

Phase Transitions of Nucleus and Strong Interacting Matter

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 48-51. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 535 )
We review the status of the research on the phase structure and phase transitions of nucleus and strong interacting matter briefly. It shows that the related studies are the very active current frontier commonly interested by nuclear physics, particle physics, astrophysics, cosmology, statistical physics and other areas. A lot of significant progress has been made. However, not only concrete problems but also researching approaches need to be studied further.

Characteristic Analysis of Vegetation Cover Change in China Western Arid Land

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 52-56. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (810 KB)  ( 277 )
Abstract ( 516 )
It is a inimitable ascendancy that using data and methods of remote sensing to study the vegetation cover change in a large or middle scale region. In this paper, we distilled FVC (Fractional Vegetation Cover) image from successive NOAA/AVHRR data (1982-2000) and used method of dividing area to remote sensing image, displayed the continuate curve of area change of every vegetation type in different region, analyzed the reason of vegetation change in arid land of China west. The results showed that there are different characteristics in different regions. In North Xinjiang, desert decreased, forest increased, and vegetation improved; In Qaidam high basin, desert increased, meadow decreased, and vegetation degraded; In plain, desert is stable, oasis continually extended in Xinjiang, ecotone (middle and high grassland cover) deflated, the human activity was one of most important factors of vegetation types changing in arid lands in China Western arid land.
Reviews

Long-March Launch Vehicles' Status and Prospect

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 57-63. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (703 KB)  ( 259 )
Abstract ( 454 )
China has independently developed the "Long-March" launch vehicles, and now ranks among the world's most advanced countries in launch vehicle fields, which made eye-catching achievements. "Long-March" family contains 12 types of launching vehicles capable of launching satellites to near-earth, geo-stationary and sun-synchronous orbits, launching manned spacecraft into space, and launching crews into outer space. The overall performance reaches the international advanced level, thus acquiring a share of the international commercial launching market. The development of "Long-March" family has promoted the progress of other related industries. In the future, the reliability and flexibility of "Long-March" launch vehicles will be improved, and China will develop the new generation of launch vehicles with non-toxic, non-polluting, high-performance and low-cost qualities, strengthening the capability of providing international commercial launching services. Meanwhile, that will meet the grow...更多ing demands of space technology development, promote economic construction, and build up the comprehensive national strength.

New Improvement of Bio-enzymatic Degumming on Kenaf Bast Fiber

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Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 64-66. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (417 KB)  ( 378 )
Abstract ( 460 )
The components of colloid in kenaf bast fiber were assayed, and mechanism of degumming was expounded in molecular level. The industrialization production process and its parameters of kenaf bio-enzymatic degumming were fixed via experiments, and the theoretical evidence was provided for kenaf bast fiber bio-enzymatic degumming.
研究报告

Research and Realization of Mining Area Land Information System Based on GIS

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 67-70. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (410 KB)  ( 288 )
Abstract ( 485 )
GIS-based mining area land information system can make us raise the capability of querying, processing and analysis of mining area land information. By combining spatial data with attribute data, the visual function of the system can make information and results of spatial analysis shown out in many kinds of table and charts. Using the GIS technology and principle, this paper studies the grouping system of mining area land information and puts forward the research frame of mining area land information system. With the help of the integrated module secondary development technology, the paper has developed a mining area land information system; there is the function such as graphic library management, visual querying and thematic map in this system.

J2EE Based Business Software Infrastructure Framework Solution

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 71-75. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (839 KB)  ( 288 )
Abstract ( 443 )
This paper investigated the current status of business software infrastructure application. According to the software requirements of large-scale enterprise management system, the authors designed a framework of J2EE based business software infrastructure. This paper also researches on in detail the implementation technology of the framework. The implemented framework was used in several projects of electric power enterprise management information systems and markedly reduced the cost of software development and maintenance.

Cardiogram Analysis for Enterprise Value

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 75-80. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (728 KB)  ( 200 )
Abstract ( 460 )
The author compares the capital returns change process as heart-throb, puts forward the management model "cardiogram of the capital returns production process" and constructs the system of firm's value creation. Based on the value chain theory, This paper introduces the traditional FCFF value chain and Score-Balance Card value chain, decomposes the value drivers by making use of fish bone photograph, and discusses the significance of intellectual capital' s contribution to capital gains.
科技评论

Understanding Inventions

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0603): 85-87. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (183 KB)  ( 263 )
Abstract ( 454 )
The historical processes of human creative activities are reviewed. The relations between inventions and science, education, as well as culture are discussed. The real situation and social environment for inventors are also analysed. It is expected to foster the understanding of invention .

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